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Full text of "The Humming bird"

HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 




LIBRARY 



OF THE 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 

Bequest of 
WILLIAM BREWSTER 




[WILLIAM BREWSTFRl 



3 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/hummingbird11891bouc 



FEB 11 1921 




Gbe 




1bum 




A MONTHLY SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC, AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW. 



GUARANTEED CIRCULATION, 5000. 



VOL L NO, 1. 



Thursday, January 1, 1891. 



PRICE SIXPENCE. 



Annual Subscription: United Kingdom, Post free, 4 shillings ; all countries included in the Postal Union, 5 shillings. 

All other countries, 6 shillings. 




0^\A^Y\ÀXX/ i. Jàx>^ccuxùû 



EDITED UNDER THE DIRECTION 

OF 

MR. ADOLPHE BOUCARD, 

NATURALIST, 

Officier d'Académie, 1878; Knight of the Royal Military Order of the Conception, 1881 ; 
Knight Officer of the Royal Order of Cambodje, 1889; Knight Commander of the Royal Order of Isabelle la Catholique, 1882; 

Corresponding Member of the Zoological Society, London, 1865; 

de la Mission scientifique française au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale, 1866; of the Royal Museum of Madrid, 1881; 

Commissioner for the Republic of Guatemala in the Paris International Exhibitions of 1878 and 1889 ; 

Member of the International Jury, Paris, 1889 ; Member of many scientific societies; 

etc. etc. etc. etc. 




Ck 



Preface. 

What is to be seen everywhere in London. 

The Mackinley Bill. 

The Panama Canal. 



CONTENTS OF No. 1.— JANUARY 1, 1891. 

Notes on the Genus Pharomacrus. 
An easy way of making ^100 a year. 
Report on the last Public Sales of Feathers 
and Bird Skins. 




[Entered at Stationers' Hall.] 



11 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[January i, 1891 



Change of Address: 



UST .A. TURALIST 

225 5 HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON W.C., ENGLAND. 

A. BOUCÀED begs to inform his numerous Friends and Correspondents that he has removed his business 
from Paris to London at the above address, in the most central part of the English Capital, where in future 
all letters and parcels are to be addressed. 

A. Boucard having now in stock about 40,000 Mammal and Bird Skins, 100,000 Insects of all 
Orders, 100,000 Marine, Fluvial, and Land Shells, Crustacea?, Eeptiles and Fishes, Ethnological Collec- 
tions and Curios from New Guinea, Madagascar, Central and South America, and "West Africa is able to 
supply all Orders. 

Museums, Scientific Societies and Amateurs are requested to send their lists of Desiderata in every 
branch of Natural History which will be attended to as usual with care and alacrity. 

From his Correspondents in all parts of the world he is able to procure nearly everything which can 
be desired. 

All modern Books on Natural History, and Materials of all descriptions for Naturalists can be 
supplied immediately at publishing or trade prices. 



LIST OF HUMMING BIRDS FOR SALE. 



TBOCHILIDiE, Vig. 1825. 







s. 


46. 


1. 


Grypus nœvius, Dura. 


.. 5 


47. 


2. 


Eutoxeres condaminei, B. 


.. 40 


48. 


3. 


— aquila, Bourc... 


.. 8 


49. 


4. 


— salvini, Gould. 


.. 16 


50. 


5. 


— heterurus 


.. 16 


51. 


6. 


Glaucis hirsutus, Gm. 


.. 2 


52. 


7. 


— alfinis, Lawr. ... . 


.. 3 


53. 


8. 


Threnetes ruckeri, Bourc. 


.. 16 


54. 


9. 


— cervinicauda, G. 


.. 10 


55. 


10. 


— antoniœ, Bourc. 


.. 20 


56. 


11. 


Phœthornis superciliosus, L. 


.. 4 


57. 


12. 


— longirostris, L. D. 


.. 3 


58. 


13. 


— syrmatophorus, 


.. 15 


59. 


14. 


— eurynome, L. 


.. 2 


60. 


15. 


— squalidus, Tem. 


.. 4 


61. 


16. 


— antophilus, B. 


.. 2 


62. 


17. 


— augusti, Bourc. . 


.. 10 


63. 


18. 


— pretrii, L. Del. 


.. 5 


64. 


19. 


— yaruqui, Bourc. 


.. 5 


65. 


20. 


— guyi, Less. ... 


.. 4 


66. 


21. 


— emiliaa, Bourc. 


.. 4 


67. 


22. 


Pygmornis longuemareusL., 


.. 10 


68. 


23. 


— adolphi, Gould. 


.. 5 


69. 


24. 


— griseigularis, G. 


.. 3 


70. 


25. 


— striigularis, Goulc 


3 


71. 


26. 


— pygmœus, Spix. 


.. 3 


72. 


27. 


Eupetomena macrura, Gm. 


.. 3 


73. 


28. 


Sphenoproctus pampa, Less. 


.. 4 


74. 


29. 


— curvipennis 


.. 12 


75. 


30. 


Campylopterus lazulus, V. 


.. 2 


76. 


31. 


— hemileucurus 


.. 4 


77. 


32. 


— ensipennis, S 


3 


78. 


33. 


— largipennis. 


.. 10 


79. 


34. 


— sequatorialis. 


.. 10 


80. 


35. 


— hyperithrus. 


.. 50 


81. 


36. 


— rufus, L.... 


.. 20 


82. 


37. 


Phœochroa cuvieri, Del. ... 


.. 20 


83. 


38. 


Aphantochroa cirroehloris. 


.. 4 


84. 


39. 


Eugenes fulgens, Sw. 


.. 4 


85. 


40. 


Cœligena clemenciœ, L. ... 


.. 4 


86. 


41. 


Lamprolœma rhami, Less. 


.. 6 


87. 


42. 


Delattria henrici, Less. ... 


.. 12 


88. 


43. 


— viridipallens 


.. 5 


89. 


44. 


Oreopyra leucaspis, Gould. 


.. 30 


90. 


45. 


— calolœma, Salv. 


.. 26 


91. 



Lampornis violicauda, Bodd." 

— prevosti, Less. 

— veraguensis, G. 

— gramineus, Gm. 

— aurulentus, Vieill. 

— mango, Lin. ... . 
Chalybura buffoni, Less. ... 

— cœruleiventris, E. 

— isaurae, Gould. 
Aithurus polytmus, Lin. ... 
Topaza pella, Lin. ... ... 

— pyra, Gould 

Eulampis jugularis, Lin. ... 

— holosericeus, Lin. 

— chlorolaemus. ... 
Iolœma schreibersi, Bourc. 
Oreotrochilus chimborazo, B. 

— pichinchœ, B. 

— estellœ, Laf. 

— leucopleurus. 
Lafresnaya flavicaudata, F. 

— gayi, Bourc. ... 
Petasophora-serrirostris, V. 

— anaia, Less. ... 

— iolata, Gould. 

— thalassina, Sw. 

— cyanotis, Bourc. 

— delphinœ, L.... 

— cabanisi, Law. 
Heliodoxa jacula, Gould 

— jamesoni, Bourc. 

— otero, Tsch. 

— splendens, Gould 

— leadbeateri, B. ... 
Phseolœma rubinoides, Bourc. 

— œquatorialis, G. . 
Eugenia imperatrix, Gould. 
Clytolœma aurescens, G. ... 

— rubinea, Gould. 
Panoplites jardinei, Bourc. 

— flavescens, B. ... 

— mathewsit, B. ... 
Florisuga mellivora, Lin.... 

— fusca, Vieill 

Heliothrix auritus, Gm. ... , 

— auriculatus, N. 



s. 




2 


92. 


8 


93. 


20 


94. 


3 


95. 


20 


96. 


2 


97. 


2 


98. 


5 


99. 


40 


100. 


10 


101. 


20 


102. 


200 


103. 


4 


104. 


4 


105. 


30 


106. 


20 


107. 


10 


108. 


5 


109. 


100 


110. 


10 


111. 


2 


112. 


10 


113. 


3 


114. 


2 


115. 


3 


116. 


3 


117. 


2 


118. 


3 


119. 


4 


120. 


10 


121. 


20 


122. 


16 


123. 


20 


124. 


3 


125. 


3 


126. 


6 


127. 


100 


128. 


30 


129. 


3 


130. 


20 


131. 


3 


132. 


20 


133. 


2 


134. 


3 


135. 


5 


136. 


5 


137. 



, Heliothrix barroti, Bourc. 
1 Eustephanus galeritus, M. 

— fernandensis, K. 30 
Chrysolampis moschitus, L. ... 2 
Avocettinus eurypterus, L. ... 10 

, Heliomaster longirostris, V. ... 3 

— stuartss, Law. ... 4 

— constanti, Del. ... 20 
, Lepidolarynx mesoleucus, T. ... 4 
, Calliperidia furcifer, Shaw. ... 20 
, Docimastes ensifer, Boiss. ... 4 

, Patagona gigas, Vieill 10 

, Pterophanes temminckii, B. ... 10 

, Helianthea bonapartei, B. ... 4 

— typica, Bp 3 

Calligenia lutetias, Del 10 

Diphlogœna, iris, Gould 100 

— hesperus, G. ... 100 
Bourcieria torquata, Boiss. ... 2 

— fuligidula, Gould. ... 4 

— conradi, Bourc. ... 20 

— inca, Gould 100 

Eudosia prunelli, Bourc 5 

— wilsoni, Del 10 

Lampropygia cœligena, L. ... 10 

Heliotrypha viola, Gould. ... 20 

— parzudaki, L. ... 2 
, Heliangelus Clarissas, Long. ... 2 

— micraster, G. ... 100 

— strophianus, G. ... 8 

— spencii, Bourc. ... 60 

— amethysticollis. ... 100 
Eriocnemis vestita,' Longue. ... 2 

— smaragdinipectus. 40 

— nigrivestis, B. ... 40 
'Nunia cupreiventris, Fraser. ... 2 

— luciani, Bourc 3 

Threptria aurelise, Bourc. ... 2 

— russata, Gould. ... 8 

— lugens, Gould 20 

— derbiana, Del 60 

Engyete alinas, Bourc 3 

Aglœactis cuprei[,ennis, B. ... 3 

— pamela, Laf 60 

— acquatorialis, G. ... 5 
HyloDympha macroura, G. ... 50 



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January i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



1H 



LIST OF HUMMING BIEDS FOE SALE— continued. 



138. Thalurania glaucopis, Gin. ... 2 

139. — colombica, B. ... 2 

140. — venusta, 4 

141. — furcata, Gm. ... ... 4 

142. — furcatoides, G. ... 8 

143. — nigrifasciata, G. ... 6 

144. — refulgens, G 6 

145. — verticeps, G 15 

146. — wagleri, L 50 

147. Hemistephania johannœ, B. ... 20 

148. — ludoviciœ, B. ... 5 

149. — rectirostris. ... 20 

150. Augastes lumachellus, L 40 

151. — superbus, Vieill. ... 40 

152. Schistes geoffroyi, Bourc. ... 8 

153. Urosticte benjamini, B 12 

154. Urolampra seneicauda, G. ... 50 

155. Metallura tyrianthina, B. ... 2 

156. — smaragdinicollis, ... 16 

157. — quitensis, Gould. ... 4 

158. Adelomya inornata, G 30 

159. — melanogenys, F. 2 

160. Bamphomicron microrhynchus. 3 

161. — stanleyi, B. ... 10 

162. — heterepogon. ... 4 

163. Eupogonus herrani, Del 10 

164. — ruficeps, G 60 

165. Oxypogon guerini, Boiss. ... 4 

166. — lindeni, Parz 20 

167. Cephalepis delalandii, Vieil.... 4 

168. ' — loddigesi, G. ... 50 

169. Orthorhynehus cristatus. ... 10 

170. — exilis, Gm. ... 10 

171. — ornatus 10 

172. Klais guimeti, Bourc 10 

173. — merriti, Law 10 

174. Daucis abeillei, Del 5 

175. Microchera albo-coronata. ... 100 

176. — parvirostris, L. ... 100 

177. Telamon delattrei, L 10 

178. — regulus, Gould 20 

179. — reginœ, Schreib. ... 50 

180. Paphiosa helenae, Del 10 

181. Lophornis magnificus, V. ... 10 

182. — ornatus, L 6 

183. Polemistria chalybea, V 40 

184. — verreauxi, B. ... 20 

185. Gouldia langsdorffi, Vieill. ... 20 

186. — melanosternon, G. ... 20 

187. — conversi, Bourc 6 

188. Prymnacantha popelairii. ... 20 

189. Tilmatura duponti, Less 10 

190. Discura longicauda,Gm 16 

191. Steganura underwoodi, L. ... 3 

192. — rnelananthera, J. ... 10 

193. Cynanthus cyanurus, S 5 

194. — cœlestis, G 8 

195. — mocoa, Del 20 

196. — boliviana, G 50 

197. Sapho sparganurus, Shaw. ... 60 

198. — phaon, Gould 40 

199. Lesbia nuna, Less 40 

200. — amaryllis, Bourc 4 



201. 

202. 

203. 

204. 

205. 

206. 

207. 

208. 

209. 

210. 

211. 

212. 

213. 

214. 

215. 

216. 

217. 

218. 

219. 

220. 

221. 

222. 

223. 

224. 

225. 

226. 

227. 

228. 

229. 

230. 

231. 

232. 
233. 
234. 
235. 
236. 
237. 
238. 
239. 
240. 
241. 
242. 
243. 
244. 
245. 
246. 
247. 
248. 
249. 
250. 
251. 
252. 
253. 
254. 
255. 
256. 
257. 
258. 
259. 
260. 
261. 
262. 
263. 



Lesbia victoriœ, Bourc. ... 


s. 

... 6 


264. 


— gouldi, Bourc. 


... 4 


265. 


Heliaetin cornuta, Max. ... 


... 20 


266. 


Thaumastura cora, Less 


... 20 


267. 


Bhodopis vesper, Less. ... 


... 30 


268. 


Amalasia henicura, V. 


... 6 


269. 


— elisaa, Less. 


... 60 


270. 


Doricha evelynœ, Bourc. ... 


... 60 


271. 


— bryantha?, Law. ... 


... 20 


272. 


Calo thorax lucifer, Sw. ... 


... 4 


273. 


— pulcher, G. ... 


... 30 


274. 


Calliphlox amethystinus, G. 


... 4 


275. 


— mitchelli, B. ... 


... 30 


276. 


Trochilus colubris, Lin. ... 


... 2 


277. 


— alexandri. B. ... 


... 20 


278. 


Calypte costœ, Bourc. 


... 40 


279. 


— annœ, Less 


... 6 


280. 


Stellura calliope, Gould. ... 


... 20 


281. 


Atthis heloisas, Less 


... 18 


282. 


— elliotti, Bidgw. 


... 12 


283. 


Selasphorus henshawi, B... 


... 10 


284. 


— rufus, Gm. ... 


... 5 


285. 


— scintilla, G 


... 50 


286. 


— platycereus, Sw. 


... 4 


287. 


— flammula, S. 


... 40 


288. 


Myrtis fanny, Less 


... 8 


289. 


Acestrura mulsanti, B. ... 


... 3 


290. 


— heliodori, B. ... 


... 2 


291. 


Chaetocercus jourdani. B.... 


... 40 


292. 


— rosœ, Bourc ... 


... 20 


293. 


— bombus, G. ... 


... 100 


294. 


Mellisuga minima, Lin. ... 


... 10 


295. 


Phseoptila sordida, G. 


... 20 


296. 


Cyanomya quadricolor, V. 


... 10 


297. 


— violiceps, G. ... 


... 20 


298. 


— cyanocephala, L. 


... 10 


299. 


— franciœ, Bourc. 


... 2 


300. 


— guatemalensis... 


... 4 


301. 


Thaumatias candidus, B.... 


... 3 


302. 


— niveipectus, C. 


... 4 




— viridiceps, G... 


... 12 


303. 


— brevirostris, L. 


.. 3 


304. 


— albiventris, L. 


.. 5 


305. 


— linnaei. Bp. ... 


.. 3 




— fluviatilis, G... 


.. 20 


306. 


Thaumatias maculicauda, G. 


.. 6 




— chionurus, G... 


.. 12 


307. 


— cupreiceps, L. 


.. 20 


308. 


— nigriventris, L. . 


.. 30 


309. 


— leucogaster, G. . 


.. 8 




Leucochloris albicollis, V. 


.. 4 


310. 


Eupherusa eximia, Del 


.. 3 




— egregia, Sc 


.. 16 


311. 


Chrysobronchus virescens. 


.. 3 




— viridissimus. . 


.. 6 


312. 


Amazilia cinnamomea, L... . 


.. 15 


313. 


— dumerilii, L 


.. 20 


314. 


— leucophaea, R 


.. 20 


315. 


— yucatanensis, C. 


.. 40 




Pyrrhophaena beryllina, L. 


.. 5 


316. 


— devillei, B 


.. 4 


317. 


— riefferi, B 


2 


318. 


— viridiventris, R. 


.. 5 


319. 



- s. 

, Saucerottia erythronota, L. ... 2 

— felicias, Less 8 

— edwardi, Del 20 

— niveiventris, G. ... 20 

— cyaneifrons, B. ... 2 

— warzeviezi, Cab. ... 5 

— sophiœ, Bouré. ... 16 
, Heliopœdica melanotis, Sw. ... 5 
. Chrysuronia œnone, Less. ... 3 

— josephinœ, B. ... 20 

— elicia3,iB 6 

— ■ chrysura, L 40 

. Hylocharis sapphirina, Gm. ... 4 

— cyanea, Vieill 4 

Panterpe insignis, Cab 50 

Eucephala grayi, Del 6 

— cœrulea, Vieill. ... 2 

Circe latirostris, Sw 20 

Damophila amabilis, G 5 

Julyamia juliœ, Bourc 3 

— feliciana, Less 3 

Sapphironia goudoti, Bourc. ... 2 

— caeruleogularis. ... 16 
Sporadinus ricordi, d'Orb. ... 30 
Chlorolampis canniveti, L. ... 10 

— salvini, G 10 

Chlorostilbon melanorhynchus.. 8 

— hasberlini, R. ... 3 

— nitens, Law. ... 3 

— angustipennis. ... 4 
Chrysomirus atala, Less 10 

— prasinus, Less. ... 10 

— igneus, Gould. ... 5 

— aureiventris, L. ... 20 
Panichlora alieiœ, Bourc 8 

— poortmanni, B. ... 2 

— stenura, Cab 10 

Phaethornig oonsobrinus, Bourc. 10 
Campylopterus phainopeplus, 

Salv 80 

Lampornis dominicus 25 

Lophornis pavoninus, Salv. ... .100 
Cynanthus cyanurus, Var with 

greentail 16 

Cynanthus mocoa, Var smarag- 

dinus 20 

Thaumatias nigricauda, Elliott. SO 

Pyrrhophasna cupreicauda, Salv. 20 
Saucerottia erythronota, Var 

maculicauda 8 

Chrysuronia œnone, Var longi- 

rostris Berlepsch 4 

Hylocharis cyanea viridiventris, 

Berlepsch 10 

Chrysomirus daphne 10 

— comptus, Berlepsch 10 

— assimilis, Lawr. ... 10 
Panychlora poortmanni euchloris, 

Berl 5 

Hylocharis lactea, Less 40 

Thalurania eriphile, Less 60 

Nunia mosquera, Bourc 50 

Adelomya maculata 10 



TO ZOOLOGISTS. 



FOE SALE. 

One Specimen of the Giant Salamander, from Japan (in 
spirit). Price £8. 

One Female Specimen of Gorilla (Troglodytes Niger), skin and 
skeleton. Price £8. 

One pair of the rare Cervidae, Temazate, from Central 



America. Cariacus ruf.nus. Br, 



Price £10. 



WANTED/ 

Egg of Alca Inipennis. 

Fine pair, male and female, Ornithoptera Victoriae, Orni- 
thoptera Durvillei. 

Fine specimen of Morpho cisseis. 

Several specimens of Acherontia Styx, Satanas, medusa, etc. 



IV 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[January i, 1891. 



TO ORNITHOLOGISTS. 



FOR SALE. 

Fine mounted specimen of Alca impennis, the Great Awh, 
(extinct species). Pedigree from the date of capture, 1836, to 
this date, will be given to buyer. 

Fine male specimen of the exceedingly rare new genus of 
bird Reinhardtia ocellata Bp., the greatest discovery of the 
century. Price £50 

Fine male specimen of the beautiful bird Calyptomena 
Whiteheads, n. sp., the second species known of this rare 
genus, four times larger and more beautiful than C. Viridis. 

Fine pair, male and female, of the rare Paradise bird. 
Bemioptera Wallacei. Price £4. 

Fine pair of the magnificent bird of Paradise, Astrapia 
nigra. Price £6. 

Pair of Epimachu8 maximus. Price £5. 

Pair of Paradisea raggiana. Price £5. 

Pair of Parotia sextacea. Price £6. 

Pair of Paradisea rubra. Price £2 10s. 

Pair of Schlegelia willsoni (Byphillodes republica). 

Price £4. 

Pair of Lophorina atra. 

Pair of Ptilornis paradisea. 

Pair of Craspedophora rnagnifica 

Pair of Seleucides albus. 

Pair of Paradigalla carunculata. 

One specimen of Casuarius edwardi 

One specimen of Aptéryx Oweni. 

One specimen of Aptéryx maxima. 

One Pair of Meleagris ocellata. 

One specimen of Chauna chavaria. 

Ditto ditto stuffed 

One specimen of Oreophasis derbianus 

Ditto ditto stuffed 

One specimen of Argus gi§anteus, stuffed 

One specimen of Argus grayi. 

One stuffed specimen of Chrysolophus amherstiae. 

Price £6. 

One male specimen of Otidiphaps nobilis. 

One specimen of Hypoleueus carunculatus. 

One specimen of Strigops habroptilus. 

One pair of Pharomacrus mocina. 

One pair of Pharomacrus costaricensis. 

One pair of Xanthomelus aureus. 

One pair of Sericulus melinus. 

One pair of Heteralocha gouldi, female very rare. 

Price £2 10s. 
By pair it means one male and one female. 



WANTED. 



TO ENTOMOLOGISTS. 



Price £4. 
Price £2 10s. 
Price £2 10s. 
Price £4 10§. 

Price £5. 

Price £10. 

Price £1 10s. 

Price £8. 

Price £6. 

Price £8. 
Price £10. 

Price £8. 
Price £10. 

Price £5. 

Price £6. 



Price £2 10s. 

Price £4. 
Price £1 10s. 

Price £2. 

Price £2. 
Price £10. 

Price £1. 



Specimens of : — 
Fregilupus varius Bodd. 
Camptolainus labradorius. 
Chrysolophus pictus L. Gmel. 
Chrysolophus amherstiae 

Leadb. 
Pterocnemia darwini Gould 
Dromaius novae hollandiae 
Sypheotides macqueeni Gr. 
Cariama oristata L. 
Chunga burmeisteri Hartl. 
Palamedea cornuta L. 
Ischyornis derbiana Gr. 
Aburria carunculata Tern. 
Leipoa ocellata Gould 
Polyplectron, all the species 

except hardwieki 



Lobiophasis bulweri Sharpe 
Alectrophasis cuvieri Tern. 
Gennœus nycthemerus L. 
Grammatoptilus lineatus 

Lath. 
Hierophasis swinhoei Gould 
Diardigallus diardi Tern. 
Lophophorus lhuysii Verr. 
Calcophasis sclateri Ierd. 
Gallus sonnerati Tem. 
Creagrius varius Shaw 
Sarkidiornis œgyptiaca Gmel. 
Ara ararauna L. 
Ara militaris L. 
Ara hyacinthinus Lath. 
Cotinga amabilis Gould 
Cotinga cayana L. 



FOE SALE. 

One very fine pair, male and female, of Morpho Qodarti 

Price £10. 
One fine male specimen of the same species. Price £2 10s. 
Ditto medium. Price £1. 

One fine pair, male and female of Ornithoptera pegasus. 

Price £2 10s. 
Ditto medium. £1 10s. 

Ornithoptera brooMana. 30s. 

Pair of Ooliathus Druryi, very large and very fine. Price £4. 
Pair of Goliathus cacicus, very fine. £1. 



Dicranocephalus bowring 


i20s. 


Carabus speciosus 


12s. 


Ceratorhina morgani 


20s. 


— mochcae 


40s. 


— hornimani 


10s. 


— bomplandi 


8s. 


Heterorhina imperialis 


10s. 


— robustus 


8s. 


Lomaptera albertisi 


10s. 


— tuberculosa 


8s. 


— ignipennis 


10s. 


— riffensis 


8s. 


Steraspis herculana 


10s. 


— aumonti 


8s. 


Sternocera pulchra 


10s. 


Damaster blaptoides 


20s. 


Catoxantha gigantea 


10s. 


— f ortunei 


12s. 


— eduardsi 


10s. 


Haplothorax burchelli 


20s. 


Psiloptera principalis 


10s- 


Cychrus angusticollis 


4s. 


Taphrosoma dohrni 


10s. 


— elevatus 


8s. 


Cyphus germari 2s. 6d. 


— ventrico8us 


2s. 


— augustus 2s. 6d. 


— alternatus 


2s. 


— nigropunctatus Is. 6d. 


— punctatus 


4s. 


Eupholus magnificus 


3s. 


Mormolyce phyllodes 


10s. 


Psalidognatus boucardi 


16s. 


— hagenbachi 


20s. 


— erythrocerus 


16s. 


— castelnaudi 


25s. 


Hippocephalus armatus 


30s. 


Chiasognathus granti 


10s. 


Dérobrachus inœquahs 


10s. 


— peruvianus 


40s. 


— brevicollis 


10s. 


— gaujoni 


50s. 


Aulacocerus mundus 


10s. 


— feisthameli 


30s. 


Mallaspis rhomboderi 


4s. 


— buckleyi 


30s. 


— belti 


10s. 


Macronoxia crinita 


5s. 


— xanthaspis 


10s. 


Euchirus longimanus 


20s. 


— leucaspis 


6s. 


Pelidnota burmeisteri 


16s. 


Pyrodes pulcherrimus 


10s. 


Proculus goryi 


30s. 


Calocomus desmaresti 


16s. 


— mniszecki 


10s. 


Elateropsis lineata 


8s. 


— opacipennis 


5s. 


Crioprosopus splendens 


10s. 


Plusiotis resplendens 


20s. 


— tricolor 


10s. 


— batesi 


30s. 


Batocera victoriana 


20s. 


Chrysophora chrysochlora 4s. 


— celebiana 


16s. 


Chrysina mniszecki 


16s. 


— gigas 


20s. 


— adolphi 


16s. 


— wallacei 


20s. 


Anoplognathus grayi 


20s. 


Sagra buqueti 


4s. 


— mastersi 


10s. 


Amblychila cylindriformis 


— n. sp. 


12s. 




10s. 


Golofa imperator 


5s. 


Omus Dejeani 


20s. 


Dynastes hercules 


16s. 


— audouini 


8s. 


Chalcosoma hesperus 


20s. 


Oxygonia floridula 


16s. 


Mesgasoma thersites 


10s. 


— gloriola 


12s. 


Aegopsis curvicornis 


8s. 


— buckleyi 


12s. 


Lycomedes reichei 


20s. 


— moronensis 


8s. 


Prionocalus cacicus 


60s. 


Carabus valdiviae 


8s. 


— atys 


60s. 


— buqueti 


8s. 


Ancisthrosoma buckleyi 


4s. 


— sybarita 


8s. 


— rufipes 


3s. 


— elegantissimus 


12a. 


Mitrocephala humboldti 


20s. 


— castroensis 


12s. 


Tetracha klngi 


5s. 


— subnitens 


12s. 


— bifasciata 


5s. 


— andestus 


12*. 


— laminata 


5s. 


— inexpectatus 


16s. 


Catoxantha eburnea 


20s. 


— gloriosus 


10=, 


— opulenta 


3s. 


— villaricensis 


12s. 


Goliathus torquatus 


20s. 


— hypocrita 


20s. 


— polyphemus 


20s. 


— temucensis 


30s. 


Ceratorhina juliae 


4s. 


— darwini 


8s. 


— derbyana 


8s. 


— bimarginatus 


10s. 


— ruficeps 


20s. 


— chonchicus 


12s. 


Tmesorhina saundersi 


5s. 


— chiloensis 


12s. 


Dymusa cyanea 


2s. 


— chilensis 


10s. 


Neptunides polychrous 


20s. 


— kraatzianus 


20s. 


Banzenia bertolini 


10s. 



January i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



%\t IJummhtg ^irïr* 



PREFACE. 



The " HUMMING BIRD " will be a monthly Re- 
cord of everything new in the Scientific, Artistic, and 
Industrial World, passing from one subject to another, 
as its Synonym does when he is on the wing, flying 
from one plant to another in search of food. 

At times, it will fly at great distances to see what 
is going on there and will return as quickly to its 
native place, as often as necessary. 

It will give short notices of all modern travellers, 
of their new discoveries, new applications of Science 
in the Industry, and new artistic Creations, keeping 
the readers well informed of all what happens of in- 
terest in this immense World ; so as to render this 
Journal attractive not only to Scientists but also to 
the General Public. 

It will contain a Series of Articles on Natural 
History, Description of new Species, Notes on the 
Habits of Animals, Biographies of Men well known in 
Science, Art, and Industry; Reports on Visits to 
Museums and Zoological Gardens ; Reports of public 
Sales of Scientific Objects, Works of Art and Curios 
from all countries, and lastly Reports of scientific, 
artistic, and industrial Publications of special interest. 
It is open to all, and original Notices on Science, 
Art, and Industry, of interest to the readers of the 
Journal, will be received with pleasure and inserted in 
due time. 

Every one is free to reproduce or to translate cor- 
rectly and literally all the notices signed by the 
Editor, with the only condition that the name of the 
author shall be given and several copies forwarded to 
the Office of the Journal. 

Authors wishing to have their works reported in the 
Journal must send two copies. 

All communications respecting the Journal should 
be addressed to the Editor : 

225 High Holborn, 

London, W.C., 

England. 



What is to be seen everywhere in London. 



A few days ago I went for a walk from Holborn 
Viaduct to Regent Street and back by the Strand, 
and was quite surprised to see in the windows of the 
best shops of the London Boulevards some strings 
of six small birds of all colours, some white, some 
red, some blue, some golden, in fact, all the colours 
of the rainbow, and which seemed to belong to 
species quite unknown to me, a naturalist, to whom 
Ornithology is the favourite study. 

I looked hard at them, and you can imagine my 
surprise when I saw that they were made-up birds 
from all kinds of feathers, badly made, some badly 
dyed, and with the most unnatural and grotesque 
appearances. I said to myself, surely they must be 
toys for children, and I will buy one dozen or two to 
give away. 

I entered one of these fashionable shops, and asked 
the price per dozen of the baby toys, calling them 
that name. As soon as the words escaped my lips, I 
saw the moment when my life was in danger. " Baby 
toys ! ! What do you mean, sir ! These are the 
latest fashion from Paris, and they are worth from six 
to twenty shillings per dozen ! " 

" I don't believe it," I said. " It is quite impossible 
that in cities like London or Paris exist such persons 
as would make use of such poor things as orna- 
ments for their hats. When I was a boy I saw in 
Paris many of these toys, called then Cocottes, and 
which were usually sold at a halfpenny a piece. They 
had an elastic string tied to the centre of the body, 
and were made to go up and down by pulling the 
string." I could say no more, being forcibly ejected 
from the shop. 

Really, I had a very bad quarter of an hour after 
this, coming back to my place quite dejected. 

But being rather tenacious in my opinions, I said 
I must clear that up. So I went to see some friends 
of mine, great Authorities in science, and great 
Industrials, to whom I asked if they had seen these 
multicolor birds, and what they thought of them. 
Their reply was : " No, we have not seen them, and 
we don't believe that they exist." So I took them 
round to have a good view of these novelties. All of 
them were scandalized to see the objects of their 
favourite study so absurdly ridiculized. At last one of 
them said, " Oh ! I have it ! I know now why these 
made-up birds have made their appearance this season 
in London." 

It appears that a severe battle has been fought 
lately against the wearing of beautiful humming birds, 
and bright birds in general, from sympathy to the 
poor Innocents. He was right ! ! This was the true 
explanation of the appearance of these fancy birds. 
But, good gracious ! Why have they made such 
poor representatives of Nature ? With a little care 
and good-will they could have made something worth 
having. Then I would have nothing to say ; but 
having had such a shock when I was ejected from 
the above-named shop, where I asked the price 
of these toys, only fit for children, I must say 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[ January i, 1891 



a few words to the general public, and especially 
to the fair sex of both worlds, to explain that it will 
make very little difference to the wingy tribe, if 
Ladies condemn themselves in not wearing as adorns 
to their perfections the most brilliant jewels of 
Creation, such as Humming Birds, blue Creepers, 
bright Tanagers, wonderful Trogons, and Birds of 
Paradise, etc., etc., which enhances so harmoniously 
with their charms. I am a Naturalist of forty years' 
standing, and have travelled all over America from 
Cape Horn to California. I have explored thoroughly 
the United States, Mexico, Central America, part of 
South America, and what I can warrant is this. In 
the southern parts of the United States, Mexico, 
Central America, and in Nicaragua, I have seen 
thousands and thousands of specimens of various 
species of Herons, Spoonbills, Ducks, Geese, 
Tanagers, Sparrows, Swallows, Humming Birds, etc. 

In San Andres Tuxtla (Mexico) I have been the 
witness of the arrival of the swallows {Hirundo bicolor 
Vieih). They invaded a field of sugar-cane belonging 
to Don Francisco Carrère, a friend of mine, where I 
was, staying at the time. Half an hour before sunset 
you could see them arrive from all parts of the 
horizon, meeting in one compact assemblage. When 
all of them had met at an altitude of about 1,500 feet, 
they formed a black cloud occupying half of the sky 
above our heads. A column exactly similar to a 
waterspout, of several feet's thickness, was seen coming 
down from the sky to the ground, dispersing in all 
directions over the fields. This lasted about a 
quarter of an hour, until they all had taken refuge 
for the night in the fields of sugar-cane. Well, I do 
not think I exaggerate when I state that they were at 
least several hundred thousands occupying nearly half 
a square mile. When night came, I went with a 
boy to see if I could get some specimens. We 
could not see, but we just gave a few knocks with our 
sticks on the canes, and the result was about fifty 
victims, which I took home and carefully skinned the 
next day. These are in the principal Museums of 
Europe at the present time. They were very fat and 
a splendid eating. All the men on the plantation 
feasted on them during their stay, which lasted 
about one month. In the morning they used to 
move in the same way as in the evening, but the 
reverse, forming first a thick column from the field 
to a height of about 1,500 feet, until they had all 
assembled. Then they separated in all directions 
in small bands, and were no more seen until the 
evening. 

At the end of the month the plantations of sugar 
canes were nearly ruined. Another time when in 
Playa Vicente (Mexico) I saw another flock of birds 
passing over my head. They were Sparrow Hawks 
( Cerchneis sparveria). They did not stop in the 
locality ; but their passage nearly lasted half an hour. 
How many thousands they were ! Impossible to tell. 

When residing in la Parada, State of Oaxaca 
(Mexico), I saw again immense numbers of Humming 
Birds (about ten distinct species), Arriana Riefferi 
Bourc ; Heliopedica melanotis Sw ; Petasophora 
thalassina Sw ; Eugenes fulgens Sw ; Calothorax 
cyanopogon Sw ; Trochilus cohibris L ; Selasphorus 
platycercus Sw, etc., etc. 



They remained about two months, from October to 
the end of November. At that time flowers were to 
be seen in plenty everywhere ; especially some myrtle 
trees, thistles, etc., etc. The boys had a net in two 
pieces, one and a half yard in circumference each, 
to which was attached a string about 20 yards 
long. 

They opened one side of the net, the other part 
remaining on the ground or in the bush. Between 
the two parts they put flowers of the same kinds as 
usually visited by the birds. These were so abundant 
that scarcely five minutes passed without a humming 
bird coming inside the net to suck the flowers. Then 
the boy had only to pull the string which he kept in 
one hand, the two sides of the net joined together, 
and the bird was a prisoner. 

They usually caught from 30 to 40 in the day, which 
they sold at a cuartillo (ijd. dozen) for eating. 
Being very fat, roasted, it is a repast which Lucullus 
himself would have enjoyed. 

I could mention many other cases of the immense 
quantity of birds to be seen in America or elsewhere ; 
but I think the above-mentioned cases are sufficient. 
To resume then. What are about one million or two 
millions of birds sent annually to Europe ; chiefly 
from Brazil, Trinidad, Colombia, South America 
and from India, against such number of birds as 
Nature can boast of. 

Even supposing that the fashion would continue 
for ever, it is my opinion that certain species of Birds 
are so common that it would take hundreds of years 
before exhausting them. 

If Ladies don't wear feathers as ornaments from 
sympathy to the poor birds, to be consequent with 
themselves, they must not eat them neither, and they 
must not wear any furs for the same reason. Are they 
prepared to that? But as I said before, Nature is so 
prolific and such a good Nurse that Ladies can make 
their mind easy on that point, and continue to use 
the beautiful birds which harmonize so well with 
beauty, and refuse to wear such poor imitations of 
the real thing, as what is to be seen everywhere 
in London this year. 

Besides, it is very probable that in refusing to wear 
them as ornaments, the result desired will not be 
obtained, and they would serve of pasture to the 
numerous birds of prey, and other animals which 
feast on them all the year round. 

As far as my experience goes, the yearly Exportation 
of Bird Skins is as follows : — 



Colombia ... 


• • • 


• * • 




200,000 


Brazil and Trinidad 






300,000 


Mexico and 


Central 


America 


I 


100,000 


and South America 


... 


Japan 




... 




100,000 


India 


• • • 


... 




200,000 


Africa 


• • * 






100,000 


Europe 


... 


. . . 




500,000 



Total ... 1,500,000 

What is that ! Nothing when you think of the 
100,000,000 which are killed annually for eating pur- 
poses. However, I should suggest to Governments to 



January i, 189 1] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



prohibit partially the killing of birds in certain seasons 
and totally the destruction of Eggs; as also the killing 
of all the species of Warblers, and some of the 
Passeres, which are quite indispensable to Agricul- 
ture. 

It would be very convenient to make a list of the 
species which could be killed and those which must 
be preserved at all costs, and I will help with pleasure 
to do so. 

Even in Europe it is well known that certain species 
of birds are so numerous that it is a good thing to de- 
stroy some to make room for others. Ex. Quails, when 
coming back from Africa, Crows, Magpies, Black- 
birds, Thrushes, etc., etc., etc. 

To be continued. 



SCIENCE AND ART. 
The Mackinley Bill. 



The United States of America, a country which can 
boast of a population over 60 millions after a Century 
since its independence, must be surely the Country of 
the future ; but it is rather astonishing that in the 
middle of such a prosperity such a bill as the Mackinley 
one has found so many supporters ; but fortunately 
I hope it has not the majority of the country, because 
it is a very good thing to be self protecting, but it is 
better yet to think of the welfare of all, instead of pro- 
tecting a few individuals only. Since partial free trade 
has been established in England, every one can see 
that the majority of the population cloth and feed 
better than before, and the principal ports of England 
have become the principal Entrepots of Europe. Every 
day you can see in the steamers running between 
England and France, Belgium, and Germany, mer- 
chants coming to London to attend the public sales 
which are daily made at the Docks of all the products 
of the world, and buying extensively. 

Why is this ? Of course because the custom duties 
and dock charges are much lower than in any other 
ports of Europe. 

If there was an increase of duty to-morrow all these 
goods would go to other ports and England would 
lose greatly by it. Not only a great profit arises to 
England from these sales; but all sorts of goods, eatable 
or otherwise, being introduced in large quantities, the 
general public profit by it, having many neccessaries 
of life at a very reasonable price, which was not so 
some forty years back. 

I am sorry to say that the United States is the 
only Country in the world where objects of natural 
history for scientific purposes pay a custom duty rather 
high. Not even in Congo or Gaboon such a thing 
•exists. It is free everywhere in all parts of the ïvorld 
excepting the United States. I call it a shame 
and a bad calculation, as every obstacle put in the 
way of scientific researches must result against the 
country which make use of them, and I hope that the 
Government of the United States will repel the said 
duty as soon as they possibly can. Again with the 
objects of Art. It is the same. 



Do you not see, Citizens of America, that now that 
you are prosperous and wealthy you are bound to 
protect Art and Science as well as Industry. 

You are forward as an industrial and agricultural 
Country, but although you have some very good men 
in Science and in Art you cannot yet struggle suc- 
cessfully against the old World, and it is in your interest 
to develop and facilitate scientific and artistic studies 
everywhere, so as to reach perfection in everything, * 
and this can only be done in being very liberal with 
all what is connected with Science and Art. 

You have a great advantage on all the other 
Countries, being able to make use of the experience 
of all forerunners ; but there are things which only 
time can procure and artistic taste is one of them. It 
requires a long time to develop fully artistical tastes 
in a new country, and it is quite time to begin, and I 
hope that you will take the hint given by an admirer 
of your great Country. A. B. 



The Panama Canal. 

By A. Boucard. 



The last fall in the prices of the Shares and Bonds 
of tk 4 Panama Canal induces me to say a few words 
on this great industrial undertaking which will be one 
of the marvels of the World when completed. Suez 
Canal is nothing compared with the Panama Canal, 
and although Suez is a magnificent work on all aspects, 
uniting Europe with the old World of Asia, Panama 
has a still greater future before it, because A?7ierica, 
from Oregon to Cape Horn and Australia are the 
Countries of the future. 

Before long these countries will be very thickly 
populated, very rich, and will be the refuge for several 
hundred years yet of all courageous families who can 
scarcely earn enough to live in the old Continent. 
We can easily see the day when America and Australia 
will be inhabited all over with a population of several 
hundreds of millions. The Pacific Coast from Oregon 
to Chili, which is very fertile, is scarcely populated at 
present ; but not many years will pass without a great 
change is made in that respect. Thence it will prove 
one of the best customers of the Panama Canal. From 
Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, New Guinea, 
Japan, etc., etc., they are bound to send their goods 
by that Canal, because if in several instances it don't 
shorten much the distance, a great consideration must 
be taken of the facility of crossing the Pacific Ocean. 
There is much less danger to life by the Pacific than 
by the Indian Seas, and the currents are very favour- 
able to navigation either in going or in returning. 

I have nothing to say against the actual price of the 
Shares, because virtually speaking, since the declara- 
tion of non-payment of the Coupons to the Bond- 
holders, which are in 'fact Mortgagees of the Canal and 
all its accessories, they have lost all their value and I 
don't see any possibility whatever that they can get 
anything at any time; but it is not so with the 
Bonds. 

All what exists belongs to them, and I append a 
Memorandum of the Assets which existed in May, 1890. 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[January i, 1891 



In cash 14 millions 

740,000 Bonds, with prime, 
unsold, in the hands of the 
Liquidation at 85 frs. ... 62 „ 

Remainder of the Shares of 
the Panama Railroad which 
have not been mortgaged... 50 „ 



900,000 



126 „ 900,000 

126,900,000 
Hotel in Paris valued in June, 1887 2,005,951 

Total 128,905,951 frs. 

To this sum of 128,905,951 frs. must be added the 

evaluation made by the last Society of Engineers, sent 

in 1890, of all the properties in Panama. They have 

been estimated at 450,000,000, which gives a total of 

57 8 >9°5>95 I francs. 

Now I will give a list of the Creditors. 
250,000 Bonds of 500 frs. emitted 

at 437 frs., 50 109,375,000 

600,000 Bonds 3 per cent, emitted 

at 285 frs. 171,000,000 

477,387 Bonds 4 per cent, emitted 

at 333 frs 158,969,871 

438,802 Bonds 6 per eent. emitted 

at 450 frs. ... ... ... 206,469,000 

258,887 Bonds 6 per cent, emitted 

at 440. frs. ... 113,910,280 

Total 759,724,151 frs. 

Besides, there was another issue of Bonds, 6 per 
cent., payment warranted by a deposit of French 
Rents, and lastly, an issue of two millions of Bonds, 
with prime, of which 740,000 remain actually in the 
hands of the Liquidation. But these two Issues, 
having a capital deposited which guarantee their 
repayment, cannot figure as Creditors. 

We have then, not taking any account of the 
450,000,000 of the Properties situated at Panama 
(excepting the shares of the Railroad Co.), a capital 
of 1 28,905,95 1 frs., easily realisable against Creditors for 
the sum of 759,724,151 francs. 

Consequently, even if the Society was declared 
bankrupt, each bond would receive about 1 7 per cent, 
on their price of issue, and probably more, because a 
good many Bonds of all Categories have been reim- 
bursed, and consequently must be deducted from the 
Creditors. Now, if we take in account the estimated 
value of the 450,000,000 francs for the property and 
works made in Panama, the result would be : 

Assets 578,905,951 francs 

Debts ... 759,724,151 „ 

which would permit to repay about 76 per cent, on 
the price of issue of all Bonds, 5 per cent., 3 per 
cent., 4per cent., and 6 per cent, first and second issues. 

Therefore the 5 per cent. Bond issued 

at 437 frs. 50 cent, is worth at least 74frs.37|cents. 
the Bond 3 per cent, emitted at 285 

frs. is worth , 48 frs. 45 „ 

the Bond 4 per cent, emitted at 333 

frs. is worth 56frs.6i „ 

the Bond 6 per cent, emitted at 450 

frs. is worth 76frs-5o „ 

the Bond 6 per cent, emitted at 440 

frs, is worth 74frs.8o „ 



Although these sums would recuperate only a very 
small part of the loss entailed by the original Sub- 
scribers, they are very different to the prices pretended 
to be the actual prices of the said Bonds, viz., to-day, 
the 1 6th of December the 

Bonds 5 per cent, are quoted 26 frs. 
„ 3 per cent. „ „ 19 frs. 
„ 4 per cent. „ ,,19 frs, 75 cents. 
„ 6 per cent, not quoted at all. 

One thing is certain, that if you sent a large order 
for buying several thousands of these Bonds, I doubt 
very much if you could get them, even after waiting 
several weeks or even months for the delivery of same 
by the broker. 

I remember that some months ago myself and 
friends gave order to buy a few, and we were obliged 
to wait many weeks before they were delivered to us. 

Knowing a great deal about the Panama Canal from 
its beginning, when I met in Panama, in 1876, the 
Comité d'Etudes under the direction of the active 
M. Napoleon Wyse Bonaparte, up to the present 
time, I would advise all the holders of Bonds to be 
firm, to keep by them all what they have, and to 
unite. Then I am sure they could get back a great 
part of their money, if not all. 

Firstly, I suggest to ask from the Liquidator, the 
repartition of all the bonds, with prime, now laying 
in the hands of the company, to be divided a priori 
among the Bondholders. 

Secondly, to have an assembly where should be 
discussed the question of selling all the assets in 
Paris and Panama, either for cash or by exchange of 
shares at a price satisfactory to both parties, and in 
case of not appearing such Company to realise as 
soon as possible all the assets existing in Paris in 
cash, properties, prizes gained by the 740,000 bonds 
with prime in the hands of the Liquidator, as also to 
realise the shares of the Panama Railroad and all 
properties realisable, and divide the sum resulting 
of these sales, a priori among the Bondholders. 

But it would be still better to have a good arrange- 
ment with a new Company which can very well give 
50 per cent, of the price of issue of the bonds and 
make a splendid business of it. 

If a company should buy the Canal from the Bond- 
holders at that price, which would amount to a little 
less than 400 millions, it is very probable that they 
could finish the work with 600 millions. The total 
cost would be 1,000,000,000 francs (1 milliard). 

At that price I have not the least doubt that it 
would be a very profitable business for the Investors. 

The Panama Canal a few years after its opening 
will give extraordinary results, which wilLastound even 
the Shareholders of the Suez Canal. 

I know a great many of the Bondholders who would 
take at once some shares in the new Company, and 
are quite willing to receive shares of a new Company 
in payment of their Bonds. 

The nth of Februar)', 1889, a little time after the 
declaration of the liquidation of the Company, I 
wrote two similar letters, one to M. de Lesseps, the 
other to Mr. Brunet, the liquidator. 

The former never replied (a rather strange pro- 
ceeding) ; the second replied the 14th of February. 



January i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



Here are these letters : — 
" Monsieur, 

" Plusieurs de mes amis et moi possédons un grand 
nombre d'Actions et d'Obligations du Canal Inter- 
océanique et nous sommes de ceux qui ne veulent pas 
entraver la Compagnie d'aucune manière ; c'est dire 
que nous nous intéressons beaucoup à ce que cette 
magnifique entreprise puisse se terminer. 

Depuis quelque temps, chaque fois que nous nous 
réunissons, nous causons de cette affaire et nous 
cherchons une combinaison capable de sauver la 
situation et nous croyons avoir trouvé un moyen qui 
permettrait probablement à la Compagnie de se pro- 
curer les sommes dont elle a besoin et qui serait 
probablement accepté par la majorité des Actionnaires 
et Obligataires. 

Il s'agirait de fonder une nouvelle Société d'Action- 
naires qui fourniraient à la Compagnie une somme 
de cent millions. 

Le paiement serait fait moitié en espèces, moitié en 
Actions ou Obligations anciennes à raison de la moitié 
ou des deux tiers de leur valeur d'émission. 

Cette combinaison ferait remonter instantanément 
les Actions et Obligations de l'ancienne Compagnie si 
dépréciées en ce moment, et procurerait à la nouvelle 
Compagnie 50 millions en espèces. 

Aussitôt la nouvelle Compagnie formée on émettrait 
pour un milliard d'Obligations à lots rapportant 
3 pour cent, d'intérêt par an et payable de la même 
manière que pour les Actions nouvelles. 

Cette opération rapporterait encore une somme de 
400 à 500 millions à la Compagnie et nous ne doutons 
pas qu'avec ces sommes la Compagnie serait à même 
de terminer le Canal. 

Celles des anciennes Actions ou Obligations qui 
n'auraient pas servi à souscrire auraient toujours le 
droit de les échanger pour des nouvelles Obligations à 
lots aux mêmes conditions que les autres. 

Je ne doute pas que tous les anciens Actionnaires 
et Obligataires accepteraient une combinaison de ce 
genre ; car en réalité il n'y aurait pas de perte réelle 
pour eux ; puisque le capital ancien étant réduit par 
ce moyen, les bénéfices seraient d'autant plus grands 
et leur perte actuelle serait largement compensée par 
de plus forts intérêts à recevoir dans l'avenir. 

Le capital définitif tant en Actions qu'en Obliga- 
tions anciennes se trouverait réduit à 700 millions au 
lieu de 1,400 millions d'une part et 450 à 550 millions 
de titres nouveaux, soit 1,200 millions en totalité, ce 
qui permettrait bien certainement de distribuer de 
bons dividendes aussitôt que le Canal serait ouvert à 
la navigation." Agréez, Monsieur, etc., etc., 

A. B. 

Réponse de Monsieur Brunet, Liquidateur, 

Paris, 14 Février 1889. 
Monsieur, 
" J'ai reçu la lettre que vous avez bien voulu 
m'écrire le 1 1 février. 

Je vous remercie de l'idée que vous voulez bien me 
soumettre, j'en prends bonne note. 

Veuillez agréer, Monsieur, l'assurance, etc., etc., 
Le Liquidateur, Par Procuration, 
Henry Nad... {illegible). 



As I said before, M. de Lesseps did not reply to a 
similar letter forwarded to him the same day. 

Now, I think just the same as on the nth of Feb- 
ruary, 1889, except that the combination proposed 
should apply only to the holders of the Bonds 5 per 
cent., 3 per cent., 4 per cent., and 6 per cent, who 
are the only Creditors of the Company. 

I think that a new Company, which could agree 
with the Bondholders about the purchase or exchange 
of their Bonds at half the value of their issue, would 
have a great chance to succeed and would be able to 
open the Canal in about four or five years. It would 
be of great importance to them to secure, if possible, the 
services of M. Napoleon Wyse Bonaparte, who is the 
man for it. It is him who has directed the works of 
the Comité d'Etudes. He is well acclimated, very 
active, and much liked in the country. That means 
a great deal. Besides, I believe that he should con- 
sider a great honour to terminate what he begun 
so well, and really believe by the little that I know 
of him that he would accept. 

Many persons think that the termination of the 
Panama Canal is nearly impossible in consequence of 
the great difficulties to be surmounted yet, and that it 
would be more easy to open the Nicaragua Canal. 

This was my idea too in 1878 — idea which I ex- 
pressed in the Geographical Congress of Paris, of 
which I was a Member, and also Delegate for the 
Republic of Guatemala ; but my principal reason for 
advocating then the Nicaragua Canal, was not so 
much because the difficulties are less by that route ; 
but chiefly for humanitary purposes ; because I knew, 
for having resided a certain time in both countries, that 
fresh meat and all other eatables, especially green 
vegetables, were more plentiful in Nicaragua than in 
Panama, and could be the means of saving life ; and 
I knew also that workmen could be had more easily 
in Nicaragua than in Panama ; but now that about 
half the work is done, I have no doubt that it will 
cost less to terminate the Panama Canal than to make 
the Nicaragua one. 

I am certain that the same difficulties which have 
been experienced at the beginning of the works in 
Panama will be repeated in Nicaragua. It is always a 
very expensive affair to begin a work of such magnitude. 

Now, if anyone can prove to me the contrary, I 
have no objection whatever to a Nicaragua Canal, and 
the only thing I ask, is to be able to go once more, 
either at Panama or at Nicaragua, when this marvel 
of a Canal joining the Atlantic to the Pacific will 
be achieved ; because, as I said before, it will be one 
of the Wonders of the 19th Century, and there is no 
comparison to be made between Suez and Panama. 

In Suez, fellahs could be sent to work in any 
quantity, the country was densely inhabited, nearly 
everything could be procured from the country or 
from Europe at moderate prices, and in any quantity ; 
meanwhile, in Panama difficulties of all sorts surround 
you, and everything had to be created, workmen were 
very scarce, and had to be paid dear, provisions had 
to be sent from Europe, etc., etc. 

In fact, it is a stupendous undertaking, and no 
doubt that all Nations ought to help — at least morally — 
the Company, which will undertake the termination of 
this magnificent Work of Art. 

To be continued. 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[January i, 1891 



SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY. 



Notes on the Genus Pharomacrus or 
Resplendent Trogon. 

By 

A. BOUCARD. 



The genus Pharomacrus was made by la Llave (a 
Mexican naturalist) in 1801 for the magnificent bird 
known under the names of Quetzal in Mexico and 
Central America, Couroucou resplendissant in France, 
Resplendent Trogon in England, Ave del Paraiso in 
Spain and America, etc., etc. It is certainly the 
finest bird of America. It is found from Mexico to 
Panama. In South America it is represented by 
other several fine species, but the tail of these species 
is quite short. Meanwhile in the specimens from 
Mexico and Guatemala it is common to see male 
birds with tails measuring over one yard long, and 
three inches wide. It is well-known that during the 
reign of Moctezuma, Emperor of Mexico, at the 
time of the Conquest, the feathers of this bird were 
highly estimated for ornamental purposes, and only 
the Emperor and his family could make use of them. 
What a strange thing to remember this, when four 
centuries afterwards, these birds are again actively 
searched for the same purpose, especially for the 
adornment of the fair sex. 

Quezaltenango, a province lying south of Mexico, 
but now belonging to Guatemala, had no other 
tribute in time of Montezuma than to send yearly the 
feathers of one hundred of these birds for the use of 
the Imperial family of Mexico. 

Actually this identical bird forms part of the 
arms of the Republic of Guatemala, and has also 
been adopted by that country as effigies for its postal 
stamps ; where it shows splendidly and beautifully as 
stamp Collectors well know. 

Coban, capital of the province of the Alta Vera 
Paz, in Guatemala, is the locality where many of these 
birds can be got. 

During ten years I have received yearly from that 
place 600 skins of these birds, for which I paid 
28s. 6d. each. I had a constant customer for them, 
but a sudden fall of 15s. per bird, stopped completely 
the remittance. That was in the year 1876. Since 
then very few have been sent, so I hope that they 
have had time to multiply again. Only males were 
ordered to be killed. Perhaps for that reason they 
did not seem to be getting rarer; nevertheless the 
hunters had sometimes to go to very long distances 
to get them, and they were glad when they could 
shoot four or five weekly. 

The female of this glorious bird is fine, but nothing 
to compare with the male, and its value is very little. 
Hence the reason why I ordered to spare them, and 
principally also for not destroying this fine species. 

Since a few years large consignments have been 
made from Costa Rica, and even from Nicaragua ; 
but although splendid in colour their tails are not 



comparable to Mexican and Guatemalan specimens. 
They are always much shorter and narrower. During 
my voyage in Costa Rica in 1877, I saw several of 
these birds, and many were brought to me by the 
native hunters. In fact, I brought back about 250 
with me in London. All of them being alike, I 
made a variety of this bird, which I described and 
called Pharomacrus mocina, Var cosiaricensis. — 
Ornith. Miscell. Part XL, page 21. 

In Veragua (Columbia) south of Costa Rica, this 
species is also found ; but the tail is again a little 
shorter than the Costa Rica specimens. 

In Columbia, Venezuela, and Ecuador it is replaced 
by two other species, Pharomacrus fulgidus and auriceps, 
of which large consigments are made yearly to Paris, 
where they fetch the wholesale price of 4s., which I 
consider very cheap for such fine birds. 

The tail of these species is rather short and only 
just remind the splendid tail of P. Mocina. Everyone 
would think that these birds must be very common 
thousands of specimens being sent yearly to Europe, 
but it is not so. 

They are rather rare and scarcely seen. They 
inhabit the densest and most savage places of the semi 
tropical forests, in the barrancas (deep ravines) where 
it is very difficult to get at them, and it is only due to 
the active search made by several hundred native 
hunters that a certain number can be obtained. 

The native hunter for the sake of 2s. or 4^. per 
bird, which is the sum generally paid, searches every- 
where for them ; hunting at the same time other birds ; 
especially Rupicola peruviana, vulgarly known as Cock 
of the Rock, and humming birds which are also found 
in the same localities with these Trogons. Between 
1000 and 2000 are secured every year. 

They are in great demand for Plumassiers purposes 
in consequence of their magnificent plumage. 

They usually nest in the hollow parts of trees or in 
the rocks. They lay only two pure white eggs, the 
size of a small dove, but more rounded, similar to the 
eggs of Wood Peckers. 

The actual wholesale value of these birds is between 
\zs. and 25^. for the long tail species, ]and 4s. to 6s. 
for the South American species. 

Now I will give a monographic list of these splendid 
birds of which six species and varieties are known. 

CLASS AVES. 

Ordo Coccyges. 

SUB-ORDO HETERODACTYLjB. 

Fam. TrogonidjE, Sw. 1831. 

Pharomachrus De la Llave, 1801. 

Calurus, Sw. 1830. 

Pharomacrus mocina, La Llave, 180 1. 

Trogon pavoninus, Temm. — Trogon paradiseUS 
Bp. 1826 — Trogon resplendens, Gould, 1835, Re- 
splendent Trogon. 

Male : — Head, Neck, and entire Back metallic 
green, with gold reflections, Wing and tail coverts 
golden green ; some of the wing coverts are nearly 



January i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



three inches long, pointed, and most handsome, four 
of the tail coverts are very long ; the two central 
being in very adult males, sometimes nearly four feet 
long, and three inches wide ; the next two nearly as 
long, and the others much smaller. Wings pure 
black ; tail black, with three internal feathers on each 
side white, the third edged with black ; Breast 
vinous red, flanks, abdomen and under tail coverts car- 
mine ; feet black ; bill reddish yellow. 

Female : — Head and back bronzy green ; 'rump, 
wing, and tail coverts, golden green ; wings black ; 
tail black, with three internal feathers on each side 
crossed alternatively with black and white ; throat 
bronzy green ; breast and abdomen, dark grey ; under 
tail coverts carmine ; feet black; bill black, with a 
yellow border on the under mandible. 



Total length . . . 


... 5 feet. 


Tail 


9 inches 


Wing ... 


... 8 „ 


Leg 


... 2 


Bill 


... 1 



Native countries : — South Mexico and Guatemala. 

Pharomacrus mocina Var costaricensis Boucard, 
1879, Ornithological Miscellany, Part XL, page 21. 

Male : — Exactly as the preceding species ; but 
less vinous red on the breast and the wing; and the 
tail coverts are shorter and narrower. 

Found in Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Veragua. 

Type in Museum Boucard. 

To be continued. 



An Easy Way of Making One Hundred 
Pounds Sterling a Year in Collecting 
Specimens of Natural History at Leisure 
Time. 



The object of this article is to facilitate to every 
one the means of collecting, preserving and sending 
home collections of natural history. 

By attending exactly to the following instructions, 
any resident in Europe, excepting France, England, 
Germany, Belgium, Austria, and other neighbouring 
Countries which have been well explored ; and in 
Asia, Africa, America, or Oceania, may collect easily 
in one year specimens worth one hundred pounds 
sterling. 

To obtain this result, it is necessary only to employ 
Sundays and other holidays in exploring the neigh- 
bourhoods of the place of residence, and collect 
Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, Shells, Seeds, etc., etc. 

These scientific excursions will not only be very 
instructive and amusing ; but, at the same time, very 
favourable to health and interests. 

I have never enjoyed better health than during the 
fifteen years I have been living in America as a 
Traveller-Naturalist. 

I shall now proceed to show that, in one year, it 
is easy to collect 250 specimens of Reptiles and 
Fishes, 4,000 Insects, and 1,200 Shells. 



Supposing that not more than fifty days can be 
employed in making collections ; this will require as 
fruit of each day's labour 5 Reptiles, 80 Insects, and 
24 Shells. 

The success of a collector must be very bad, or the 
country very poor, if a larger number than the above 
be not obtained ; because in all my voyages, I have 
always collected easily in one day, 10 Reptiles, 100 
Insects, and 30 shells, and sometimes many more. 

Reptiles may be sold with facility at one shilling 
each, the Insects at one pound sterling per hundred, 
and the Shells at one pound per hundred ; so that it 
would only be necessary to collect very few Crustacea;, 
Seeds, bright- coloured Insects, or any thing else, 
to obtain for them the sum of ^33 in order to arrive 
at the total of ^100 for the year. Therefore, if in 
fifty days you can obtain such a result, it is quite sure 
that any person who can dispose of all his time, will 
collect in the year objects of natural history worth 
^"200 or more, especially if he collects also Bird and 
Mammal Skins. 

But, in the first as in the second case, to obtain this 
result, it is necessary to attend exactly to the following 
instructions ; the value of collections depending chiefly 
how they are collected as well as their perfect state of 
preservation. 

I invite all persons who intend collecting objects 
of natural history to come and see me. I will give 
them all the necessary instructions to facilitate their 
success, and a few practical lessons, which may be 
very useful to them. Persons living abroad can 
write. 

REPTILES AND FISHES. 

Reptiles are divided in four Orders. 

1. Chelonii, or Turtles and Tortoises. 

2. Saurii, or Lizards, Camelions, etc. 

3. Ophidii, or Snakes. 

4. Batracii, or Frogs. 

Turtles and Tortoises are to be collected in the 
sea, the rivers, the lakes, near the water, and in the 
damp plains. 

Other Reptiles must be searched for under stones, 
bark of decayed trees, on old walls, on branches and 
trunks of trees, near rivers and on the ground. 

They may be taken with the hand or with nippers 
and put into a bottle with alcohol. 

Several species of snakes are venomous ; before 
taking, it will be necessary to strike them one or two 
blows in the middle of the back-bone with a very 
flexible stick, taking care not to spoil the skin. 

Fish may be caught with fishing rods or nets, in the 
sea, rivers, lakes, etc., and put immediately in a bottle 
with alcohol, especially if you are in a hot country, 
and far from your residence. 

When you get back to your house, they should be 
taken out of the bottles, and cleaned in a linen cloth ; 
then make an incision in the belly of the animal to 
allow the penetration of the alcohol in the intestines, 
and put them in a large bottle containing fresh 
alcohol or any other strong spirit. 

To be continued* 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[January i, 1891 



Report on the Public Sale of Feathers and 
Bird Skins, December, 1890. 



♦ 

Fair demand for all kinds of Osprey feathers. Nearly all 
the lots offered were sold. Short selected declined from 
10s. to 15s. per oz. Price steady for the other sorts. Bird 
skins in general sold badly, especially East India consign- 
ments. 

Birds without a price affixed were not offered at this 
month's Sale. 

Is. = one shilling =1 fr. 25 = 1 mark = 25 cents. 
ld.=one penny = 10 cent. = 2 „ 



Long Osprey (per oz. to quality) .. 

,, ,, inferior 

Short ,, superior 

,, ,, selected 

,, „ inferior 

Brown Osprey 

Bed „ 

Mixed Heron 

Heron 

White Paddy, first quality 

,, ,, second ,, 

Grey Paddy 

Peacock, neck feathers blue, per lb. 
» ,, gold 

„ eyes, bundle of 100 
Short Osprey, flat skins, each 
Impeyan Pheasant, round skins, each 
Bed Argus „ ,, 

.LJl&CK ,, ,, ,, 

Green Japanese do. ,, 

Bed „ do. „ 

Bird of Paradise, male ,, 
„ female „ 

Bifle Bird of Paradise, ,, 
King „ flat skins 

Green ,, ,, 

Indian Parrots, various, round skins 
Birds, various, from India ,, 

Red Head Manakin, ,, 

Blue Creeper, ,, 

Green ,, „ 

Starling, ,, 

Magpie, ,, 

Blue Metallic Merle, ,, 

Green „ 



s. 


d. 




s. 


d. 


15 





to 


18 





11 











55 











66 











13 







38 





1 


3 




1 


6 


2 


1 




3 


3 





9 




1 


6 


15 







20 





35 











18 











8 





13 


14 





2 





11 






17 


6 


)i 









li 


h 





21 



3 



3 6 



15 





>» 




13 


6 






17 


6 


»» 




1 


3 




1 7 


1 


9 


Ï» 


1 11 





Of 


1 J 


1J 





0i 


t) 


1 



Gaboon Merle, 


,, 












Ptarmigan, 


,, ... 












Cock of Rock, 


,, ... 












Indian Crow, 


,, ... 












Large Owls, 


,, 












Medium ,, 


,, ... 












Sea Swallow, Medium, 


,, ... 












Bed Tanager, 


,, 





9 


»» 





10 


Yellow and Black do. 


,, ... 





7 


»» 






Five Coloured Finch 


,, ... 





10 


»» 


1 





Tanager, various, 


,, ... 





4 


»» 





8 


Humming Birds, 


rounl skins. 












Blue Long Tail, 


,, ... 












Green ,, ,, 


,, ... 












Large Humming, 


,, ... 












Green Golden Humming, large, ,, 





3 


»» 





6 


»> »» >i 


small, ,, 





4 


17 





7 


Buby Humming, 


,, ... 





5 


)» 





8 


Female ,, various 


t »> 





le 


)J 





2 


Crested Humming, 


,, 





2 








Amethyst „ 


,, 













Mr. A. Boucard will be happy to execute Commissions for 
Gentlemen who cannot attend the Sales. 



Rapport sur la vente publique de Plumes et 
d'Oiseaux à Londres, Décembre 1890. 



s. 


d. 




s. 


d. 


15 





a 


18 





11 











55 











66 











13 







38 





1 


3 




1 


6 


2 


1 




3 


3 





9 


»? 


1 


6 


15 







20 





35 











18 











8 







14 





2 





»» 






17 


6 









le „ 2| 



3 



3 6 



La demande a été bonne pour les plumes d'aigrettes longues 
et courtes, et presque tous les lots offerts ont été vendus. 
Baisse de 10 à 15 francs par once sur l'aigrette crosse courte 
de premier choix. Prix fermes pour les plumes d'aigrette 
blanche longue et pour les plumes de hérons divers. Baisse 
sur tous les Oiseaux en général, et tout particulièrement sur 
les provenances de l'Inde anglaise. 

Les oiseaux non-cotés n'ont pas été offerts à la vente de ce 
mois. 

ls. égale 1 fr. 25 cent., 1 mark=25 cents. 

Id. „ 10 „ 2 „ 



Aigrette blanche longue, l'once 
Aigrette blanche longue, inférieure 

,, ,, courte, supéiieure 

„ ,, ,, choisie 

,, „ ,, inférieure 

,, brune 

„ rouge 

Plumes de Hérons divers 

,, d'Anhinga 

Marabout blanc, l re qualité 

,, ,, 2fi ,, 

>, gris 

Paon, plumes du cou, la livre 

,, ,, dorées 

„ (queues) 

Aigrettes blanches (peaux plates) 
Lophophores, peaux rondes, chaque 

Argus rouge, „ 

,, noir, ,, 

Faisan vert du Japon, ,, 
„ rouge „ „ 

Paradis jaune, mâle, 

,, ,, femelle, 

Paradis Gorge d'acier, 
Petit Paradis King, 

,, vert et jaune, 

Perruches de l'Inde, pei 
Oiseaux divers de l'Inde, 
Manakin à tête rouge, 
Guit guit bleu, 
„ vert, 
Sansonnets, 
Pies, 

Merle métallique bleu, 
„ „ vert, 

„ ,, du Gabou, 

Gelinotte, 
Coq de roche, 
Pie sanglante, 
Chouettes grandes, 

,, moyennes, 
Sterne moyenne, 
Tangara rouge, 

,, noir et jaune, 
Tangara quinticolor, 

„ divers, 
Oiseaux Mouches, ,, 

King à queue bleue, „ 

Oiseau mouche vert à longue queue 
Oiseaux mouches, grands .... 

,, vert dorés, grands 
., verts dorés, petits 
Rubia Topazes, ,, 
Oiseaux mouches, femelles diverses 
Oiseaux mouches à huppe dorée ... 
Clarisse et Parzudaki 



La maison Boucard se charge des commissions d'achat qui 
lui seront envoyées par les personnes ne pouvant assister aux 
Vendes. 



,, ... 


15 


„ 




,, ... 


13 


6 ,, 




,, ... 


17 


9 „ 




peaux plates ... 


1 


3 „ 


1 7 


,, ... 


1 


» „ 


1 11 


aux rondes ... 





0£ „ 


1} 


,, ... 





0è , 


1 



»> 


... 








>> 


... 








>i 


... 










... 


9 


»» 


10 


11 


... 


7 


»» 




11 


... 


10 
4 


II 


1 
8 






3 „ 





6 





4 „ 





7 





5 „ 





8 





H » 





2* 





2 







anuary i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



BOUCARD, POTTIER 

NATURALISTS AND FEATHER MERCHANTS, 



CO., 



, Higfr HolboFii, London, 

COMMISSION. 



,0., Eni 



EXPORTATION. 



Messbs. BOUCARD, POTTIER & CO. offer to sell on commission all kinds of Objects of Natural 
History, Collections of Mammal and Bird Skins, Skeletons, Human and Animal Skulls, Insects of all 
orders pinned and set, or in papers ; Marine, Fresh Water, and Land Shells ; Reptiles and Fishes in spirit ; 
Crustacea and Arachnidae in spirit ; Ethnological collections from all parts ; Showy Bird Skins and 
Feathers for Plumassiers and Naturalists ; Mammal Skins for Furriers ; Bright species of Insects for 
Artificial Florists ; Rare old Stamps, used and unused; Curios of all sorts, Pictures and Works of Art, etc., 
etc., etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting Messrs. Boucard. Pottier 
& Co., who having a large connection with Amateurs in all parts of the world, are able to get the very best 
prices for them. 

Messrs. Boucard, Pottier & Co. beg to advise Directors of Museums and private Amateurs that they 
undertake to stuff from a Humming Bird to a Whale at very reasonable prices. Only experienced and 
scientific Taxidermists are employed by the hour for that work, which will always be of the best class. 

An inspection of their Galleries, where a large number of specimens are always on show, is solicited. 

Special fabrication of Ma.mma.ls and Birds Eyes at wholesale prices which defy all competition, either 
as quality or price. See special Advertisement. 

New Stands for Birds, suitable for Museums and Scientific Institutions. No one should be without 
them. The appearance of the Birds on these stands is unequalled, and everyone should adopt them and 
renovate the old ones. See Advertisement. 



TO PLUMASSIERS AND FEATHER MERCHANTS. 



Lots of PLUMES and BIRD SKINS, consigned to the Naturalist's Agency Office and for sale. 

ALL THE SKINS ARE OF FIRST QUALITY. 



1 Lot of 12 Eifle Birds from Australia (magnificent skins) 

Price £13 4 

,, „ 12 Regent Birds (very fine skins). ... £4 

„ „ 50 Mock Regents £6 

,, „ 60 Sterna minuta £7 

„ ,, 50 Sterna various £4 

„ ,, 50 Fire back Pheasants £5 

„ „ 10 Red and Black Argus £4 



6 oz. Long Osprey £9 

20 skins Short Osprey, selected £8 

20 Red Osprey, flat skins £3 

20 Long Tailed Trojans £20 

20 ditto from Columbia (splendid skins) ... £8 

50 Cock of Rock. 1st choice £10 

20 Red Paradise birds, sound skins ... £10 

100 Rollers, flat skins £4 

100 King Fishers £6 

100 Sea Snipes, various, fine skins ... £4 

50 Sea Gulls £3 

2 Golden Turkey, fine skins £6 

10 Goura Pidgeon from N. Guinea ... £6 

50 Wild Pidgeons £4 

20 Small Bustard £4 

25 African Red Partridge £2 

50 Californian Quails £3 

20 Mandarin Ducks £4 

50 Hawks, various £5 

50 Large Owls £6 

50 Owls, medium £2 

50 Scops £6 

20 Barn Owls £8 

50 Parrots, various ... £4 

50 Grey King Fishers £6 

50 Mexican Jays, new to Plumassiers ... £8 

25 Mexican Wood Peckers £2 10 

50 Golden Oriole £4 

50 Shrikes £2 10 



1 lot de 12 Paradis gorge d'acier de l'Australie (peaux splen- 

dides Prix 330 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 12 Régents d'Australie, très belles peaux ... 100 fr. 

1 ,, „ 50 Faux Régents 150 fr. 

1 ,, „ 60 Sterna minuta 175 fr. 

1 „ ,, 50 Sternes variées 100 fr. 

1 „ ,, 50 Ithagines 125 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 10 Argus satyres à ventre rouge et à ventie 

noir 100 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 6 oz. Aigrette longue 225 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 20 Peaux Aigrette crosse, 1ère qualité ... 200 fr. 

1 „ „ 20 Aigrette rouge, peaux plates 75 fr. 

1 „ ,, 20 Couroucous à longue queue 500 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 20 ditto de la Colombie, peaux de 1er choix 

et bien préparées ... 200 fr. 

1 „ „ 50 Coqs de roche, 1er choix 250 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 20 Paradis rouge, peaux 1 ondes 250 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 100 Rolliers, peaux plates ... ... ... 100 fr. 

1 „ ,, 100 Martins pécheurs, peaux plates 150 fr. 

1 ,, „ 100 Bécassines Pluviers, etc., belles peaux... 100 fr. 

1 ,. „ 50 Goélands et Mouettes ... 75 fr. 

1 „ ,, 2 Dindons ocellés, belles peaux ... ... 150 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 10 Pigeons Goura de la N. Guinée ... ... 150 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Pigeons sauvages 100 fr. 

1 „ „ 20 Petites Outardes 100 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 25 Perdrix d'Afrique 50 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Colins de la Californie 75 fr. 

1 „ ,, 20 Canards mandarins ... ... ... 100 fr. 

1 ,, „ 50 Oiseaux de proie, divers 125 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Grandes Chouettes ... ... ... 150 fr. 

1 „ ,, 50 (. houettes moyennes 50 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Chouettes Scops ... 150 fr. 

1 „ „ 20 Chouettes Effraies 200 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Perruches diverses... 100 fr. 

1 „ ,, 50 Martin Pécheurs gris ... ... ... 150 fr. 

1 ,, „ 50 Geais du Mexique (nouveauté) 200 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 25 Pics à Baguettes 62 fr. 50 c. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Orioles, dorés 100 fr. 

1 „ 



50 Pie Grièches 



62 fr. 50 c. 



VI 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[January i, 1891 



Lot of 100 Hoopooes Price £6 

„ „ 50 Wax Wings £3 

., „ 50 African Humming £2 

„ „ 100 Blue Creepers £5 

,, „ 50 Green Creepers £2 

„ ,, 50 Bed Tanagers ... " £2 10 

„ „ 100 Yellow and Black Tanagers £4 

„ ,, 50 Five Coloured Tanagers £4 

„ ,, 100 Tanagers, various £2 

„ „ 50 Mexican Starlings £5 

„ „ 100 European Starlings £2 

„ „ 25 Blue Jays £2 

„ „ 50 Alpine Crows £4 

„ „ 50 Metallic Starlings £4 

„ ,, 50 Large New Guinea Pitta £8 

„ „ 25 Boyal Fly Catchers £5 

„ „ 50 Fly Catchers, various £2 

„ „ 50 Yellow-Headed Manakins £15 

„ „ 50 Bed and Black ditto £15 

„ .., 20 Goat Suckers £2 

„ „ 100 Swallows £4 

„ ,, 10 Bower birds £2 10 

„ „ 100 Green Humming, all males £2 10 

„ „ 100 Améthyste Humming ... £4 

,, „ 100 Large Humming £2 10 

„ „ 50 Buby Topaz Humming £2 10 

,, „ 25 Long Blue Tail Humming £5 

„ „ 10 Fire Tail Humming £12 

„ ,, 50 Long Tail Humming, various £4 



1 lot de 100 Huppes Prix 150 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Jaseurs • 75 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Sui manga 50 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 100 Guit guits à tête bleue 125 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Guit guits verts 50 fr. 

1 ,, „ 50 Tangaras rouges 62 fr. 50 c. 

1 „ ,, 100 Tangaras noirs et jaunes 100 fr. 

1 ,, „ 50 Tangaras, quinticolor 100 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 100 Tangaras divers 50 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Etourneaux du Mexique 125 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 100 Sansonnets 50 fr. 

1 ,. ,, 25 Geais 50 fr. 

1 ,, „ 50 Corbeaux des Alpes 100 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Merles Métalliques bleus 100 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Grandes Brèves, de la N. Guinée ... 200 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 25 Gobe mouches royaux 125 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Gobe mouches divers 50 fr. 

1 ,, „ 50 Manakins à tête jaune 36 fr. 25 c. 

1 „ „ 50 Manakins à tête rouge ... ... 36 fr. 25 c. 

1 ,, ,, 20 Engoulevents 50 fr. 

1 „ „ 100 Hirondelles 100 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 10 Oiseaux satinés ... 62 fr. 50 c. 

1 ,, ,, 100 Oiseaux mouches Verts, tous mâles 62 fr. 50 c. 

1 ,, „ 100 Clarisses et Parzudaki 100 fr. 

1 „ „ 100 Grands Oiseaux mouches divers 62 fr. 50 c. 

1 „ „ 50 Bubis Topazes 62 fr. 50 c. 

V „ „ 50 Kings 125 fr. 

1 ,, „ 10 Saphos ou Queues de feu 300 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Oiseaux Mouches à longue queue ... 100 fr^ 



JUST AERIVED, DECEMBER, 1890 
1 Lot of 5 Magnificent Fire bach Pheasant ; quite new 



to Plumassiers (A Splendid Bike) Price £8 
25 Macaws, flat skins £4 



100 Hoopooes 
50 Indian Crows 



Prix £6 
£7 



ARTIFICIAL FLORISTS, JEWELLERS, 
BRIGHT INSECTS. 



etc. 



1 Lot of 25,000 Blue beetles 

1 ,, „ 25,000 Green ,, large ... . .. 

1 ,, ,, 25,000 „ „ small 

1 „ ,, 25,000 Purple „ 

1 ,, ,, 1000 Golden Phaneus 

1 „ „ 5000 May Bugs 

1 ,, ,, 1000 Golden Antichira 

1 „ ,, 1000 Large Green Buprests 

1 „ „ 1000 Golden Buprests 

1 „ ,, 500 Ocellated Buprests 

1 ,, „ 50 Diamond Beetles 

1 „ ,, 500 Brazilian Golden Cacid es 

1 „ ,, 500, Butterflies from West Africa in papers 



rice £4 








1 


... £5 








1 


... £4 








1 


... £8 








1 


... £10 








1 


... £4 








1 


... £10 








1 


... £4 








1 


... £4 








1 


... £5 








1 


... £5 








1 


... £4 








1 


srs £4 








1 



Lot de 25,000 Hoplies bleues 

,, 25,000 Grandes Chrysomèles vertes 

,, 25,000 Petites „ „ 

,, 25,000 Chrysomèles violettes 

„ 1000 Phaneus dorés 

,, 5000 Hannetons 

,, 1000 Petits Hannetons vert dorés . 

,, 1000 Grands Buprestes vert dorés 

,, 1000 Buprestes dorés 

„ 500 Buprestes ocellés 

,, 50 Chareuçons dorés 

,, 500 Cacides 

,, 500 Papillons d'Afrique 



Prix 100 fr. 

... 125 fr. 

... 100 fr. 

... 200 fr. 

... 250 fr. 

... 100 fr. 

... 250 fr. 

... 100 fr. 

... 100 fr. 

... 125 fr. 

... 125 fr. 

... 100 fr. 

... 100 fr. 



LIST 

OF THE 

PRICED UTENSILS 

NECESSABY FOB COLLECTING 

REPTILES, FISHES, INSECTS, SHELLS, etc. 



Benzine bottle 

Tin box for collecting Insects, from ... 

Bottle 

Glass tubes or phials, doz 

Digger 

Butterfly nets, from 

Sweeping and water, nets from 

Umbrella for Insects, from 

Cork in boards, per doz., from 
Pins for Insects, per thousand, from 

Pill boxes, per gross, from 

Corked boxes for Insects, from 
Wooden box same size 
Boucard's Insecticide, per oz. 

Flax, per pound 

Cotton-wadding, per sheet 

Nippers, from 

Fishing rods with accessory, from ... 

Other Utensils for collecting Mammals 
obtained at the Naturalist's Agency, 
London, W. C. 



, Bird 
225, 



s, etc. 
High 



Is. Od. 

Is. 6d. 

0s. 3d. 

Is. Od. 

2s. 6d. 

Is. 6d. 

2s. 6d. 

8s. Od. 

2s. 6d. 

Is. 6d. 

4s. Od. 

Is. 6d. 

Is. Od. 

0s. 6d. 

0s. 6d. 

0s. 6d. 

Is. 6d. 

2s. 6d. 
are to be 
Holborn, 



BOUCARD'S INSECTICIDE POWDER 

against Mites Insect larvae etc. 

Wholesale and Bétail. 

Success guaranteed 

This new Powder is of easy use, not dangerous to manipu- 
late, and a good disinfectant against Cholera mobbds and all 

Epidemic diseases. 

It destroys immediately all vermine, such as Fleas, Bugs, 
Mites, Larvîe of Dermestes, etc. 

Sixpence for a trial packet of one ounce. It lasts a long 
time, a small quantity being necessary each time. 

Trades supplied at a liberal discount. 

No House ought to be without it. 

Once tried, always used ! 



COCOA BUTTER. 

Guaranteed pure. 

Very useful to soften the skin, a preservative against 
Chaped Hands and Chilbhins and a remedy for Cuts, Burns, 
etc. etc. 

Sold in cakes, Sixpence and one shilling. 



January i, 189 1] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



VII 



TO STAMP COLLECTORS. 



FOR SALE. 
New South Wales: — 

1850, 2d., Sydney View 

,, „ ,, ,, on laid paper 

1854 — 5,6, Imperf. 8d. yellow, good margin on 3 sides, 

fair on 4th 

Canada : — 

1856, lOd. blue, fine copy 

Mauritius : — 

1848, Id. red, worn plate 

1859. 2d. blue, Greek border 

Mexico : — 

1867, Gotic surcharge, 4 real?, rose on lilac, fine copy 10s. 

8 real, black on brown, fine copy 30s. 

Natal : — 

1857 — 58, Id. buff, fair copy 18s. 

3d. pink, fair copy 15s. 

6d. green, fair copy 10s. 

New Zealand : — 

6d. brown, pelure paper 6s. 

Is. green, imperf. Wmk. N.Z 7s. 6d. 



20s. 
25s. 

25s.. 

12s. 

10s. 
15s. 



STAMPS (continued). 

South Austealia: — 

1867 — 71, 3d. Wmk. star surcharged in red fine copy 25s. 
Victoria :— 

Id. red unused 12c. 

1852, 3d. blue (Perforated) 8s. 

1862, 3d. dull lake 10s. 

Western Australia : — 

1855, Is. brown uncut 20s. 

United States : — ■ 

1869, 90 cents, red and black, fine copy 15s. 

WANTED. 

Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwards, to 
which none have been added since the last 20 years. 

Old stamps on their original letter sheet or envelope, especi- 
ally Colonials and old German states. 

Mulready Wrappers and Envelopes. 

Old unused English and Colonials. 

Old works on stamps. 

Proofs of stamps, etc. etc. 



TO BE LET 
OR SOLD. 



Several Splendid YILLAS, with Beautiful Gardées, 

at SAN REMO, the well known Winter Resort, 

40 minutes from MONTE CARLO. 

Apply at the Office of the Journal. 



TO CONCHYLIOLOGISTS. 



JUST AEEIVED. 

A large collection of Shells from Japan which are to be sold 
at very moderate prices. 

Also Shells from Central America, N. Africa, New Guinea, 
etc., etc. 

List of these will be published in successive numbers. 

FOE SALE. 

100,000 Marine, Fluviatile and Land, Shells, about 20,000 
species (collection of Mr. Boucard). It contains the celebrated 
Saunders, Layard, Walpole, and Fritsch collections and many 
others, and a very large choice of the species collected by 
Messrs. Wallace, Cuming, Brewer, French, Salle, Wallis, 
Bartlett, Chesterton, Buckley, Crossley, Duboulay, Majastre, 
Pianos, Eeed, Bebouch, Bland, Gabb, etc., etc., etc., as also all 
the Shells collected by Mr. Boucard in N. ^America, Mexico, 
Central America, Panama, etc., etc. 



TO ETHNOLOGISTS. 



TO ZOOLOGISTS. 



JUST AEEIVED. 

1 Lot of 100 Diptera from Japan Price 25s. 

1 Lot of 100 Orthoptera from Japan Price 30s. 

1 Lot of 100 Neuroptera from Japan Price 35s. 

1 Lot of 100 species of Butterflies from Japan Price 150s. 
1 Lot of 200 species of Moths from Japan Price 200s. 

1 Lot of 100 Coleoptera from Japan, including Bamaster 

Price 50s. 
Price 100s. 
Price 100s. 
Price 100s. 
Price 75s. 
Price 100s. 
Price 100s. 
Price 80s. 

bottles 
50s. 



FOE SALE. 

Twelve finely carved Arrows and 1 Bow from New Guinea 

Price 20s. 



African Rhinoceros War Club 



Price 30s. 



Three distinct Zulu War Clubs, made of iron wood and very 
nicely carved Price 30s. each. 

Pagaie from New Guinea, made of palm tree Price 30s. 

Magnificent Gold Antiquity from Manama, representing what 
appears to be Musicians, two large figures in the centre and 
six small ones round. It weighs 6 oz. 187 grammes. It is 
quite unique, and no Museum in the world possesses anything 
like it Price £50. 

A great variety of American Antiquities, chiefly from Central 
America, in hardstone, agathe, Idols, Vases, etc. from 5s. 



fortunei and other rare species 

1 Lot of 100 species of Shells 

1 Lot of 100 Crustaceœ from Japan 

1 Lot of 100 Sea Urchins from Japan 

1 Lot of 302 Coleoptera from Morocco 

1 Lot of 100 Butterflies from Guatemala 

1 Lot of 100 Butterflies from Venezuela 

1 Lot of 100 Moths from Venezuela 

1 Lot of Coleoptera in spirit from Venezuela, 10 
containing thousands of specimens. Price 

1 Lot of 100 Butterflies from West Africa in papers, Papilio, 
Charaxes, etc. Price 80s. 

1 Lot of 100 Butterflies and Moths from India, many fine 
species of Papilio etc. Price 100s. 

1 Lot of 100 Butterflies from Trinidad including a rare 
species of Morpho Price 80s. 

1 Lot of 100 Butterflies from Borneo, containing many rare 
Papilio, etc. Price 100s. 

1 Lot of 100 Coleoptera from Brazil Price 20s. 

TO MUSEUMS, ETHNOLOGISTS, etc. 



Modern pottery from Mexico and Central Amerioa 

from 6d. 
Statuettes representing the Indians of Mexico and Guatemala 

from 3s. 
Hats, Baskets, Mats and various Objects made with palm 
leaves and various textile plants, from Central America, Mada- 
gascar, New Guinea, etc. from 6d. 

Samples of Textile Fibres, Seeds, Gums, Resins, Medicinal 
Plan's, etc. from Mexico and Central America from 6d. 

Old and Modern Coins from Mexico from Is. 

Etc., etc., etc. 



vm 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[January i, 1891 



MR. ADOLPHE BOUCARD 

NATURALIST, 

Corresponding Member of the Royal Zoological Society of London, de la Commission Scientifique 

du Mexique à Paris, &c, &c. 

Now Ready, the Second Edition of 

^|m^ of pictorial Jkgrmns arib Raturai §pmmeti0, 

ILLUSTRATIVE OF 

HUMAI PHYSIOLO&Y, Z00L0G-Y, BOTANY, GEOLOGY and MINERALOGY. 

Adopted by the London School Board and all the principal Colleges of England. 

The Series contains 20 sheets, 18 in. by 24 in., comprising 166 Diagrams of Animals and Plants, 
life size, beautifully printed in colours, and 37 Natural Specimens, of Woods and Minerals, neatly 
mounted on very stout cardboard, with rings for hanging on the wall. 

The Set Complete, with Handbook, in a Strong Box, 32s., Varnished, 40s. 
Handbook separate, Price 4s., paper; 4s. 6d., cloth. \* The usual Discount to Schools and the Trade 

TO BE HAD ONLY AT 




SALE. 



Life Admission to Boyal Aquarium. 

Price 5 Guineas. 



TO BOOKSELLERS AND OTHERS. 



Boucard. Catologus Avium, English or French preface, Syste- 
matic Classification of Birds, 8s. instead of 12s. 

Catalogue of Birds, published by the British Museum. 

Vol. 1 to 6 inclusive. The first three Volumes are out of 
print. Price £10. 

Hand List of Birds, Gray, published by the British Museum. 
3 vol. 8vo. Price 25s. 

Guide pour collecter, préparer et expédier des Collections 
d'histoire naturelle. ls. 

Guia para colectar, conservar y despachar Colecciones de 
historia natural. Is. 

Petit Atlas d'Ornithologie ou Collection choisie d'Oiseaux 
les plus connus, dessinés d'après nature par Martinet, 
Paris, 1784. 
1 Vol. grand in folio, in magnificent condition. Contents : 

Epître à Buffon, Tableau général du classement des Oiseaux 

divisés d'après Buffon en neuf Ordres et cent un Genres ou 

Familles. 150 splendid coloured plates par Martinet. Exceed- 
ingly rare. £50. 

America, by John Ogilby Esq., London, 1671. Grand in folio, 
675 pages, 121 splendid Engravings and Maps. £30. 

Historia de la Conquista de Mexico, etc., by Don Antonio Solis, 
Brusselas, 1741. 

1 Vol. in folio, 276 pages, 13 Engravings and Maps. Pages 
1 to 9 slightly stained. £20. 

Historia General de las Cosas de Nueva Espana, by Bev. 
Bernardino de Sahagun, con notas y suplementos, por 
Carlos Maria de Bustamante, Mexico, 1829. 4 vols, in 
4to., uncut. £5. 

Historia de las Conquistas de Hernando Cortez, por Francisco 
Lopez de Gomara, con varias notas y addiciones, por Carlos 
Maria de Bustamante, Mexico, 1826. 1 vol. in 4to, 315 pp. 

£2. 

Tezcoco en los ultimos tiempos de sus antlguos Reyes. 
Tomada de los manuscritos ineditos de Boturini y redac- 
tados por el Lie. Mariano Veytia, Mexico, 1826. 1 vol- 
16mo, 276 pages. £2. 

Catecismo y Declaracion de la Doctrina Christiana en lengua 
OTOMI, con un Vocabulario del mismo idioma, por el 
B. P. Joaquin Lopez Yepes, Mexico, 1826. 1 Vol. in 4to, 
254 pages. £4. 



D. R. Kampuysens Stichtelyke Rymen, by M. Mathieu, Bot- 
terdam, 1688. 1 Vol. in 8vo., 680 pages. £2. 

Clara y Sucinta Exposicion del pequeno Catecismo impreso 
en el idioma MEXICANO, por un Sacerdote devoto de la 
Madré santissima de la Luz, etc. 

Puebla, 1819. 1 Vol., 67 double pages, one side in Mexican, 
the other in Spanish. £2 10 

Various Calendarios Mexicanos, 1830 to 1860. 2s. each. 

STANDS, NBW STYLE. 

Wholesale Pria. 
No. 1 for Humming birds and Small birds at 20s. per hundred 
,, 2 ,, Small birds up to Tanagers at 24s. „ 

,, 3 ,, Tanagers up to Magpies at 28s. „ 

„ é „ Magpies up to Crows or Small 

Hawks at 32s. „ 

,, 5 „ Small Hawks to Large Hawks 

and Owls at 40s. ,, 

ARTIFICIAL EÏES. 



Wholesale Price. 
Black Coloured Cornered 



No. 1 to 4 
,, 5 ,, 8 
„ 9 „ 10 
„ H 
„ 12 
„ 13 

„ 14 
„ 15 
„ 16 
„ 17 
18 



per gross 



6d. 

8d. 

ls. Od. 
2s. Od. 
2s. 3d. 
2s. 6d. 



ls. 6d. 
2s. 6d. 
4s. Od. 
5s. 6d. 
7s. Od. 
10s. Od. 



No 



doz. of pairs 



3s. Od. 
3s. 6d. 
4s. Od. 
8s. Od. 
12s. Od. 



ls. 6d. 
2s. 6d. 
2s. 6d. 
3s. Od. 
4s. Od. 



per doe. pairs 
4 to 6 3s. 6d. 
7 „ 8 6s. Od. 

6s. Od. 

7s. Od. 

8s. Od. 

9s. Od. 



9 

10 
11 
12 



Cornered 
& Veined 
per doe. pairs 
4s. 6d. 
Od. 
Od. 
Od. 
Od. 
Od. 



6s. 
8s- 



10s. 
lis. 



13 
14 
15 



10s. Od. 
lis. Od. 
13s- Od. 



12s. Od. 
13s. Od. 
15s. Od. 



Larger sizes can be made 
to order. 



Nr. 1 to 4 are good for ihumming birds and others up to 
the size of Tanagers. 
No. 5 to 8 Tanagers to' Magpies. 
No. 9 to 10 Magpies to Gulls. 
No. 11 to 12 Pheasants, etc. 
No. 13 to 18 Hawks, Owls, Herons, etc. 



LONDON : Published by A. BOUCARD, at 225, High Holborn, W.C. : and Printed at J. S. LKVIN'3 Steam Printing Works, 74, Leodenhall Street, B.C. 

January 1, 1891. 




Œbe 





Mïb 



A MONTHLY SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC, AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW. 



GUARANTEED CIRCULATION, 5000. 



VOL I., NO. 2. 



February 1, 1891. 



PRICE SIXPENCE. 



Annual Subscription: United Kingdom, Post free, 4 shillings ; all countries included in the Postal Union, 5 shillings. 

All other countries, 6 shillings. 




Q<SuCfX\*/X, jb^MA^COUU^ 



EDITED UNDER THE DIRECTION 

OF 

MR. ADOLPHE BOUCARD, 

NATURALIST, 

Officier d'Académie, 1878; Knight of the Royal Military Order of the Conception, 1881 ; 
Knight Officer of the Royal Order of Cambodje, 1889; Knight Commander of the Royal Order of Isabelle la Catholique, 1882; 

Corresponding Member of the Zoological Society, London, 1865; 

de la Mission scientifique française au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale, 1866; of the Royal Museum of Madrid, 1881; 

Commissioner for the Republic of Guatemala in the Paris International Exhibitions of 1878 and 1889 ; 

Member of the International Jury, Paris, 1889 ; Member of many scientific societies; 

etc. etc. etc. etc. 



CONTENTS OF No. 2.-FEBRUARY 1, 1891. 



What is to be seen everywhere in London. 
The Panama Canal. 

The Museum of la Plata and my Idea of a Typical 
and Practical Museum of Natural History. 



An easy way of making ^100 a y^ar. 

Report on the last Public Sales of Feathers 

and Bird Skins. 
Report on December and January Public Sales 

of Postage Stamps. 





K 



[Entered at Stationers' Hall.] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



\February i, 1891 



Change of Address: 



ITATTJBALIST 

225, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON W.C., ENGLAND, 

A. BOUCARD begs to inform his numerous Friends and Correspondents that he has removed his business 
from Paris to London at the above address, in the most central part of the English Capital, where in future 
all letters and parcels are to be addressed. 

A. Boucard having now in stock about 40,000 Mammal and Bird Skins, 100,000 Insects of all 
Orders, 100,000 Marine, Fluvial, and Land Shells, Crustacean, Reptiles and Fishes, Ethnological Collec- 
tions and Curios from New Guinea, Madagascar, Central and South America, and West Africa is able to 
supply all Orders. 

Museums, Scientific Societies and Amateurs are requested to send their lists of Desiderata in every 
branch of Natural History which will be attended to as usual with care and alacrity. 

From his Correspondents in all parts of the world he is able to procure nearly everything which can 
be desired. 

All modern Books on Natural History, and Materials of all descriptions for Naturalists can be 
supplied immediately at publishing or trade prices. 



LIST OF HUMMING BIRDS FOR SALE. 



TKOCHILID.E, Vig. 1825. 

1. Grypus nœvius, Dum. 

2. Eutoxerea condaminei, B. 

3. — aquila, Bourc... 

4. — salvini, Gould. 

5. — heterurus 

6. Glaucis hirsutus, Gm. 

7. — alfinis, Lawr. 

8. Threnetes ruckeri, Bourc. 

9. — cervinicauda, G. 

10. — antonise, Bourc. 

11. Phœthornis superciliosus, L. 

12. — longirostris, L. D. 

13. — syrmatophorus, 

14. — eurynome, L. 

15. — squalidus, Tem. 

16. — antophilus, B. 

17. — augusti, Bourc. 

18. — pretrii, L. Del. 

19. — yaruqui, Bourc. 

20. — guyi, Less. ... 

21. — emiliœ, Bourc. 

22. Pygmornis longuemareusL., 

23. — adolphi, Gould. 

24. — griseigularis, G. 

25. — striigularis, Gould 

26. — pygmfflus, Spix. 

27. Eupetomena macrura, Gm. 

28. Sphenoprootus pampa, Less. 

29. — curvipennis 

30. Oampylopterus lazulus, V. 

31. — hemileucurus 

32. — ensipennis, £ 

33. — largipennis. 

34. — œquatorialis. 

35. — hyperithrus. 

36. — rufus, L.... 

37. Phseochroa cuvieri, Del. ... 

38. Aphantochroa cirrochloris. 

39. Eugenes fulgens, Sw. 

40. Cœligena clemenciœ, L. ... 

41. Lamprolsema rhami, Less. 

42. Delattria henrici, Less. ... 

43. — viridipallens 

44. Oreopyra leucaspis, Gould. 

45. — calolœma, Salv. 



s. 

5 

40 

8 

16 

16 

2 

3 

16 

10 

20 

4 

3 

15 

2 

4 

2 

10 

5 

5 

4 

4 

10 
5 
3 
3 
3 
3 
4 
12 
2 
4 
3 

10 

10 

50 

20 

20 

4 

4 

4 

6 

12 

5 

30 

26 



46. Lampornis violicauda, Bodd. 1 

47. — prevosti, Less. 

48. — veraguensis, G. 

49. — gramineus, Gm. 

50. — aurulentus, Vieill. 

51. — mango, Lin. ... 

52. Chalybura buffoni, Less. ... 

53. — cœruleiventris, B. 

54. — isaurae, Gould. 

55. Aithurus polytmus, Lin. ... 

56. Topaza pella, Lin 

57. — pyra, Gould 

58. Eulampis jugularis, Lin. ... 

59. — holosericeus, Lin. 

60. — chlorol^emus. ... 

61. Iolœma schreibersi, Bourc. 

62. Oreotrochilus chimborazo, B. 

63. — pichinchœ, B. 

64. — estellae, Laf. 

65. — leucopleurus. 

66. Lafresnaya flavicaudata, F. 

67. — gayi, Bourc. ... 

68. Petasophora serrirostris, V. 

69. — anais, Less. ... 

70. ■ — iolata, Gould. 

71. — thalassina, Sw. 

72. — cyanotis, Bourc. 

73. — delphinœ, L.... 

74. — cabanisi, Law. 

75. Heliodoxa jacula, Gould.... 

76. — jamesoni, Bourc. 

77. — otero, Tsch. ... 

78. — splendens, Gould 

79. — leadbeateri, B.... 

80. Phseolaema rubinoides, Bourc. 

81. — œquatorialis, G. 

82. Eugenia imperatrix, Gould. 

83. Clytolaema aurescens, G. ... 

84. — rubinea, Gould. 

85. Panoplites jardinei, Bourc. 

86. — flavescens, B. ... 

87. — mathewsit, B. ... 

88. Florisuga mellivora, Lin.... 

89. — fusca, Vieill. ... 

90. Heliothrix auritus, Gm. ... 

91. — auriculatus, N. 



s. 




... 2 


92. 


... 8 


93. 


... 20 


94. 


... 3 


95. 


... 20 


96. 


... 2 


97. 


... 2 


98. 


... 5 


99. 


... 40 


100. 


... 10 


101. 


... 20 


102. 


... 200 


103. 


... 4 


104. 


... 4 


105. 


... 30 


106. 


... 20 


107. 


... 10 


108. 


... 5 


109. 


... 100 


110. 


... 10 


111. 


... 2 


112. 


... 10 


113. 


... 3 


114. 


... 2 


115. 


... 3 


116. 


... 3 


117. 


... 2 


118. 


... 3 


119. 


... 4 


120. 


... 10 


121. 


... 20 


122. 


... 16 


123. 


... 20 


124. 


... 3 


125. 


... 3 


126. 


... 6 


127. 


... 100 


128. 


... 30 


129. 


... 3 


130. 


... 20 


131. 


... 3 


132. 


... 20 


133. 


... 2 


134. 


... 3 


135. 


... 5 


136. 


... 5 


137. 



Heliothrix barroti, Bourc. 
Eustephanus galeritus, M. 

— fernandensis, K 
Chrysolampis moschitus, L. 
Avocettinus eurypterus, L. 
Heliomaster longirostris, V. 

— stuartas, Law. 

— constanti, Del. 
Lepidolarynx mesoleucus, T. 
Calliperidia f urcifer, Shaw. 
Docimastes ensifer, Boiss. 
Patagona gigas, Vieill. 
Pterophanes temminckii, B. 
Helianthea bonapartei, B. 

— typica, Bp. 

Calligenia lutetiœ, Del. ... 
Diphlogœna, iris, Gould. ... 

— hesperus, G. 
Bourcieria torquata, Boiss. 

fuligidula, Gould. 

— conradi, Bourc. 

— inca, Gould. ... 
Eudosia prunelli, Bourc. ... 

— wilsoni, Del. 
Lampropygia cœligena, L. 
Heliotrypha viola, Gould. 

— parzudaki, L. 
Heliangelus Clarissas, Long. 

— micraster, G. 

— strophianus, G. 
spencii, Bourc. 

— amethysticollis. 
Eriocnemis vestita, Longue. 

— smaragdinipectus 

— nigrivestis, B. 
.^Nunia cupreiventris, Fraser. 

— luciani, Bourc. 
Threptria aurelia?, Bourc. 

— russata, Gould. 

— lugens, Gould 

— derbiana, Del. ... 
Engyete alinas, Bourc. 
Aglœactis cupreipennis, B. 

— pamela, Laf. 

— acquatorialis, G. 
Hylonympha macroura. G. 



30 
2 

10 
3 

4 

20 

4 

20 

4 

10 

10 

4 

3 

10 

100 

100 

2 

4 

20 

100 

5 

10 

10 

20 

2 

2 

100 

8 

60 

100 

2 

40 

40 

2 

3 

2 

8 

20 

60 

3 

3 

60 

5 

50 



February i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



iil 



LIST OF HUMMING BIKDS FOR SALE— continued. 



138. Thalurania glaucopia, Gin. ... 

139. — colombica, B. 

140. — venusta, 

141. — furcata, Gm 

142. — farcatoides, G. 

143. — nigrifasciata, G. ... 

144. — refulgens, G 

145. — ■ verticeps, G 

146. — wagleri, L 

147. Hemistephania johannaa, B. ... 

148. — ludoviciœ, B. ... 

149. — rectirostris. 

150. Augaetes lumachellus, L 

151. — superbus, Vieill. 

152. Schistes geoffroji, Bourc. 

153. Urosticte benjamini, B 

154. Urolampra asneicauda, G. 

155. Metallura tyrianthina, B. 

156. — smaragdinicollis, 

157. — quitensis, Gould. ... 

158. Adelomya inornata, G 

159. — melanogenys, F. 

160. Bamphomicron microrhjnchus. 

161. — stanleyi, B. ... 

162. — heterepogon. ... 

163. Eupogonus herrani, Del 

164. — ruficeps, G 

165. Oxypogon guerini, Boiss. 

166. — lindeni, Parz 

167. Cephalepis delalandii, Vieil.... 

168. — loddigesi, G. 

169. Orthorhynchus cristatus. 

170. — exilis, Gm. ... 

171. — ornatus 

172. Klais guimeti, Bourc 

173. — merriti, Law 

174. Daucis abeillei, Del 

175. Microchera albo-coronata. 

176. — ■ parvirostris, L. ... 

177. Telamon delattrei, L 

178. — regulus, Gould 

179. — reginaa, Schreib. 

180. Paphiosa helense, Del 

181. Lophornis magnificus, V. 

182. — ornatus, L 

183. Polemistria chalybea, V 

184. — verreauxi, B. 

185. Gouldia langsdorffi, Vieill. ... 

186. — melanosternon, G. ... 

187. — conversi, Bourc 

188. Prymnacantha popelairii. 

189. Tilmatura duponti, Less 

190. Discura longicauda.Gm 

191. Steganura underwoodi, L. 

192. ■ — ■ melananthera, J. ... 

193. Cynanthus cyanurus, S 

194. — cœlestis, G 

195. — mocoa, Del 

196. — boliviana, G 

197. Sapho sparganurus, Shaw. 

198. — phaon, Gould 

199. Lesbia nuna, Less 

200. — amaryllis, Bourc 



.1. 






s. 




2 


201. 


Lesbia victorias, Bourc. ... 


... 6 


264. 


2 


202. 


— gouldi, Bourc. 


... 4 


265. 


4 


203. 


Heliactin cornuta, Max. ... 


... 20 


266. 


4 


204. 


Thaumastura cora, Less.... 


... 20 


267. 


8 


205. 


Khodopia vesper, Less. ... 


... 30 


268. 


6 


206. 


Amalasia henicura, V. 


... 6 


269. 


6 


207. 


— elisaa, Less. 


... 60 


270. 


15 


208. 


Doricha evelynse, Bourc. ... 


... 60 


271. 


50 


209. 


— bryantha?, Law. ... 


... 20 


272. 


20 


210. 


Calothorax lucifer, Sw. ... 


... 4 


273. 


5 


211. 


— pulcher, G. ... 


... 30 


274. 


20 


212. 


Calliphlox amethystinus, G. 


... 4 


275. 


40 


213. 


— mitchelli, B. ... 


... 30 


276. 


40 


214. 


Trochilus colubris, Lin. ... 


• 2 


277. 


8 


215. 


— alexandri. B. ... 


..'. 20 


278. 


12 


216. 


Calypte eostaa, Bourc. 


... 40 


279. 


50 


217. 


— annaa, Less 


... 6 


280. 


2 


218. 


Stellura calliope, Gould. ... 


... 20 


281. 


16 


219. 


Atthis heloisœ, Less 


... 16 


282. 


4 


220. 


— elliotti, Bidgw. 


... 12 


283. 


30 


221. 


Selasphorus henshawi, B... 


... 10 


284. 


2 


222. 


— rufus, Gm. ... 


... 5 


285. 


3 


223. 


— • scintilla, G. ... 


... 50 


286. 


10 


224, 


— platycercus, Sw. 


... 4 


287. 


4 


225. 


— flammula, S. 


... 40 


288. 


10 


226. 


Myrtis fanny, Less 


... 8 


289. 


•60 


227. 


Acestrura mulsanti, B. ... 


... 3 


290. 


4 


228. 


— heliodori, B. ... 


... 2 


291. 


20 


229. 


Chaetocercus jourdani. B.... 


... 40 


292. 


4 


230. 


— ■ rosaa, Bouic ... 


... 20 


293. 


50 


231. 


— bombus, G. ... 


... 100 


294. 


10 


232. 


Mellisuga minima, Lin. ... 


... 10 


295. 


10 


233. 


Phœoptila sordida, G. 


... 20 


296. 


10 


234. 


Cyanomya quadricolor, V. 


... 10 


297. 


10 


235. 


— violiceps, G. ... 


... 20 


298. 


10 


236. 


— cyanocephala, L. 


... 10 


299. 


5 


237. 


— franciœ, Bourc. 


... 2 


300. 


100 


238. 


— ■ guatemalensis... 


... 4 


301. 


100 


239. 


Thaumatias candidus, B.... 


... 3 


302. 


10 


240. 


— niveipectus, C. 


... 4 




20 


241. 


— viridiceps, G... 


... 12 


303. 


50 


242. 


— brevirostris, L. 


... 3 


304. 


10 


243. 


— albiventris, L. 


... 5 


305. 


10 


244. 


— ■ linnaai. Bp. ... 


... 3 




6 


245. 


fiuviatilis, G... 


... 20 


306. 


40 


246. 


Thaumatias maculicauda, G. 


... 6 




20 


247. 


— chionurus, G... 


... 12 


307. 


20 


248. 


— cupreiceps, L. 


... 20 


308. 


20 


249. 


— nigriventris, L. 


... 30 


309. 


6 


250. 


— • leucogaster, G. 


... 8 




20 


251. 


Leucochloris albicollis, V. 


... 4 


310. 


10 


252. 


Eupherusa eximia, Del. ... 


... 3 




16 


253. 


— egregia, Sc. ... 


... 16 


311. 


3 


254. 


Chrysobronchus virescens. 


... 3 




10 


255. 


— viridissimus. 


... 6 


312. 


5 


256. 


Amazilia cinnamomea, L... 


... 15 


313. 


8 


257. 


— dumerilii, L. ... 


... 20 


314. 


20 


258. 


— leucopbaaa, R. ... 


... 20 


315. 


50 


259. 


— ■ yucatanensis, C. 


... 40 




60 


260. 


Pyrrhophœna beryllina, L. 


... 5 


316. 


40 


261. 


— devillei, B. ... 


... 4 


317. 


40 


262. 


— riefferi, B. ... 


... 2 


318. 


4 


263. 


— viridiventris, R. 


5 


319. 



Saucerottia erythronota, L. ... 

— feliciœ, Less 

— edwardi, Del 

— niveiventris, G. ... 

— cyaneifrons, B. 
— ■ warzeviezi, Cab. ... 

— sophiaa, Bouré. 
Heliopsedica melanotis, Sw. ... 
Chrysuronia œnone, Less. 

— josephinœ, B. 

— eliciaa, B 

— ■ chrysura, L 

Hylocharis sapphirina, Gm. ... 

— ■ cyanea, Vieill 

Panterpe insignis, Cab 

Eucephala grayi, Del 

— cœrulea, Vieill. 

Circe latirostris, Sw 

Damophila amabilis, G 

Julyamia juliaa, Bourc 

— feliciana, Less 

Sapphironia goudoti, Bourc. ... 

— cœruleogularis. ... 
Sporadinus ricordi, d'Orb. 
Chlorolampis canniveti, L. 

— salvini, G 

Chlorostilbon melanorhynchus.. 

— hffiberlini, B. 

— nitens, Law. 

— angustipennis. ... 
Chrysomirus atala, Less 

— prasinus, Less. ... 

— igneus, Gould. ... 
aureiventris, L. ... 

Panichlora aliciaj, Bourc 

— poovtmanni. B. 

— stenura, Cab 

Phaethornis consobrinus, Bourc. 
Campylopterus phainopeplus, 

Salv 

Lampornis dominicus 

Lophornis pavoninus, Salv. ... 
Cynanthus cyanurus, Var with 

greentail 

Cynanthus mocoa, Var smarag- 

dinus 

Thaumatias nigricauda, Elliott. 
Pyrrhophaana cupreicauda, Salv. 
Saucerottia erythronota, Var 

maculicauda 

Chrysuronia œnone, Var longi- 

rostris Berlepsch 

Hylocharis cyanea vhidiventiis, 

Berlepsch 

Chrysomirus daphne 

— comptus, Berlepsch 

— assimilis, Lawr. ... 
Panychlorapoortmannieuchloris, 

Berl 

Hylocharis lactea, Less 

Thalurania eiiphile, Less 

Nunia mosquera, Bourc 

Adelomya maculata 



2 

8 

20 

20 

2 

5 

16 

5 

3 

20 

6 

40 

4 

4 

50 

6 

2 

20 

5 

3 

3 

2 

16 

30 

10 

10 

8 

3 

3 

4 

10 

10 

5 

20 

8 

2 

10 

10 

80 

25 

100 

16 

20 
20 
20 

8 



10 
10 
10 
10 

5 
40 
50 
50 
10 



TO ZOOLOGISTS. 



FOR SALE. 

One Specimen of the Giant Salamander, from Japan (in 
spirit). Price £8. 

One Female Specimen of Troglodytes Nige, skin and skeleton. 

Price £8. 

One pair of the rare Cervidae, Ternazate, from Central 
America. Cariacus rufnus, Br. Price £10. 



WANTED. 

Egg of Alca Jnipennis. 

Fine pair, male and female, Ornithoptera Victoriae, Orni- 
thoptera Durvillei. 
Fine specimen of Morpho cisseis. 
Several specimens of Acherontia Styx, Satanas, medusa, etc. 



IV 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[February i, 1891. 



TO ORNITHOLOGISTS. 



FOR SALE. 

Fine mounted specimen of Alca impennis, the Or eat Awh 1 
(extinct species). Pedigree from the date of capture, 1836, to 
this date, will be given to buyer. 

Fine male specimen of the exceedingly rare new genus of 
bird Roinliardtia ocellata Bp., the greatest discovery of the 
century. Price £50 

Fine male specimen of the beautiful bird Calyptomena 
Whiteheadi, n. sp., the second species known of this rare 
genus, four times larger and more beautiful than C. Viridis. 

Fine pair, male and female, of the rare Paradise bird. 
Semioptera Wallacei. . Price £4. 

Fine pair of the magnificent bird of Paradise, Astrapia 
nigra. Price £6. 

Pair of Epimachus maximus. Price £5. 

Pair of Paradisea raggiana. Price £5. 

Pair of Pa-rotia sextacea. Price £6. 

Pair of Paradisea rubra. Price £2 10s. 

Pair of Schlegelia willsoni (Dyphillodes republica). 

Price £4. 

Pair of Lophorina afro.. 

Pair of Ptilornis paradisea. 

Pair of Craspedophora magnifica 

Pair of Seleucides albus. 

Pair of Paradigalla carunculata. 

One specimen of Casuarius edwardi 

One specimen of Aptéryx Oweni. 

One specimen of Aptéryx maxima. 

One Pair of Meleagris ocellata. 

One specimen of Chauna chavaria. 

Ditto ditto stuffed 

One specimen of Oreophasis derbianus 

Ditto ditto stuffed 

One specimen of Argus giganteus, stuffed 

One specimen of Argus grayi. 

One stuffed specimen of Chrysolophus amherstiae. 

Price £6. 

One male specimen of Otidiphaps nobilis. 

One specimen of Hypoleueus carunculatus. 

One specimen of Strigops habroptilus. 

One pair of Pharomaerus mocina. 

One pair of Pharomaerus costaricensis. 

One pair of Xanthomelus aureus. 

One pair of Sericulus melinus. 

One pair of Heteralocha gouldi, female 



TO ENTOMOLOGISTS. 



Price £4. 
Price £2 10s. 
Price £2 10s. 
Price £4 10s. 

Price £5. 

Price £10. 

Price £1 10s. 

Price £8. 

Price £6. 

Price £8. 
Price £10. 

Price £8. 
Price £10. 

Price £5. 

Price £6. 



Price £2 10s. 

Price £4. 

Price £1 10s. 

Price £2. 

Price £2. 

Price £10. 

Price £1. 

very rare. 



Price £2 10s. 
By pair it means one male and one female. 

WANTED. 



Specimens of : — 
Fregilupus varius Bodd. 
Camptolainus labradorius. 
Chrysolophus pictus L. Gmel. 
Chrysolophus amherstiae 

Leadb. 
Pterocnemia darwini Gould 
Dromaius novœ hollandiaa 
Sypheotides macqueeni Gr. 
Cariama cristata L. 
Chunga burmeisteri Hartl. 
Palamedea cornuta L. 
Ischyornis derbiana Gr. 
Aburria carunculata Tem. 
Leipoa ocellata Gould 
Polyplectron, all the species 

except hardwioki 



Lobiophasis bulweri Sharpe 
Alectrophasis cuvieri Tem. 
Gennaeus nycthemerus L. 
Grammatoptilus lineatus 

Lath. 
Hierophasis swinhoei Gould 
Diardigallus diardi Tem. 
Lophophorus lhuysii Verr. 
Calcophasis sclateri Ierd. 
Gallus sonnerati Tem. 
Creagrius varius Shaw 
Sarkidiornis asgyptiaca Gmel. 
Ara ararauna L. 
Ara militaris L. 
Ara hyacinthinus Lath. 
Cotinga amabilis Gould 
Cotinga cayana L. 



FOR SALE. 

One very fine pair, male and female, of Morpho Oodarti 

Price £10. 
One fine male specimen of the same species. Price £2 10s. 
Ditto medium. Price £1. 

One fine pair, male and female of Ornithoptera pegasus. 

Price £2 10s. 
Ditto medium. £1 10s. 

Ornithoptera brooMana. 30s. 

Pair of Ooliathus Druryi, very large and very fine. Price £4. 
Pair of Golia,thus cacicus, very fine. £1. 



Dicranocephalusbowring 


i20s. 


Carabus speciosus 


12s. 


Ceratorhina morgani 


20s. 


— mochcae 


40s. 


— hornimani 


10s. 


— bomplandi 


8s. 


Heterorhina imperialis 


10s. 


— robustus 


8s. 


Lomaptera albertisi 


10s. 


— tuberculosns 


8s. 


ignipennis 


10s. 


— riffensis 


8s. 


Steraspis herculana 


10s. 


— aumonti 


8s. 


Sternocera pulchra 


10s. 


Damaster blaptoides 


20s. 


Catoxantha gigantea 


10s. 


— fortunei 


12s. 


— eduardsi 


10s. 


Haplothorax burchelli 


20s. 


Psiloptera principalis 


10s- 


Cychrus angusticollis 


4s. 


Taphrosoma dohrni 


10s. 


— elevatus 


8s. 


Cyphus germari 2s. 6d. 


— ventricosus 


2s. 


— augustus 2s. 6d. 


— alternatus 


2s. 


— nigropunctatus Is. 6d. 


— • punctatus 


4s. 


Eupholus magnificus 


3s. 


Mormolyce phyllodes 


10s. 


Psalidognatus boucardi 


16s. 


hagenbachi 


20s. 


— erythrocerus 


16s. 


— eastelnaudi 


25s. 


Hippocephalus armatus 


30s. 


Chiasognathus granti 


10s. 


Derobrachus inasqualis 


10s. 


— peruvianus 


40s. 


— brevicollis 


10s. 


— gaujoni 


50s. 


Aulacocerus mundus 


10s. 


— feisthameli 


30s. 


Mallaspis rhomboderi 


4s. 


— buckleyi 


30s. 


— belti 


10s. 


Macronoxia crinita 


5s. 


— xanthaspis 


10s. 


Euchirus longimanus 


20s. 


— leucaspis 


6s. 


Pelidno'ta burmeisteri 


16s. 


Pyrodes pulcherrimus 


10s. 


Proculus goryi 


30s. 


Calocomus desmaresti 


16s. 


— mniszecki 


10s. 


Elateropsis lineata 


8s. 


— opacipennis 


5s. 


Crioprosopus splendens 


10s. 


Plusiotis resplendens 


20s. 


— tricolor 


10s. 


— batesi 


30s. 


Batocera victoriana 


20s. 


Chrysophora chrysochlora 4s. 


— celebiana 


16s. 


Chrysina mniszecki 


16s. 


— gigas 


20s. 


— adolphi 


16s. 


— wallacei 


20s. 


Anoplognathus grayi 


20s. 


Sagra buqueti 


4s. 


— mastersi 


10s. 


Amblycbila cylindriformis 


— n. sp. 


12s. 




10s. 


Golofa imperator 


5s. 


Omus Dejeani 


20s. 


Dynastes hercules 


16s. 


— audouini 


8s. 


Chalcosoma hesperus 


20s. 


Oxygonia floridula 


16s. 


Mesgasoma thersites 


10s. 


— gloriola 


12s. 


Aegopsis curvicornis 


8s. 


— buckleyi 


12s. 


Lycomedes reichei 


20s. 


— moronensis 


8s. 


Prionocalus cacicus 


60s. 


Carabus valdiviae 


8s. 


— atys 


60s. 


— buqueti 


8s. 


Ancisthrosoma buckleyi 


4s. 


— sybarita 


8s. 


— rufipes 


3s. 


— elegantissimus 


12s. 


Mitrocephala humboldti 


20s. 


— castroensis 


12s. 


Tetracha klugi 


5s. 


— subnitens 


12s. 


— bifasciata 


5s. 


— andestus 


12s. 


— laminata 


5s. 


— inexpeetatus 


16s. 


Catoxantha eburnea 


20s. 


— gloriosus 


10s, 


— opulenta 


3s. 


— villaricensis 


12s. 


Goliathus torquatus 


20s. 


— hypocrita 


20s. 


— polyphemus 


20s. 


— temucensis 


30s. 


Ceratorhina juliae 


4s. 


— darwini 


8s. 


— derbyana 


8s. 


— bimarginatus 


10s. 


— ruficeps 


20s. 


— chonchicus 


12s. 


Tmesorhina saundersi 


5s. 


— chiloensis 


12s. 


Dymusa cyanea 


23. 


— chilensis 


10s. 


Neptunides polychrous 


20s. 


kraartzianus 


20s. 


Ranzenia bertolini 


10s. 



February i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



ittmmtng 



What is to be seen everywhere in London. 

{Continued from page J.) 



Among the birds which are excessively abundant in 
Europe, I mentioned Crows, Magpies, Blackbirds, 
Quails, Thrushes, etc., all of which belong to species 
very injurious to Agriculture ; although at times they 
feed also on Larvae, Chrysalis and Insects, but they 
only do so when seeds or fruits are scarce. 

Everyone has seen immense flocks of Magpies, 
Crows and Blackbirds. Thrushes, although not so 
abundant in the North of England, are very common 
in the South of France, Italy, Spain, and in many 
other Countries ; especially during the autumn, when 
they make a great havoc in the Vineyards and Olive 
Tree Plantations, reducing sensibly the harvest. 

If the opinion of the farmers was asked, I have no 
doubt that all of them would agree to the destruction 
of the above-mentioned species of birds. 

In some Countries Thrushes are so abundant that 
anyone can bag from 50 to 100 birds in a day by dis- 
posing nooses for that effect in the Olive trees or 
in Vineyards, and this without diminishing their 
number. 

As to Magpies, I know several Feather Merchants 
who, since 1865, receive yearly about 200,000 of these 
birds for ornamental purposes, and I have not seen 
any difference in their number in England or in 
France. 

Blackbirds are so common in Spain, that about 
200,000 skins are sent annually to Paris, and sold 
between i|d. to 2d. each. The flesh of these birds 
is sold to poor people at about sixpence per dozen, 
and they say that they are a very good eating. 

The same is done with many of the other species 
collected for their feathers. 

Therefore, the only difference that I can see is that 
many birds are killed for eating purposes only, the 
feathers being lost by not taking the trouble to make 
these birds into skins, or because buyers want them 
as killed, and pay a little more for them ; meanwhile 
the others are killed not only for eating purposes, but 
also for saving their feathers which are in great 
demand among the Plumassiers. Flence the advan- 
tage of these last on the former, by being useful twice — 
first by serving as food to poor people, and secondly 
in being the means to procure work to a large 
number of persons. . 

The mention of the Blackbirds recalls to my 
memory a fact of which I have been a witness during 
a stay of several weeks, January and February, 1880, 
at Sevilla, the famous Spanish Capital of Andalusia, 
on which there is a popular saying amongst the 
Spaniards of (i Quien no ha visto Sevilla no ha 



visto Maravilla," which translated literally reads as 
follows : — Who hath not seen Sevilla hath not seen a 
Marvel. 

Near Sevilla, there are some remains of great works 
made by the Romans when they were masters of that 
beautiful Country. 

The principals are remains of a very magnificent 
road going from Sevilla to the old Roman City 
Italica ; vestiges of an Aqueduct, and lastly the old 
City itself, which are well worth seeing. 

Of course I went there, and was very much 
interested with what I saw of the Coliseum, Forum, 
and other ruins. Coming back to town a little before 
dusk I saw myriads of Blackbirds flying in all direc- 
tions and setling for the night at special appointed 
places exactly in the same manner as the Mexican 
swallows {Hirundo bicolor) mentioned in Number 1 
of this Journal. 

For about half an hour I was quite interested with 
this sight. 

The birds had selected a field of Indian Canes as 
resting place. 

Not far off was a small house, where I entered and 
made the acquaintance of the owner of the Canes. 
I spoke to him of the sight I had just witnessed, and 
learnt that the Blackbirds had elected his field of 
Canes as a permanent domicile. Every morning 
at daybreak large flocks take their flight and disperse 
in all directions, always returning at night. They 
do not assemble in one compact group, as the 
Swallows, but come or go away in flocks of several 
hundred. 

I stayed at Sevilla during part of January and Feb- 
ruary. At that time of the year they feed on olives 
and do great injury to the owners of these trees, 
eating a very large quantity of the fruits, and there 
was no end of complaints about them ; but the most 
extraordinary fact about these birds remains to be 
told, although I cannot guarantee anything about it. 
Several reliable persons informed me that the 
owner of the Indian Cane plantations did a splendid 
business with these birds in this way. 

Everyone knows that Blackbirds are very greedy, 
and I was told that at sunset all these birds are seen 
moving continually about from one place to another 
when it is time to retire to their night refuge ; but 
before leaving the Olive trees where they feed, every 
one of them carries in its beak, and even in its legs, 
one or two fruits which they have to drop when perch- 
ing in their favourite resting branch. So next 
morning, the owner of thé Canes had only to fill his 
basket with the olives brought by the birds, and does 
a brisk business of it, gathering more fruit than the 
owner of the Olive trees plantations. 

Of course, I only mention it for its worth, as I did 
not try to verify the fact ; but if true it is worth 
knowing. 

At the same place I saw what I considered an 
interesting way of catching Plovers ( Vanellus 
cris la tus) by means of hooks of the same kind as those 
employed in fishing. They have loose lines 10 to 12 
yards long fixed in the soil at one end, and with a 
hook baited with worms at the other. 

These lines are laid every morning on the ground, 
in the vast jplains which surround Sevilla. Once or 



TO 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[February i, 1891 



twice a day the owner comes to have a look at them, 
and very often finds a bird caught to each. 

They catch a good many in that way and sell them 
at a very good price, these birds being very well 
appreciated by the inhabitants. 

I had occasion to taste some, and I declare they 
were excellent eating. 

As I said before, since a few years, the catching of 
these birds is done largely, and what can it matter if 
the people of that country eat them, with or without 
the skin, which is spared for the Plumassiers Trade. I 
don't see why it should not be done. I prefer many 
times that birds should be caught, skinned, and the 
feathers used for ornamental purposes, than to see 
people breeding purposely Partridges, Pheasants, and 
other Ga?ne Birds for the replacing of those 
slaughtered at fixed dates by the Owners of Hunting 
Grounds and their friends. 

But for the sake of the sport enjoyed in these 
hunting parties, which I consider beneficial to health, 
I don't see why they should be objected to, and the 
same I think about the birds killed for food and their 
feathers. I cannot see what serious objections could 
be made against the use of different species of birds 
for ornament. 

Now I will conclude this Notice with a few remarks 
worthy of the attention of all. It is that twenty-five 
years back, Ostrich, Paddy, Vulture and Osprey 
feathers, Paradise Birds and a few others were the 
ones employed by the Plumassiers since immemorial 
times, and it has always been very fashionable to 
make use of the ornaments made with the feathers of 
these birds ; but their use was very limited and very 
expensive. For the same reason this trade was pro- 
gressing but very slowly, and occupied a very limited 
number of hands ; but since 1865, it is extraordinary 
'o see the progress made in that direction. 

Actually in Europe only, over 200,000 persons have 
found an honourable and lucrative occupation in the 
feather trade, and millions of pounds sterling are 
spent annually, either in the purchase of bird-skins, 
or in the payment of persons employed in this 
trade. 

I know many firms who occupy hundreds of men 
and women in the manufacture of fancy feathers, 
ornaments and attires of all descriptions, feather hats, 
and in the mounting of birds. 

This year, in consequence of the move which took 
place against the wearing of mounted birds on hats 
and otherwise, a great many of these unfortunate 
people have not found work, and are suffering greatly 
from it, and when we consider that we have had a 
winter unequalled before for its severity and length, 
you can imagine what harm has been done to these 
interesting people by raising a war cry against the 
wearing of bird skins, Feathers, etc. . 

No doubt it shows how good-hearted are the per- 
sons, who, for sympathy for the poor little birds, have 
agreed in not wearing any of them in future, and 
myself I would do the same if I thought I was doing 
a real good to the poor things in taking such a 
resolution, but as I said before, it is quite a mis- 
take, and I feel much more interested in the well- 
being of two hundred thousand of my fellow- 
creatures, of whom I know many in particular, and 



which are deserving the greatest interest for their 
industry and probity, than for the birds, and I hope 
that this notice will not have been written in vain. 

A. Boucard. 



SCIENCE AND ART. 

The Panama Canal. 

By A. Boucard. 



In the preceding number I did not mention the 
gift of five thousand millions square yards of land, 
made by the Republic of Columbia to the Company 
of the Panama Canal. 

Half of this land is, or ought to be, already in the 
hands of the Company, the other half to be delivered 
at the termination of the Canal. 

This land is very fertile, and particularly suitable 
for Plantains, Cacao, Coffee, Tobacco, Indigo, Cotton, 
Maize, and Sugar-Cane plantations, whose products 
can always be sold with a great profit, and I have not 
the least doubt that the Company which will under- 
take the termination of the Canal will be able to 
make some very large profits with it, either by selling 
or by cultivating a portion of same. 

In my opinion, a new Company ought to take the 
same interest in putting this land in cultivation as in 
the termination of the Canal, as I am certain that if 
the two works are carried on together, the greatest 
revenue will come out from the products of the land 
and will be the means to pay a very good dividend to 
the new Shareholders and Bondholders. 

Besides, it will be the means of saving life by pro- 
curing for the workmen all sorts of vegetables and 
fruits at moderate prices, which is not so at present. 
It will have also a great effect on the climate, and 
will make it healthier. 

The Company would also buy several thousand 
heads of cattle and horses, which are sure to thrive 
well in the plains which surround Panama, and by 
that means will be able to supply good food to the 
workers and make a large profit, even selling at a 
lower price than the present one ; fresh meat being 
scarce and dear, although it costs nearly nothing to 
breed and to fatten. 

As my experience goes in selling cattle at £2 each, 
it leaves a very good profit ; but of course they could 
sell better, the actual price being from £6 to £8 
each. 

I consider all what I have just said of such im- 
portance, that if I had the direction of the works, I 
should begin by putting in cultivation the lands and 
buying cattle immediately after the formation of the 
new Company. 

It has been calculated by the late Rossignon, a 
friend of mine, that in two years a revenue of eight 
million pounds sterling could be made if only one 
quarter of the property was properly planted with 
Sugar-canes, Plantains, Coffee, Cacao, and Tobacco. 

All the products of these plantations would find 



February i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



11 



immediate purchasers in the United States or in 
Europe, where the demand is constantly increasing. 

It may seem a fancy Revenue these eight millions of 
pound sterling ; but it is not so. They only represent 
a revenue of eighty pounds for ten thousand square 
yards, and our experience tells us that all the Land- 
lords of our acquaintance, in Central America, who 
have made plantations of these same plants get much 
more than eighty pounds- sterling for each ten thou- 
sand yards cultivated. Some of them make a profit 
of two hundred pounds sterling, and more with 
Coffee trees cultivated in the same space. 

I will also mention that Mines must be very 
abundant in the state of Panama, as it is well known 
that before the Conquest Indians made use of gold 
for all their Ornaments, Idols, and even now, some 
of these gold Ornaments and Idols found in old 
graves find their way to Panama where they are sold 
to Travellers. 

I know a gentleman living in Panama who bought 
so many of these Antiquities, that he had them 
melted in several large lingots which he forwarded to 
the United States and to Europe. 

This convinces me that very good gold Placers 
exist in the vicinity of Panama. 

But it is better not to rely too much on Mines, 
when I have shown that very large and sure profits 
can be made of the land which borders the Canal. 

Now that I have made manifest to all that there is 
every possibility to terminate the Canal in a few years, 
and to pay a good dividend to all the Share and 
Bondholders of a new Company, which could buy 
the Assets existing at less than half the cost, by pay- 
ing half of the price of the Issue of the Bonds 3, 4, 
5, and 6 percent., the possessors of which are the real 
Owners of the Canal, and who would probably accept 
the offer. I must again appeal to all the Bondholders, 
and tell them that if no Company appears during the 
year 1 891, it only remains for them to ask from the 
Liquidation that all expenses should be discontinued 
altogether in Panama, and reduced to the strict 
necessary in Paris, and realise as well as possible the 
assets existing, either at Paris or Panama, and divide 
à priori all the sums cashed to that effect. 

But meanwhile, the Bondholders could very well 
claim the distribution of the 740,000 or more Bonds 
with prime, actually in the hands of the Liquidation, 
which are their property, and which have nothing to 
do with the New Company if such appears. 

Therefore, I repeat to all the Bondholders, be firm, 
keep by you all your bonds, and one day or another 
you will get a better price for them than the price 
quoted actually on the Paris Bourse, although I am 
happy to say that, since my first notice was published, 
a rise of about 50 to 60 per cent, has taken place in 
the prices of all the Bonds ; but this is nothing, and 
I can see the day when they will be quoted at a very 
distinct price, nearer their real worth. 

If a serious Company understanding well its own 
interest is willing to purchase at the very moderate 
price, which I have mentioned before, of 400 millions 
of francs, each Bondholder would be entitled to re- 
ceive — firstly, his part of the 740,000 Bonds with 
prime in the hands of the Liquidation ; and secondly,* 
half the price of Issue of their Bonds, which means — 



For each Bond 5 per cent. 218 frs. 75 cents. 

„ „ 3 » 142 frs. 50 „ 

„ „ 4 „ 166 frs. 50 „ 
>) » o ,, 

emitted at 450 frs 225 frs. 00 ,, 

For each Bond 6 per cent, 

emitted at 440 frs 220 frs. 00 ,, 

These sums, as I said before, would recuperate 
only part of the loss undergone by the original Sub- 
scribers, who paid double that price and have not 
received Dividends since January, 1889 ; but it would 
be better than 17 to 20 per cent (if so much) that 
they may expect from the Liquidation after the 
realisation of all the Assets. 

One way or the other, I am quite willing to repre- 
sent the Bondholders near the Liquidation, and de- 
fend their interests if they ask me to do so. 

In that case, they can depend that all my acts will 
be to defend their rights, being certain that even 
the Liquidation has no right to dispose of the pro- 
perties without the consent of the Bondholders. I 
have greatly to reproach to the said Liquidation to 
work so much in the dark, and not to publish in some 
leading journal Monthly Reports of what it is doing 
in favour of the Bondholders. 

There is no time to lose, and I appeal strongly to 
the Six Hundred Thousand Bondholders of 
the Panama Canal to reply to my invitation. 

If they do so, I will let them know in the next 
number of this journal what can be done at once. 
Meanwhile, a Committee chosen from the principal 
Bondholders ought to be formed, and meetings pro- 
moted for the defence of our mutual interests. 

If necessary, I am willing to leave off my house of 
business in London and go to Paris, where a large 
room could be let for the meeting of the Committee 
and the receiving of all Bondholders, who would 
have free access to the Meetings. 

I am so sanguine about the result of this move 
that I am willing to subscribe one thousand francs for 
the fund of our Defence Committee, and 1 beg from 
all genuine Bondholders to follow my example, as we 
require some money if we want to do good work. 

The sums subscribed should be deposited at the 
Bank of France, or any other of the leading Banks of 
Paris ; and monthly accounts of the expenses of the 
Committee sent to the Subscribers. 

My attention has just been drawn on the following 
notice published in The Petit Journal of Paris, on 
the 29th of December last, which I reproduce here- 
under : 

" Nous avons déjà dit que M. Wyse, mandataire de 
la liquidation de la Compagnie de Panama avait pu 
obtenir du gouvernement colombien la prolongation 
de la concession du canal moyennant la promesse 
que la Colombie recevrait 10 millions espèces à payer 
en cinq ans, plus cinq millions d'actions, plus que la 
nouvelle Compagnie à constituer pour l'achèvement 
des travaux prendrait à sa charge l'entretien de la 
force armée. 

Ces conditions sont quelque peu draconiennes. Il 
est évident que l'appétit du gouvernement colombien 
a été excité par les promesses que lui ont faites les 
auteurs de projets qui se sont rendus dans l'isthme et 



Ï2 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[February i, 1891 



qui n'ayant pas grand'chose à risquer accordaient tout 
ce qu'on leur demandait. La Colombie aurait cepen- 
dant dû comprendre qu'il était de son intérêt bien 
entendu de faciliter par tous les moyens l'achève- 
ment du canal et non pas de mettre des entraves ou 
d'augmenter les difficultés déjà considérables que ren- 
contre la constitution d'une Société nouvelle. 

C'est, en effet, la Société destinée à se substituer à 
la Compagnie de Panama qui devra assumer les 
charges imposées par la Colombie. La liquidation 
ne peut le faire, elle n'en a pas les moyens. 

Jusqu'à présent, le texte du traité passé par M. 
Wyse n'est pas encore connu du liquidateur, M. Mon- 
chicourt, et celui-ci ne veut donner sa ratification 
que lorsqu'il l'aura sous les yeux. Il lui importe 
de savoir si les clauses onéreuses imposées par la 
Colombie sont en corrélation avec les demandes de 
la liquidation qui veut surtout et avant tout être 
assurée que le gouvernement colombien mettra à la 
disposition de la Société d'achèvement les terrains sur 
le tracé du canal sans que celle-ci ait à faire des 
expropriations. 

Ce point est très important. Diverses questions 
doivent être réglées en outre par le traité concernant 
le Panama railroad dont la Compagnie est, on le sait, 
le principal et presque l'unique actionnaire. 

Il faut donc attendre que le texte du traité soit 
arrivé à Paris avant de savoir quelle tournure peuvent 
prendre les affaires de la liquidation, avant de pro- 
céder surtout à la formation d'une Société d'achève- 
ment, ce qui n'est pas, tant s'en faut, la partie la plus 
aisée de la tâche du liquidateur." 

I approve highly of all the observations made by 
the author of this notice, except in one point, when 
he says: — Ces conditions sont quelque peu draconiennes. 
(These conditions are somewhat Draconian.) 

I object entirely to somewhat, being altogether more 
than Draconian. 

It is just as much as if the Government of 
Columbia did not care about the termination of the 
Canal, and by what I know of Don Raphael Nunez, 
the President of the Republic of Colombia, and of some 
other Eminent Colombians, it would never have 
entered my mind that some obstacles for the termina- 
tion of the Canal could come from that quarter ; and 
I really believe that the information sent to the Petit 
Journal cannot be relied upon. 

Every Colombian well knows that the Canal is of 
vital importance to them. When finished, it is the 
beginning of a neiv era for that country, which is 
destined to attain an importance which could not be 
thought of a few years back. 

Not only is it the interest of Colombia not to put 
any obstacles in the way of the Canal, but everyone 
of its inhabitants, from the President of the Republic 
to the humblest of the Indians, ought to make the 
strongest efforts in helping, either by cash or bodily 
contributions, to finish this magnificent work, which 
is sure to attract to their country thousands of families 
of the old world, and will be the means to make it 
one of the finest and richest of America. 

Even at the cost of half the land of all Colombia 
as a gift to the New Company, which may undertake 
the termination of the Canal, they would be still the 
gainers, but nobody asks so much. 



That is why I cannot believe that Colombia ask 
from a New Company ten millions of francs, five 
millions of Shares, and to take at their charge the 
maintenance of the Army in the State of Panama. 
If this was true, it would have been much better for 
Colombia to say at once to the Representative of the 
800,000 Share and Bondholders of the Panama 
Canal : — " I know that you have spent already about 
one milliard, 200 millions of francs, of which the 
greatest part has Remained in this country ; that you 
have made stupendous efforts for the digging of an 
Inter-oceanic Canal in our country, but I don't care. 
You have twt done it according to Contract, and, there- 
fore, you had better go away, and I will take possession 
of all that you have done, of all your machinery, houses, 
properties, etc., and will do what I like with them." 
It would not be very delicate, nor in the interest of 
Colombia, but it would be plain speaking ; better 
than to put such obstacles as those mentioned by the 
Correspondent of the Petit Journal, which are their 
equivalent. 

I am sure that Columbians know better, and will 
do all what they can to facilitate means of opening the 
Canal at an early date, and will morally and financially 
co-operate to attain this result, which will change 
entirely the future of their country. 

Actually Colombia, although a very large country 
in size, is thinly inhabited, and very little known, 
and the financial crisis is actually rather acute ; but it 
cannot last long, and it is not a reason why they 
should try to make money with the Canal. On the 
contrary, they must show to the world at large that 
they know how to appreciate the gigantic efforts made 
by the Company of the Inter-oceanic Canal by 
facilitating, by all means, the purchase of all the 
assets of the Old Company by a New One. 

I will say even more, that Colombia being the most 
interested in the making of the Canal, the best policy 
which could be pursued by that country would be to 
make the most strenuous efforts in Europe for the loan 
of one or two hundred millions of francs, so as to 
guarantee with that money a minimum dividend of 
3 per cent, to the Share and Bondholders of the New 
Company during all the time of the works ; a sum 
which could be repaid to the Government in annuities 
nfter the opening of the Canal. 

By so doing, Colombia will prove to all the world 
that it is not in vain that it is called Colombia, from 
the great man who re-discovered America, and it 
would be quite just to change the name of the 
Panama Canal into that of Colombus Canal. It 
would be a feeble homage rendered to the memory 
of the Great Navigator and Explorer, Christopher 
Colomb. 

To be continued. 



SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY. 

The Museum of la Plata and my Idea of a 
Typical and Practical Museum of Natural 
History. 

I have just received a pamphlet entitled The 
Museum of la Plata. It contains seven plates and 
one plan, giving a good idea of what is the Museum. 



February i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



13 



For a Museum whose buildings have only been 
finished three years ago, it is wonderful to see how 
well represented are certain branches of Natural 
History. It is true that the collections of the old 
Anthropological and Archaeological Museum of 
Buenos Ayres have been translated in it ; neverthe- 
less, Mr. Francisco P. Moreno, the Director of the 
new Museum, must have worked incessantly and 
diligently since 1887, and can be proud of the results 
which he has obtained. If it goes on like that in 
America for a few more years, I can see the day when 
Students of Natural History will have to go to North 
or South America to complete their Studies. 

Plate No. I. represents the outside frontage of the 
Building. It consists of two floors and basement. 
The first floor and basement are three thousand five 
hundred yards square each, and not three hundred 
thousand, as printed, surely by mistake, page 15. The 
first floor is divided in fifteen large rooms containing 
all the Collections. In the basement are the Work- 
shops, general Laboratories, and deposits of Speci- 
mens. The second floor, which occupies the central 
part of the building, contains the Library and Fine 
Arts. 

Plate II. shows the general plan of the first and 
second floors. 

Plate III., the Lobby of the Museum, where are 
painted sixteen large reproductions of savage Nature 
and human life in Argentine Republic. 

Plate IV. Glyptodontes Room, eight specimens 
exhibited. 

Plate V. Megatherium' s Room, showing four re- 
mains of these large Mammals. 

Plate VI. Comparative Anatomy, showing the 
skeletons of four Balaenopterae, one of them 24 yards 
long, skeletons of Orca magellanica, Hyperoodon bur- 
meisteri, Stenorhynchus leptonyx, and many others 

Plate VII. Anthropological Section, 
hundreds of specimens of human skeletons and 
skulls. 

Plate VIII. shows the Workshops where are pre- 
pared the skeletons of Cetaceous Animals and other 
large Mammals. 

I am sorry to read, page 30, that passage, // est 
certain que nous ri avons pas encore de laboratoires d'in- 
vestigations, mais je l'ai répété plusieurs fois le temps qui 
s'est écoulé depuis la fondation du Musée est fort court et 
l'on ne peut pas exiger davantage. Nevertheless, I say 
that men like Don Francisco P. Moreno are an 
honour to their country, and I congratulate him 
heartily for all what he has done in so short a time, 
and I wish him many years of perfect heallh to 
enable him to end the installation of the Museum 
which he has begun so well, and; above all, to open 
immediately rooms for the use of Students. 

I consider this of such importance, that I will give 
to the readers of this journal my idea of what I 
consider a typical and practical Museum, small or 
large. 

Supposing that I had a sum of ,£1,000 at my dis- 
posal for the building and furnishing of a Museum, 
and the purchasing of specimens, I should divide 
that sum in three parts. 

The first would be for the building of the Museum, 
the second for furnishing same, beginning with 



showing 



rooms for students, and the third for purchases of 
specimens. 

The Museum should be built entirely on a ground 
floor, about one yard above the level of the grounds 
surrounding it. It should resemble exactly what is 
known as a Roman Villa, with a yard in the centre, 
surrounded with galleries. If in a cold country, they 
should be closed hermetically with glazed windows 
during the winter. It is these galleries which I should 
devote to Students — plenty of room and plenty of 
light. 

The Museum proper would consist of four, six, 
eight, ten, or more rooms, communicating one with 
another, and lighted with sky-lights, or by large 
windows on the north side. 

The principal entrance should be in the middle of 
the building, with a large ante-room. On the right, 
Room No. 1, communicating with the next and the 
next until the last one should be reached, and from 
there to the ante-room of the entrance. 

The rooms should be about ten to twelve yards 
long by six to eight wide, and about three and a half 
high — not more, — as no object can be well seen above 
two yards and a half. 

Glazed Cabinets, two yards and a half high, should 
be disposed along the walls. If the objects for 
exhibition were not fragile, or enclosed in glass cases, 
shelves would be sufficient, but the first purchase to 
make should be a Library, selected according to the 
importance of the Museum, and working tables, 
with its accessories of paper, pen and ink, for the 
Students, all of which could be arranged in the 
galleries surrounding the central yard, which could 
be transformed in a garden, with a fountain in the 
middle. 

Access should be gained to these galleries from the 
ante-room, and only Students should be allowed in. 

The Library should be disposed on shelves, or in 
book cases, along the walls of these galleries, which 
ought to be at least five yards wide. 

With the third part of the money, if it was a 
small sum, I should purchase only objects of 
Natural History found in the Country, until I had 
gathered a fine Collection of all the Mammals, 
Birds, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, Shells, etc., repre- 
senting the local fauna, as also some specimens of 
all the minerals and flora of the County, attaching 
a special importance to all the species of animals 
useful or injurious to Agriculture, and to all the 
Trees, Plants, and Minerals useful in the alimenta- 
tion of Man and Beasts, or wanted for Industry. 
Medicine and Arts. 

This should be the beginning of all Museums, and 
there are no Villages or Towns of 1,000 inhabitants 
upwards which ought to be without. I should say 
more, even in the smallest villages, a museum could be 
created with very little or no money at all. 

School-rooms could be used, and the boys and girls 
taught to collect all sorts of animals and prepare them 
for the Museum. The only thing wanted is that the 
Professors should understand the great importance of 
teaching to all these children the study of animals, 
plants or minerals, useful or injurious to mankind, 
how to know them, how to make use of the first and 
destroy the others. 



14 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[February i, 1891 



Supposing that I had been successful, and obtained 
all what could be had in the Animal, Vegetable and 
Mineral Kingdoms from the Country where the 
Museum is, the next move should be to purchase 
some typical specimens of all the families of Animals, 
Plants and Minerals which are not found in the 
Country, after which, if my means allow it, purchase 
all typical specimens of Genera of Animals, Plants 
and Minerals found in all the World, and lastly all the 
species inhabiting this World ; but of course this last 
part of my programme can only be done if money is 
plentiful ; and only Capitals such as London, Paris, Ber- 
lin, New York, Vienna, St. Petersburg, etc., or Million- 
naires can do that ; but what I want to impress on all 
is this : That it is not necessary to dispose of large 
sums for the Creation of Museums. It is quite the 
reverse, and very often it will be found that a small 
local Museum which has been created by a Scientific 
man working for love of Science, and with very 
limited means, is even more useful to the Country 
people than all the magnificent Museums created at 
large expenses in the Capitals. Now, supposing I 
had ^100,000 instead of ,£1,000, I should work 
exactly in the same manner, the only difference 
would consist in building two, three, four or more 
similar houses, devoting one to Mammals and Birds, 
another to Crustaceœ, Insects and Shells ; one to 
Minerals, one to Botany, one to Fossils since the 
Creation of the World, etc., etc. ; each with its 
Corresponding Library, and Rooms or Galleries 
adapted for Students. 

A. Boucard. 



An Easy Way of Making One Hundred 
Pounds Sterling a Year in Collecting 
Specimens of Natural History at Leisure 

Time. 

Continued fro/it page y. 



Leave them in that bottle for a fortnight, then take 
them out, and clean them a second time. Wrap each 
specimen separately with a linen cloth, flax, or any 
other soft substance, and pack them in a tin box well 
filled with flax to avoid friction among them during 
the voyage. 

Then pour some of the strongest alcohol or spirit 
you can get, enough to soak them with. The box 
to be then soldered down. 

INSECTS. 

Insects are very numerous. Their body is formed 
of three distinct parts : the head, the thorax, and the 
abdomen. 

They are divided by some authors into nine Orders, 
by others into eleven and more ; but the principal 
Orders are eight, as follow : 

1. Coleoptera, or Insects known vulgarly as May 
Bugs, Stag beetles, etc. 

2. Lepidoptera, or Butterflies and Moths. 

3. Orthoptera, or Tits, Earwigs, Grass Hoppers. 



3. Hemiptera, or Bugs. 

5. Neuroptera, or Dragon Flies, 

6. Hymenoptera, or Wasps, Drones, Bees, Ants, etc, 

7. Diptera, or Flies, Gad flies, Mosquitos, etc. 

8. Parasita, or Lice. etc. 

To collect Coleoptera, Orthoptera and Hemiptera. 
it is necessary to carry several bottles with alcoholic 
saw dust. 

The way to prepare it is to fill up the bottle to 
the third part with thin saw dust ; then pour in a 
wine glass of alcohol or strong spirit, and shake it 
together for about five minutes.' If you have no 
alcohol or spirit, you may put in the bottle the same 
quantity of benzine. 

In that bottle can be put all the Insects above 
mentioned. 

On returning from an expedition, take them out of 
the bottles and pin the Coleoptera through the right 
elytra (the wings, in form of tweezers, which cover 
the abdomen are the elytrae), so that the point of 
the pin may emerge under the thorax, between the 
second and the third pair of legs. You will take care 
to use pins adjusted to the size of the Insects. 

The Orthoptera and Hemiptera must be pinned on 
the thorax, and the pin must come out between the 
two foremost legs.' 

They must be put with symmetry in corked boxes, 
taking care to sink deeply the pins to avoid their de- 
tachment in the voyage. 

These boxes should be put in the sun for a few 
days and when you see that the Insects are dry, you 
will pour a small quantity of benzine in the box and 
paste bands of paper all round. The benzine is to 
be employed for every object of natural history which 
can be devoured by Insects. 

All boxes containing Insects, Bird Skins, Crusta- 
cean, etc., must be preserved by pouring benzine into 
before shutting and pasted with bands of paper. 
If you have no pins, or corked boxes, send them in 
the same bottles in which they have been collected. 
If so, the bottles should be filled up completely with 
alcoholic saw dust, and some paper pasted round ; 
then, by this means, if the bottles should break during 
the voyage, the Insects will be preserved. 

Lepidoptera, Neuroptera, Hymenoptera and Diptera 
are collected with the butterfly net. 

The specimens collected must be very perfect. 
The way to kill the Lepidoptera and Neuroptera is to 
press their thorax between the thumb and finger ; this 
must be done with much care ; because if the beautiful 
colours of the butterflies are spoiled, they are of no 
value. 

They are to be pinned through the thorax and put 
in corked boxes like the Orthoptera and Hemiptera. 

If you have no pins or cork, you can send them 
enclosed in pieces of paper, the wings shut one on the 
other and each specimen separately. These pieces 
of paper should be folded in the form of a triangle 
and of a size according to the Insect. 

When you have two or three hundred specimens, 
you must pack them in a wooden box in good order, 
pour a little benzine in it, and paste paper all over the 
box. 



February i, 189 1] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



15 



Hymenoptera and -Diptera must be pinned in the 
same way through the thorax and exposed to the 
sun (or to the heat of a fire a few minutes) ; this 
exposition near the fire will kill them. They must 
absolutely be pinned and sent in corked boxes ; 
because in the bottles, their wings would be 
damaged. 

Insects are to be found everywhere, under stones, 
moss, bark of decayed trees, in detritus or all 
matter in decomposition, in mushrooms, flowers, 
ripe fruits, in water, in dung, in soil, in the caverns, 
in dead bodies, in dried and rolled leaves, on sand, 
near the sea, and under seaweeds, in ant's nests on 
trunks of trees ; especially those that have much sap 
running, on long grass and herbage, in plains, etc., 
etc., etc. 

With an open umbrella lined inside with light 
linen cloth, and a stout stick, very profitable collec- 
tions may be made by striking the bushes over the 
umbrella. 

Aquatic Insects must be caught with the landing 
net. This net is employed for the aquatic Insects and 
Shells, and also for sweeping the long grasses and 
herbages in the plains. In that way you can take large 
quantities of Insects. 

MARINE, LAND, AND FRESH WATER 
SHELLS. 

Shells, as indicated by their name, are to be found 
in the sea, on land, and in fresh water. 

Several species . have an operculum (it is a small 
round piece of the same matter of the shell, which is 
fastened to the body of the animal). 

It is used as a door : when he wants to come out, 
he opens it, and shuts it when he likes ; then he is 
sheltered from birds and insects which are fond of 
them. 

It must be preserved ; because it is useful for the 
"ecognition of the species. 

Marine Shells are to be collected in quantity, 
dredging the sheltered places as near as possible to 
the reefs of rocks ; the nearer you approach, the more 
shells you will collect. 

On the rocks and in the crevices, you will find 
many shells. 

On the sea shore at the new and full moon, the 
collector should go and turn the stones and will be 
amply repaid for his trouble. 

After severe gales of wind, many valuable species 
brought from far away will be found ; you must not 
miss these occasions. 

Fresh water shells are to be collected in the rivers, 
lakes, and ponds ; they are found in the mud, on the 
edge of the rivers or. rivulets, and are generally very 
abundant ; they must not be neglected. Small 
species are as interesting as the largest. 

Land Shells are found under stones, in clefts of 
rocks, under dried leaves, and other vegetable detritus, 
on trunks, leaves and branches of trees, under 
decayed trees, moss, etc., etc. ; but always in 
sheltered, warm, and wet spots. 

The calcareous mountains, when well forested, are 
very good places for collecting shells. 



They have value only when collected adult and alive. 

To know when a shell is adult, whatever may be its 
size, is when the lip (or the edges of the mouth) are 
grown round and firm enough to resist the pressure 
of your finger nail. 

Young specimens will be collected when adults 
cannot be found. 

To collect Shells, it is necessary to be provided with 
a basket with moss or other soft matter ; place the 
shells on it, separating the large from the small 
species. 

When at home, put them in a pail with lukewarm 
water and cover it ; when you see the animals 
coming out of the shells, draw off quickly the water, 
taking care none fall down, and pour boiling 
water enough to cover them ; a few minutes after, 
pour cold water, and then with a pin or needle take 
out the animals as you would do with the snails used 
as food. 

In doing this delicate operation, take much care 
not to pierce the shell or break the mouth. 

AVhen the animals are out, wash the shells and 
shake out the water and the interior dirt, and place 
them on paper to dry ; but not to the sun. 

When dry, put some cotton in the mouth and paste 
the operculum on it. 

Small species will be packed in glass tubes or small 
boxes with cotton. 

Should they be large, wrap each one separately in 
paper and pack them in a box with soft substance. 

It is useless to clean the very small species. 

Others, for their particular forms cannot be cleaned, 
kill them and put them near an ant's nest ; if the ant's 
come to them they will eat entirely the animals, and 
the work will be done. 

If not, let them dry and pack them with care as the 
others. 

Send a few specimens of each species in a bottle 
with spirits to study the animals. 

SEEDS. 

Seeds of all trees, bushes, or plants belonging to 
the country producing beautiful leaves or handsome 
flowers are to be collected. 

They must be well ripe and dried in shade. 

Pack them in small bundles, each species sepa- 
rately. 

CRUSTACE.E. 

Crabs, Prawns, Lobsters, etc., are Crustacese. 
They must be sent in spirit as Reptiles. 
Large species can be dried by sun and packed in 
paper, but they are of less value than if sent in spirit, 

ARACHNIDES & MYRIAPODA. 

Spiders are Arachnides, Centipeds are Myriapoda ; 
it is necessary to preserve and send them in very 
strong spirit ; otherwise they dissolve in the voyage. 

To be continued. 



i6 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[February i, 1891 



Report on the December Public Sales of 
Ostrich and Osprey Feathers, Bird 

Skins, &c. 

— — ■* — 

The sale of Ostrich feathers commenced on the 
12th December, and lasted three days. 

In all, 2,071 Cases Cape and 2 Cases Egyptian 
were offered, of which 1,970 Cases of the former 
sold. 

The weight of feathers offered was 33,000 lbs. 
The demand was fairly good. There was a decline 
of 10*. to 15-y. per lb. for the best qualities ; but the 
common sorts sold well at firm rates. 

White Boos declined 10s. to 15^. per lb. ; Femina 
Boos 2S. 6d. to 55-. per lb., and drab Boos about 2s. 6d. 
per lb. Long and Medium black were about 10s. per 
lb. lower. 

The quantity sold realized ,£107,000. 
The next Sale will take place on the 2nd March. 
The price current of Ostrich Feathers is as fol- 
lows : — 

White Primes, 1st., 2nd. and 3rd. from £,$ 10s. to 
jQ\6 per lb., according to quality. 

White Femina, from ,£5 to ^10 10s. ; Black from 
205. to £g. 

Drab, 135. 6d. to £6 10s. Floss, \$s. to 405. ; 
Spadonas, 50J. to £6 ; Boos white, 80s. to gos ; 
Boos femina, 525. to 655, 

Egyptian feathers are worth 10 to 15 per cent less 
than the prices quoted above. 

The sale of Osprey and Peacock Feathers and Bird 
Skins of all descriptions took place on the 16th 
January. 

Of 379 packages of Osprey feathers offered, 348 
packages were sold. 

Long Osprey was in advance of 5s. to 8s. per oz. 
Short selected was firm, and rather dearer ; red, brown, 
and White and Grey Paddy were steady. Bird Skins 
in general dull. Female Birds of Paradise declined 
to 1 os. gd. 

Long Osprey 13s. to 255. per oz. ; Medium, 29J. to 
40s. ; Short, 305. to 425. ; Short selected, 525. to 675. ; 
Red, 2s. 2d. to 4s. White Paddy, 20s. to 255.; Grey 
Paddy, 10s. to 14s. 6d. ; Impeyan Pheasant, 35. to 
5 j. 6d. each ; Black Argus, 3^. 2d. Peacock feathers: 
Eyes extra fine, 5}£d. P er bundle; Neck feathers: 
gold, 14s. 6d. to 24s per lb. ; blue and green, is. 3d. 
to 4s. 6d. ; blue small ioj-, per lb. Parrots : rosehead, 
3d. to zYzd. each ; Parrots, medium, id.to ly^d. Indian 
Birds, about id. each; Jungle Fowls, flat skins 2s. 4a. 
each. Osprey skins with cross feathers, \s.\od. to is.nd. 
each ; Japanese Birds between i)4d. to \y%d each, ex- 
cept Small King Fishers, which sold at 5 3^^. and S^d. ; 
and Wax Wings at 4a. and 4%d. Birds of Paradise, 
male, \2s. 6d. to 155. 6d. ; female, os. to 13s. gd. ; 
Many Wires, 255. : Black Round, 20s. 6d. to 24s. 6d.; 
Green Breast Long Tails, 1 is. ; Black, with green 
breasts, gs. ; Rifle Birds, 85. 3d. to 10s. 3d. ; Standard 
Wings, 3-s. 2d. ; King Paradise, is. yd. to 2s. Sd. ; 
Regent birds, 2s. gd. to 4s. ; Pitta, is. ; RedTanagers, 
g%d. ; Orange Tanagers, 6^.d. ; Bronze King Fishers, 
$d. ; Seven Colored Finches, 1 id. ; Various Finches, 

2X- to 3 y 2 d. 



The next Sale will take place the 6th of March. 

Messrs. Boucard. Pottier & Co. will be happy to 
execute Commissions for Gentlemen who cannot 
attend the Sale. All Goods intended to be catalogued 
for the next Sale should be forwarded before the 25th 
of February. 



Report on December and January Public 
Sales of Postage Stamps. 



On December 12th and 13th, Messrs. Phillips, Lea, 
& Davies held a sale of the celebrated Caillebotte 
Collection of Envelopes. The total realized was 
;£i,ooo. The highest prices paid were as follows : — 

Baden 1858 stamp to left, rosette with well-defined 
circle in centre 6 kr. and 12 kr. ,£10 $s. ; Ditto 9 kr. 
and 18 kr. ^10 155-. ; Ditto, same type large size 3 kr, 
9 kr. and 12 kr., small size, 6 kr., ^12 55. ; Ditto, 
same type, large size, 6 kr., 9 kr. and 18 kr., p£ii 5s. 
Finland, 1850, 10 kop. on white wove paper, on 
bluish wove paper, and on blue pelure paper, £id 10s. 
Thurn and Taxis (North), 1861, lilac inscription half- 
sgr. large size, ^10. Ditto 1862, inscription same 
colour as stamp, ]/z sgr. 5 shades, 1 sgr. used, 
2 sgr. unused and used, and 3 sgr. unused, all 
large, ^10. 

A few others, North German Confederation pro- 
visionals fetched ,£16 105-., ,£21 10s., and ^12. 
Great Britain, Mulready Envelopes id. and 2d., 
£1 125. ; Hanover 1857, large, 1 gr. three shades, 
1 sgr. unused and used, 2 sgr. two shades, 1 gr. two 
shades used, 1 sgr., 2 sgr. and 3 sgr., variety with 
oblique inscription, £18. ; etc., etc. 

In Mr. Thomas Bull's Sale on December 20th : 
British Guiana 1851, magenta, realized £2 155.; 
Ditto 1853, 1 cent red, and 4 cent blue, £2 2s. ; 
Cape of Good Hope, wood-block id. red, fine colour, 
£2 ; ten very fine proofs in black of various colonial 
stamps, ,£10 ; New South Wales 3d., orange, on entire 
original envelope, £4 8s. ; several United States 
1869, 1866 and i860 realized £3 55.; and £4 155. 
each, 1866 and i860. 

In the Sale of Messrs. Cheveley & Co., which com- 
menced on Friday at 6 p.m., several Lots realized 
a good price. 

Afghanistan, dated 1288, 1,2 and 4 annas, 305. ; 
Ditto, 1 anna, 105. ; Ditto, 2 and 4 annas, 225. ; 
British East Africa, 1st. issue ]4, 1 and 4 annas, all 
unused, 385.; Cape Wood-blocks, id. and 4a., 325., 
bought by Messrs. Boucard, Pottier & Co. ; Cape 
Woodblock, 1 red, very fine, 325.; several Ceylon 
is. gd. green, 215.; another is. .gd. green, fine, 245.; 
Star perforated, Sd., yellow brown, very fine, 30s. ; 
Great Britain id., black and pair 2d., both unused, 
£3 los. Ten unused id. black Mulready Envelopes, 
£4 los.; several ditto, by pair, id. and 2d., 30s. ; 
Mulready 2d. wrapper and 2d. Envelope, unused, 
445. ; etc., etc. 

Messrs. Boucard, Pottier & Co. will be happy 
to execute Commissions lor Gentlemen who cannot 
attend the Sales. 



February i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



BOUCARD, POTTIER & CO., 

NATURALISTS AND FEATHER MERCHANTS, 

225», mgli Molborn, London, W.C., England, 



COMMISSION. 



EXPORTATION. 



Messrs. BOUCARD, POTTIER & CO. offer to sell on commission all kinds of Objects of Natural 
History, Collections of Mammal and Bird Skins, Skeletons, Human and Animal Skulls, Insects of all 
orders pinned and set, or in papers ; Marine, Fresh Water, and Land Shells ; Reptiles and Fishes in spirit ; 
Crustaceœ and Arachnidae in spirit ; Ethnological collections from all parts ; Showy Bird Skins and 
Feathers for Plumassiers and Naturalists ; Mammal Skins for Furriers ; Bright species of Insects for 
Artificial Florists ; Rare old Stamps, used and unused ; Curios of all sorts, Pictures and Works of Art, etc., 
etc., etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting Messrs. Boucard, Pottier 
& Co., who having a large connection with Amateurs in all parts of the world, are able to get the very best 
prices for them. 

Messrs. Boucard, Pottier & Co. beg to advise Directors of Museums and private Amateurs that they 
undertake to stuff from a Humming Bird to a Whale at very reasonable prices. Only experienced and 
scientific Taxidermists are employed by the hour for that work, which will always be of the best class. 

An inspection of their Galleries, where a large number of specimens are always on show, is solicited. 

Special fabrication of Mammals and Birds Eyes at wholesale prices which defy all competition, either 
as quality or price. See special Advertisement. 

New Stands for Birds, suitable for Museums and Scientific Institutions. No one should be without 
them. The appearance of the Birds on these stands is unequalled, and everyone should adopt them and 
renovate the old ones. See Advertisement. 



TO PLUMASSIERS AND FEATHER MERCHANTS. 



Lots of PLUMES and BIRD SKINS, consigned 

ALL THE SKINS ARE 

1 Lot of 12 Rifle Birds from Australia (magnificent skins) 

Pri 
, ,, 12 Regent Birds (very fine skins). 

, ,, 50 Mock Regents 

, ,, 60 Sterna minuta ... 

, ,, 50 Sterna various 

, ,, 50 Fire back Pheasants 

, „ 10 Red and Black Argus 

, ,, 6 oz. Long Osprey 

, „ 20 skins Short Osprey, selected ... 

, ,, 20 Red Osprey, flat skins 

, ,, 20 Long Tailed Trojans 

, ,,20 ditto from Columbia (splendid skins) 

, ,, 50 Cock of Rock. 1st choice 

, ,, 20 Red Paradise birds, sound skins 

, ,, 100 Rollers, flat skins 

, ,, 100 King Fishers 

, ,, 100 Sea Snipes, various, fine skins 

, „ 50 Sea Gulls ' 

, ,, 2 Golden Turkey, fine skins 

, ,, 10 Goura Pidgeon from N. Guinea 

„ „ 50 Wild Pidgeons 

,, ,, 20 Small Bustard 

,, ,, 25 African Red Partridge 

„ „ 50 Californian Quails 

,, ,, 20 Mandarin Ducks 

„ „ 50 Hawks, various 

,, „ 50 Large Owls 

,, ,, 50 Owls, medium 

,, ,, 50 Scops 

„ „ 20 Barn Owls 

,, „ 50 Parrots, various 

,, ,, 50 Grey King Fishers 

„ „ 50 Mexican Jays, new to Plumassiers 

., „ 25 Mexican Wood Peckers 

,, ,, 50 Golden Oriole 

„ ,, 50 Shrikes 



£4 








£6 








£7 








£4 








£5 








£4 








£9 








£8 








£3 








£20 








£8 








£10 








£10 








£4 








£6 








£4 








£3 








£6 








£6 








£4 








£4 








£2 








£3 








£4 








£5 








£6 








£2 








£6 








£8 








£4, 








£6 








£8 








£2 


10 





£4 








£2 


10 






the Naturalist's Agency Office and for sale. 
OF FIRST QUALITY. 

lot de 12 Paradis gorge d'acier de l'Australie (peaux splen- 
dides Prix 330 fr. 

12 Régents d'Australie, très belles peaux ... 100 fr. 

50 Faux Régents 150 fr. 

60 Sterna minuta 175 fr. 

50 Sternes variées 100 fr. 

50 Ithagines 125 fr. 

10 Argus satyres à ventre rouge et à ventre 

noir 100 fr. 

6 oz. Aigrette longue 225 fr. 

20 Peaux Aigrette crosse, 1ère qualité ... 200 fr. 

20 Aigrette rouge, peaux plates 75 fr. 

20 Couroucous à longue queue .:. ... 500 fr. 

20 ditto de la Colombie, peaux de 1er choix 

et bien préparées ... 200 fr. 

50 Coqs de roche, 1er choix 250 fr. 

20 Paradis rouge, peaux iondes 250 fr. 

100 Rolliers, peaux plates 100 fr. 

100 Martins pécheurs, peaux plates 150 fr. 

100 Bécassines Pluviers, etc., belles peaux... 100 fr. 

50 Goélands et Mouettes 75 fr. 

2 Dindons ocellés, belles peaux ... ... 150 fr. 

10 Pigeons Goura de la N. Guinée 150 fr. 

50 Pigeons sauvages 100 fr. 

20 Petites Outardes 100 fr. 

25 Perdrix d'Afrique 50 fr. 

50 Colins de la Californie 75 fr. 

20 Canards mandarins 100 fr. 

50 Oiseaux de proie, divers 125 fr. 

50 Grandes Chouettes 150 fr. 

50 ( houettes moyennes 50 fr. 

50 Chouettes Scops 150 fr. 

20 Chouettes Effraies 200 fr. 

50 Perruches diverses... 100 fr. 

50 Martin Pécheurs gris 150 fr. 

50 Geais du Mexique (nouveauté) 200 fr. 

25 Pics à Baguettes 62 fr. 50 c. 

50 Orioles, dorés 100 fr. 

50 Pie Grièches 62 fr. 50 c 



VI 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



f February i, 1891 



Lot of 100 Hoopooes Price £6 

„ „ 50 Wax Wings £3 

., ,, 50 African Humming £2 

„ „ 100 Blue Creepers £5 

,, ,, 50 Green Creepers £2 

„ ,, 50 Eed Tanagers £2 

„ ,, 100 Yellow and Black Tanagers £4 

„ „ 50 Five Coloured Tanagers £4 

„ ,, 100 Tanagers, various £2 

„ „ 50 Mexican Starlings £5 

,, ,, 100 European Starlings £2 

,, „ 25 Blue Jays £2 

,, ,, 50 Alpine Crows £4 

„ ,, 50 Metallic Starlings £4 

,, ,, 50 Large New Guinea Pitta £8 

,, ,, 25 Royal Fly Catchers £5 

,, „ 50 Fly Catchers, various £2 

,, „ 50 Yellow-Headed Manakins £1 

„ „ 50 Bed and Black ditto £1 

„ ,., 20 Goat Suckers £2 

„ „ 100 Swallows £4 

„ ,, 10 Bower birds £2 

„ ,, 100 Green Humming, all males £2 

,, „ 100 Améthyste Humming ... £4 

,, „ 100 Large Humming £2 

,, ,, 50 Ruby Topaz Humming £2 

,, „ 25 Long Blue Tail Humming ... ... £5 

„ „ 10 Fire Tail Humming £12 

„ ,, 50 Long Tail Humming, various ... ... £4 

JUST ARRIVED, 

Lot of 5 Magnificent Fire bach Pheasant ; quite new 

to Plumassiers (A Splendid Bied) Price £8 

,, „ 25 Macaws, flat skins £4 

































10 







































































5 





5 

















10 





10 











10 





10 
























1 lot de 100 Huppes 

1 ,, „ 50 Jaseurs 

1 „ ,, 50 Sui manga 

1 ,, „ 100 Guit guits à tête bleue 

1 ,, „ 50 Guit guits verts 

1 „ „ 50 Tangaras rouges 

1 ,, ,, 100 Tangaras noirs et jaunes 

1 ,, „ 50 Tangaras, quinticolor 

1 ,, ,, 100 Tangaras divers 

1 ,, ,, 50 Etourneaux du Mexique 

1 ,, ,, 100 Sansonnets 

1 ,. ,, 25 Geais 

1 ,, „ 50 Corbeaux des Alpes 

1 ,, ,, 50 Merles Métalliques bleus 

1 ,, ,, 50 Grandes Brèves, de la N. Guinée 

1 ,, ,, 25 Gobe mouches royaux 

1 ,, ,, 50 Gobe mouches divers 

1 „ „ 50 Manakins à tête jaune 

1 ,, ,, 50 Manakins à tête rouge 

1 „ ,, 20 Engoulevents 

1 ,, „ 100 Hirondelles 

1 „ ,, 10 Oiseaux satinés 

1 ,, ,, 100 Oiseaux mouches Verts, tous mâles 

1 ,, „ 100 Clarisses et Parzudaki 

1 ,, ,, 100 Grands Oiseaux mouches divers 

1 ,, ,, 50 Rubis Topazes 

1' ,, ,, 50 Kings 

1 ,, ,, 10 Saphos ou Queues de feu ... 

1 „ „ 50 Oiseaux Mouches à longue queue 



Prix 150 fr. 
... 75 fr 
... 50 fr' 
... 125 fr' 
... 50 fr' 
62 fr. 50 c* 
... ICOfr' 
... 100 fr* 
... 50 fr' 
... 125 fr' 
... 50 fr' 
... 50 fr" 
... 100 fr' 
... 100 fr' 
... 200 fr' 
... 125 fr' 
... 50 fr" 
36 fr. 25 c' 
36 fr. 25 c' 
... 50 fr' 
... 100 fr' 
62 fr. 50 c' 
62 fr. 50 C 
... 100 fr' 
62 fr. 50 c' 
62 fr. 50 c* 
... 125 fr' 
... 300 fr' 
... 100 fr' 



DECEMBER, 1890. 

Il,,,, 100 Hoopooes 
1 ,, ,, 50 Indian Crows 



Price £6 
£7 



TO 



ARTIFICIAL FLORISTS, JEWELLERS, 

BRIGHT INSECTS. 



etc. 



1 Lot of 25,000 Blue beetles 


Price £4 





1 ,, „ 25,000 Green ,, large 


... £5 





1 „ „ 25,000 „ ,, small 




... £4 





1 „ „ 25,000 Purple „ 




.. £8 





1 ,, ,, 1000 Golden Phaneus 




.. £10 





1 „ „ 5000 May Bugs 




.. £4 





1 ,, ,, 1000 Golden Antichira 




.. £10 





1 ,, „ 1000 Large Green Buprests 




.. £4 





1 ,, „ 1000 Golden Buprests 




.. £4 





1 „ ,, 500 Ocellated Buprests 




.. £5 





1 ,, „ 50 Diamond Beetles 




.. £5 





1 ,, ,, 500 Brazilian Golden Cacides 




.. £4 





1 ,, ,, 500 Butterflies from West Africa in 


pape 


rs £4 









IL 





1 , 





1 , 





1 , 





1 , 





1 , 





1 , 





1 , 





1 , 





1 , 





1 , 





1 , 





1 , 



Lot de 25,000 Hoplies bleues 

25,000 Grandes Chrysomèles vertes 

25,000 Petites 

25,000 Chrysomèles violettes 

1000 Phaneus dorés 

5000 Hannetons 

1000 Petits Hannetons vert dorés , 
, 1000 Grands Buprestes vert dorés 

1000 Buprestes dorés ... 

500 Buprestes ocellés 

, 50 Chareuçons dorés 

, 500 Cacides 

, 500 Papillons d'Afrique 



Prix 100 fr. 

... 125 fr. 

... 100 fr. 

... 200 fr. 

... 250 fr. 

... 100 fr. 

... 250 fr. 

... 100 fr. 

... 100 fr. 

... 125 fr. 

... 125 fr. 

... 100 fr. 

... 100 fr. 



LIST 

OF THE 

PRICED UTENSILS 

NECESSARY FOR COLLECTING 

REPTILES, FISHES, INSECTS, SHELLS, etc. 



BOUCARD'S INSECTICIDE POWDER 

against Mites, Insect larvae etc. 



Benzine bottle 

Tin box for collecting Insects, from ... 

Bottle 

Glass tubes or phials, doz. ... 

Digger 

Butterfly nets, from 

Sweeping and water, nets from 

Umbrella for Insects, from 

Cork in boards, per doz., from 
Pins for Insects, per thousand, from 

Pill boxes, per gross, from 

Corked boxes for Insects, from 
Wooden box same size 
Boucard's Insecticide, per oz. 

Flax, per pound 

Cotton-wadding, per sheet 

Nippers, from 

Fishing rods with accessory, from ... 

Other Utensils for collecting Mammals 
obtained at the Naturalist's Agency, 
London, W. C. 



. Bird 

225 



s, etc., 
High 



Is. Od. 

Is. 6d. 

0s. 3d. 

Is. Od. 

2s. 6d. 

Is. 6d. 

2s. 6d. 

8s. Od. 

2s. 6d. 

Is. 6d. 

4s. Od. 

Is. 6d. 

Is. Od. 

0s. 6d. 

0s. 6d. 

0s. 6d. 

Is. 6d. 

2s. 6d. 
are to be 
Holborn, 



Wholesale and Retail. 
- Success guaranteed - 



This new Powder is of easy use, not dangerous to manipu- 
late, and a good disinfectant against Choleea mobbus and all 

Epidemic diseases. 

It destroys immediately all vermine, such as Fleas, Bugs, 
Mites, Laev^ of Bebmestes, etc. 

Sixpence for a trial packet of one ounce. It lasts a long 
time, a small quantity being necessary each time. 

Trades supplied at a liberal discount. 

No House ought to be without it. 

Once tried, always used ! 



COCOA BUTTER 

Guaranteed pure. 

Very useful to soften the skin, a preservative against 
Chafed Hands and Chilblains and a remedy for Cuts, Bubns, 
etc. etc. 

Sold in cakes, Sixpence and one shilling. 



February i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



Yll 



TO STAMP COLLECTORS. 



FOE SALE. 
New South Wales : — 

1850, 2d., Sydney View 

,, „ ,, ,, on laid paper 

1854 — 56, Imperf. 8d. yellow, good margin on 3 sides, 

fair on 4th 

Canada : — 

1856, lOd. blue, fine copy 

Mauritius : — 

1848, Id. red, worn plate 

1859. 2d. blue, Greek border 

Mexico: — 

1867, Gotic surcharge, 4 real?, rose on lilac, fine copy 10s. 



20s. 
25s. 

25s. 

12s. 

10s. 

15s. 



8 real, black on brown, fine copy 
Natal : — 

1857—58, Id. buff, fair copy 

3d. pink, fair copy 

6d. green, fair copy 
New Zealand : — 

6d. brown, pelure paper 

Is. green, imperf. Wmk. N.Z. ... 



30s. 

. 18s. 
. 15s. 
. 10s. 

. 6s. 
7s. 6d. 



STAMPS (continued). 

South Australia: — 

1867 — 71, 3d. Wmk. star surcharged in red fine copy 25s. 

Victoria : — 

Id. red unused ... ... 12s. 

1852, 3d. blue (Perforated) 8s. 

1862, 3d. dull lake 10s. 

Western Australia : — 

1855, Is. brown uncut 20s 

United States : — 

1869, 90 cents, red and black, fine copy 15s. 

WANTED. 

Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwards, to 
which none have been added since the last 20 years. 

Old stamps on their original letter sheet or envelope, especi- 
ally Colonials and old German states. 

Mulready Wrappers and Envelopes. 

Old unused English and Colonials. 

Old works on stamps. 

Proofs of stamps, etc. etc. 



TO BE LET 
OR SOLD. 



Several Splendid VILLAS, with Beautiful Gardens, 

at SAN REMO, the well known Winter Resort, 

40 minutes from MONTE CARLO. 

Apply at the Office of the Journal. 



TO CONCHYLIOLOGISTS. 



JUST ARRIVED. 

A large collection of Shells from Japan which are to be sold 
at very moderate prices. 

Also Shells from Central America, N. Africa, New Guinea, 
etc., etc. 

List of these will be published in successive numbers. 

FOR SALE. 

100,000 Marine, Fluviatile and Land Shells, about 20,000 
species (collection of Mr. Boucard). It contains the celebrated 
Saunders, Layard, Walpole, and Fritsch collections and many 
others, and a very large choice of the species collected by 
Messrs. Wallace, Cuming, Brewer, French, Salle, Wallis, 
Bartlett, Chesterton, Buckley, Crossley, Duboulay, Majastre, 
Pianos, Reed, Rebouch, Bland, Gabb, etc., etc., etc., as also all 
the Shells collected by Mr. Boucard in N. America, Mexico, 
Central America, Panama, etc., etc. 



TO ETHNOLOGISTS. 



FOR SALE. 

Twelve finely carved Arrows and 1 Bow from New Guinea 

Price 20s. 



TO ZOOLOGISTS. 



JUST ARRIVED. 

1 Lot of 100 Diptera from Japan Price 25s. 

1 Lot of 100 Orthoptera from Japan Price 30s. 

1 Lot of 100 Neuroptera from Japan Price 35s. 

1 Lot of 100 species of Butterflies from Japan Price 150s. 
1 Lot of 200 species of Moths from Japan Price 200s. 

1 Lot of 100 Coleoptera from Japan, including Dar.iaster 

Price 50s. 
Price 100s. 

Price 100s. 

Price 100s. 

Price 75s. 

Price 100s. 

Price 100s. 

Price 80s. 



fortunei and other rare species 



Lot of 100 species of Shells 
Lot of 100 Crustaceœ from Japan 
Lot of 100 Sea Urchins from Japan 
Lot of 302 Coleoptera from Morocco 
Lot of 100 Butterflies from Guatemala 
Lot of 100 Butterflies from Venezuela 
Lot of 100 Moths from Venezuela 



African Rhinoceros War Club 



Price 30s. 



Three distinct Zulu War Clubs, made of iron wood and very 
nicely carved Price 30s. each. 

Pagaie from New Guinea, made of palm tree Price 30s. 

Magnificent Gold Antiquity from Panama, representing what 
appears to be Musicians, two large figures in the centre and 
six small ones round. It weighs 6 oz. 187 grammes. It is 
quite unique, and no Museum in the world possesses anything 
like it Price £50. 

A great variety of American Antiquities, chiefly from Central 
America, in hardstone, agathe, Idols, Vases, etc. from 5s. 



Lot of Coleoptera in spirit from Venezuela, 10 bottles 
containing thousands of specimens. Price 50s. 

1 Lot of 100 Butterflies from West Africa in papers, Papilio, 
Charaxes, etc. Price 80s. 

1 Lot of 100 Butterflies and Moths from India, many fine 
species of Papilio etc. Price 100s. 

1 Lot of 100 Butterflies from Trinidad including a rare 
species of Morpho Price 80s. 

1 Lot of 100 Butterflies from Borneo, containing many rare 
Papilio, etc. Price 100s. 

1 Lot of 100 Coleoptera from Brazil Price 20s. 

TO MUSEUMS, ETHNOLOGISTS, etc. 



Modern pottery from Mexico and Central America 

from 6d. 
Statuettes representing the Indians 0/ Mexico and Guatemala 

from 3s. 
Bais, Baskets, Mats and various Objects made with palm 
leaves and various textile plants, from Central America, Mada- 
gascar, New Guinea, etc. from 6d. 

Samples of Textile Fibres, Seeds, Gums, Resins, Medicinal 
Plan's, etc. from Mexico and Central America from 6d. 

Old and Modern Coins from Mexico from Is. 

Etc., etc., etc. 



vm 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



\February i, 1891 



MR. ADOLPHE BOUCARD 

NATURALIST, 

Corresponding Member of the Royal Zoological Society of London, de la Commission Scientifique 

du Mexique à Paris, &c, &c. 

Now Ready, the Second Edition of 

^(§crit0 of pictorial <pagfcam0 anb Raturai (§pramm0, 



ILLUSTRATIVE OF 



HUMAI PHYSIOLOGY, ZOOLOGY, BOTAIY, GEOLOGY and MIIERALOGY. 

Adopted by the London School Board'and all the principal Colleges of England. 

The Series contains 20 sheets, 18 in. by 24 in., comprising 166 Diagrams of Animals and Plants, 
life size, beautifully printed in colours, and 37 Natural Specimens, of Woods and Minerals, neatly 
mounted on very stout cardboard, with rings for hanging on the wall. 

The Set Complete, with Handbook, in a Strong Box, 32s., Varnished, 40s. 
Handbook separate, Price 4s., paper; 4s. 6d., cloth. *_ y * The usual Discount to Schools and the Tr adt 

TO BE HAD ONLY AT 

COR QAP F* -k^ e Admission to Royal Aquarium. 

U wri WHLL, Price S Guineas. 



TO BOOKSELLERS AND OTHERS. 



Boueard. Catologus Avium, English or French preface, Syste- 
matic Classification of Birds, 8s. instead of 12s. 

Catalogue of Birds, published by the British Museum. 

Vol. 1 to 6 inclusive. The first three Volumes are out of 
print. Price £10. 

Hand List of Birds, Gray, published by the British Museum. 
3 vol. 8vo. Price 25s. 

Guide pour collecter, préparer et expédier des Collections 
d'histoire naturelle. ls. 

Guia para colectar, conservar y despachar Colecciones de 
historia natural. Is. 

Petit Atlas d'Ornithologie ou Collection choisie d'Oiseaux 
les plus connus, dessinés d'après nature par Martinet, 
Paris, 1784. 
1 Vol. grand in folio, in magnificent condition. Contents : 

Epître à Buffon, Tableau général du classement des Oiseaux 

divisés d'après Buffon en neuf Ordres et cent un Genres ou 

Familles. 150 splendid coloured plates par Martinet. Exceed- 
ingly rare. £50. 

America, by John Ogilby Esq., London, 1671. Grand in folio, 
675 pages, 121 splendid Engravings and Maps. £30. 

Historia de la Conquista de Mexico, etc., by Don Antonio Solis, 
Brusselas, 1741. 

1 Vol. in folio, 276 pages, 13 Engravings and Maps. Pages 
1 to 9 slightly stained. £20. 

Historia General de las Cosas de Nueva Est ana, by Rev. 
Bernardino de Sahagun, con notas y suplementos, por 
Carlos Maria de Bustamante, Mexico, 1829. 4 vols, in 
4to., uncut. £5. 

Historia de las Conquistas de Hernando Cortez, por Francisco 
Lopez de Gomara, con varias notas y addiciones, por Carlos 
Maria de Bustamante, Mexico, 1826. 1 vol. in 4to, 315 pp. 

£2. 

Tezcoco en los ultimos tiempos de sus antiguos Reyes. 
Tomada de los manuscritos ineditos de Boturini y redac- 
tados por el Lie. Mariano Veytia, Mexico, 1826. 1 vol- 
16mo, 276 pages. £2. 

Cateeisino y Declaraeion de la Doctrina Christiana en lengua 
OTOMI, con un Vocabulario del mismo idioma, por el 
B. P. Joaquin Lopez Yepes, Mexico, 1826. 1 Vol. in 4to, 
254 pages. £4. 



D. R. Kampuysens Stiehtelyke Rymen, by M. Mathieu, Rot- 
terdam, 1688. 1 Vol. in 8vo., 680 pages. £2. 

Clara y Sucinta Exposicion del pequeno Catecismo impreso 
en el idioma MBXICANO, por un Sacerdote devoto de la 
Madré santissima de la Luz, etc. 

Puebla, 1819. 1 Vol., 67 double pages, one side in Mexican, 
the other in Spanish. £2 10 

Various Calendarios Mexieanos, 1830 to 1860. 2s. each. 

STANDS, NEW STYLE. 

Wholesale Price. 
No. 1 for Humming birds and Small birds at 20s. per hundred 
„ 2 ,, Small birds up to Tanagers at 24a. ,, 



!) 


3 „ Tanagers up to Ma 


gpies at 28s. 


»» 


)> 


4 „ Magpies up to Crows or Small 






Hawks 




at 32s. 






5 „ Small Hawks to Large 


Hawks 






and Owls 




at 40s. 


>» 




ARTIFICIAL EYES. 




Wholesale Price. 






Black Coloured 




Cornered 


Cornered 
& Veined 




per gross 




per doz. pairs per doz. pairs 


No. la. !■ (Hi is. ««1 


No. 4 a.;; :>,<■ c<( 


4s. 6d. 




5 „ 8 8d. 2s. 6d. 




7 „ 8 5s. Od. 


6s. Od. 




9 „ 10 ls.Od. 4s. Od. 




9 6s. Od. 


8s- Od. 




11 2s. Od. 5s. 6d. 




10 7s. Od. 


9s. Od. 




12 2s. 3d. 7s. Od. 




11 8s. Od. 


10s. Od. 


J) 


13 2s. 6d. 10s. Od. 

doz. of pairs 


îï 


12 9s. Od. 


lis. Od. 




14 3s. Od. ls. 6d. 




13 10s. Od. 


12s. Od. 




15 3s. 6d. 2s. 6d. 




14 lis. Od. 


13s. Od. 




16 4s. Od. 2s. 6d. 




15 13s- Od. 


15s. Od. 




17 8s. Od. 3s. Od. 




Larger sizes can be made 




18 12s. Od. 4s. Od. 




to order. 



Nr. 1 to 4 are good for humming birds and others up to 
the size of Tanagers. 

No. 5 to 8 Tanagers to Magpies. 

No. 9 to 10 Magpies to Gulls. 

No. 11 to 12 Pheasants, etc. 

No. 13 to 18 Hawks, Owls, Herons, etc. 



LONDON : Published by A. BOTJCA.RD, at 225, High Holborn, W.C. ; and Printed at J. S. LEVIN'S Steam Printing Works, 75. Loadenbnll Street, E.O. 

February 1, 1891. 




Œbe 





A MONTHLY SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC, AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW. 



GUARANTEED CIRCULATION, 5000. 



VOL I., NO. 3, 



March 1, 1891. 



PRICE SIXPENCE. 



Annual Subscription: United Kingdom, Post free, 4 shillings ; all countries included in the Postal Union, 5 shillings. 

All other countries, 6 shillings. 




OUtASYXMXs db^MAjQ^V^d^ 



EDITED UNDER THE DIRECTION 

OF 

MR. ADOLPHE BOUCARD, 

NATURALIST, 

Officier d'Académie, 1878; Knight of the Royal Military Order of the Conception, 1881 ; 
Knight Officer of the Royal Order of Cambodje, 1889; Knight Commander of the Royal Order of Isabelle la Catholique, 1882; 

Corresponding Member of the Zoological Society, London, 1865; 

de la Mission scientifique française au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale, 1866; of the Royal Museum of Madrid, 1881; 

Commissioner for the Republic of Guatemala in the Paris International Exhibitions of 1878 and 1889 ; 

Member of the International Jury, Paris, 1889 ; Member of many scientific societies; 

etc. etc. etc. etc. 



/ 



CONTENTS OF No. 3.— MARCH 1, 1891. 



Notes on Rare Species of Humming Birds and 
Descriptions of Several Supposed New 
Species in Boucard's Museum. 

Notes on the Genus Pharomacrus. 

Second International Ornithological Congress. 

The McKinley Bill. 




The Panama Canal. 

Answers to Correspondents. 

An easy way of making p^ioo a year. 

Report on the last Public Sales of Natural 

History Specimens. 
Report on January and February Public Sales 

of Postage Stamps. 




[Entered at Stationers' Hall.] 



H 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



{March i, 1891 



FOR SALE. 
Shells. 

"Private Collection of Mr. Boucard. 
Land Fluviatele and Marine Shells. 

Glandinidse, is. each. Helicidae, 6d. each. Bulimidae 
is. each. Achatinidse, is. each. Cylindrellidae, is. 6d. 
each. Clausilidae, 3d. each. Ampularidae, 6d. each. 
Lymmea, Physa, and Planorbis, 3d. each. Cyclosto- 
nidse, bd. each. Helicinida?, 3d. each. Unio, 
Anodonta, and Ostrea, 6d. each. 

Marine Shells — All the Collection including 
Argonauta, Murex, Fusus, Triton, Ranella, Nassa, 
Oliva, Marginella, Harpa, Terebra, Conus, Strombus, 
Cypraea, Neritina, Patella, Chiton, Haliotis, Turbo, 
Venus, Cardium, &c, 6d. each. 

Can be divided if required. 

All applications to be made at the Journal's Office. 



List of Parrots for Sale. 

PSITTACID^E LEACH. 

1 Platycercus pennanti, Lath 

2 — — mounted ... 

3 — adelaidse, Gould 

4 — flaviventris Tem. 

5 — — mounted ... 

6 — palliceps, Vig. 

7 — eximius, Shaw 

8 Psephotus multicolor, Brown 

9 — hsematonotus, Gould 

10 — pulcherrimus, — 

11 Nymphicus cornutus, Gm. 

12 Barnardius Barnardi, Vig 

13 — semitorquatus Quoy... 

14 Polytelis barrabandi, Sw. 

15 — — mounted 

16 — alexandrae, Gould 

17 — — mounted 

18 Aprosmictus erythropterus, Gm. 

18 bis — 

19 — 

20 — 

21 — 

22 — 

2 3 



mounted . . . 
vulneratus, Wagl 
cyanopygius V. 

— mounted 

broadbenti ... 
dorsalis, Quoy 

24 Pyrrhulopsis personatus, G. R. Gr. 

25 — tabuensis, Gm. 

26 Cyanoramphus novoe-zelandise, Sparm. 

27 — auriceps, Kuhl ... 

28 — pacificus, Forst ... 

29 Melopsittacus undulatus, Shaw ... 

30 Euphema pulchella, Shaw 

31 — — mounted ... 

32 — chrysogastra, Lath ... 

33 — chrysostoma, Kull 

34 — aurantia, Gould 

35 Pezoporus formosus, Lath 

36 — — mounted 

37 Prioniturus flavicans, Cass. 

38 — platurus, Kuhl 

39 Urodiscus discurus, V. 

40 Palseornis eupatria, L. 

41 — docilis, V. 



10 
10 
10 
12 
10 
10 
10 
10 
12 
20 
10 
12 
12 

14 
12 

14 
12 

15 
16 

10 

12 

16 

20 

3° 

3° 
6 

6 

20 

4 

6 

8 

10 

10 

10 

8 

10 

8 

8 

20 

5 
5 



42 

43 

44 

45 
46 

47 
48 

49 
5° 
5i 
52 
53 



Palseornis docilis, mounted 

— torquata, Bodd 

— — mounted 

— bengalensis, Gm. 

— purpureus, Mull 

— schisticeps, Hodgs. 

— columboides, Vig. 

— — mounted 

— ealthropas, Lay 
Belocercus longicaudus Bodd ... 

— fasciatus, Mull 
javanicus, Osb 



54 Ara macao, L 



55 
56 
57 
58 

59 
60 



— mounted 

— chloropterus, G. R. G. 
— ■ ararauna, L., mounted 

— militaris, L. ... 

— severa, L. 

— nobilis, L, 



61 - hahni, Souancé 

62 Rhynchopsitta, pachyrhyncha, Sw. 

63 Henicognathus leptorhynchus, King 

64 Conurus cyanolycos, Land 

65 — icterotis, Mas and S. ... 

66 — carolinensis, L., mounted 

67 — chloropterus, Souancé ... 

68 — wagleri, G. R. Gr. 

69 — erythrogenys, Less 

70 ■ — pavua, Bodd 

71 — nanday, Desm., mounted 

72 — luteus, Bodd 

73 — jandaya, Gm. 

74 — aztec, Souancé ... 

75 — pertinax, L. 

76 — WeddelliDev 

77 — holochlorus, Sclat 

78 — ocularis, Scl. and Salv. 

79 — petzii, Leihe 

80 — rhodocephalus, Sclat and Salv. 

81 — aureus, Gm. 

82 — — mounted 

83 — cruentatus, Max 

84 — — mounted 

85 — vittatus, Shaw ... 

86 — — mounted 

87 — souancei, Verr ... 

88 — leucotis, Licht ... 

89 — cyanopterus, Bodd 

90 — — mounted... 

91 — luciani, Dev. 

92 — roseifrons, G. R. Gr. ... 

93 — callipterus, Man 

94 — hoffmanni, Cab... 

95 Bolborhynchus monachus, Bodd 

96 — — mounted 

97 Brotogeris triacula, Hald 
virescens, Gm. 

— mounted ... 
tuipara, Gm. 

101 jugularis, Mull 

102 — tovi, Gnel 

103 — chrysosema? Natt. ... 

104 Loriculus galgulus, L. ... 

105 — — mounted ... 

106 — stigmatus, Mul and Sch. 



98 

99 
100 



10 

5 
8 

5 

16 
12 

16 

20 

8 

5 
8 

20 

3° 
3° 
3° 
20 
20 
10 
20 

5° 
10 

20 

20 

8 

20 

5 
20 

15 
20 

20 

6 

5 

5 
20 

20 
6 
8 

10 

3 

5 
4 
6 

4 
6 

20 

5 

5 

8 

20 
10 

4 
12 
10 
12 
8 
8 
10 

4 

6 

2 

20 

3 
6 

8 



March i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



iii 



List of Parrots for Sale. — (Continued.) 


171 


Geoffroy rhodops, G. R. Gr. 


5 


107 Loriculus vernalis, Sparm. 


4 


172 


— aruensis — 


8 


108 — melanopterus, Scop. 


8 


173 


— cyanicollis, Mull and Sch. 


6 


109 — exilis, Schl. 


8 


174 


Poiocephalus senegalus, L. 


10 


no — aurantii Frons 


3° 


175 


— — mounted 


12 


in Licmetulus philippinas, V. 


8 


176 


— Levaillanti 


15 


112 — — mounted 


10 


177 


— — mounted 


20 


113 — regulus, Souancé 


8 


178 


— meyeri, Rupp. 


20 


114 Lorius domicella, L. 


12 


179 


— versteri, Finsch. 


5° 


115 — — mounted 


16 


180 


Caica melanocephala, L . . . 


8 


116 — erythrothorax 


20 


181 


— — mounted 


10 


117 — tricolor, Steph. 


10 


182 


— xanthomeria, G. R. Gr. ... 


3° 


118 — — mounted 


12 


183 


— histrio, Bodd 


8 


119 — garrulus, L. 


12 


184 


— amazonina, Desmurs 


24 


120 — — mounted 


iS 


185 


— pyrilia, Bp. ... 


16 


121 ■ — ■ ater, Scop. 


12 


186 


— haematotis, Scl. and Salv ... 


6 


122 — sintillatus, Tem. 


12 


187 


— coccineicollaris, Lawr 


12 


123 — fuscatus, Bp. 


12 


188 


Pionus menstruus, L. 


5 


124 — chloropterus, Salv. 


16 


189 


— sordidus, L. 


15 


125 Vini fringillaceus, Gm. 


20 


190 


— maximiliani, Kuhl 


20 


126 Phigys solitarius, Lath. 


30 


191 


— senilis, Spix 


6 


127 Eos rubra, Gm. 


12 


192 


— violaceus, Bodd ... 


5 


128 — — mounted 


is 


193 


Deroptyus accipitrinus, L. 


20 


129 — cochinsinensis, Lath. 


16 


194 


Chrysotis farinosa, Bodd 


10 


130 — reticulatus, Mul and Schl. 


16 


195 


— auripalliata, Less 


3° 


131 — cardinalis, Hombe and L. 


5° 


196 


— amazonica, L. ... 


12 


132 Trichoglossus, hœmatodus, L. ... 


10 


197 


— — mounted ... 


16 


133 — rubri torques, Vig and H . 


20 


198 


— panamensis, Cab 


10 


134 — novae hollandiae, Gm. 


4 


199 


— sallei, Finsch ... 


30 


135 ■ — — mounted 


6 


200 


— jamaicensis 


30 


136 — nigrogularis, G. R. Gr. .. 


10 


201 


— albifrons, Spar . . . 


10 


137 — cyanogrammus, Wagl. c . 


10 


202 


Triclaria cyanogaster, V. 


12 


138 — massena, Bp. 


6 


203 


Psittacula guianensis, Sw. 


6 


139 — — mounted 


10 


204 


— passerima, L. 


2 


140 — ornatus, L. 


S 


205 


— ccelestis, Less 


8 


141 — chlorolepidotus, Kuhl. 


4 


206 


— conspicillata, Laf. 


2 


142 — — mounted 


6 


207 


Urochroma cingulata, Scop. 


4 


143 — flavoviridis ? Sclat. 


16 


208 


— purpurata, Gm. 


6 


144 — meyeri, Schl. 


8 


209 


— surda, HI. 


5 


145 Ptilosclera versicolor, Vig. 


20 


210 


Agapornis pullaria, L. 


5 


146 Glossopsitta concinna, Shaw 


4 


211 


— — mounted ... 


7 


147 — — mounted 


6 


212 


Poliopsitta cana, Gm. 


8 


148 — pusila, Shaw 


3 


213 


— - — mounted ... 


10 


149 — — mounted 


5 


214 


Cyclopsitta diophthalma, H. and F. 


6 


150 — porphyreocephala, Diet. 


16 


215 


— Bremei 


30 


151 — — mountec 


20 


216 


— desmaresti, Garn 


6 


152 Psiteuteles euteles, Tem. 


6 


217 


— coxeni, Gould 


10 


153 — placentis, Tem. 


6 


218 


— suavissima, Sclat 


20 


154 — muschenbrooki 


16 


219 


— loxia, Cuv. 


20 


155 Charmosyna papuana, Gm. 


12 


220 


Psittinus incertus, Shaw 


4 


156 — — mounted 


16 


221 


Nasiterna pygmaea, Quoy 


20 


157 — arfaki, Ver. 


20 


222 


Calopsitta novae hollandiae, Gm. 


8 


158 — stellae 


12 




— — — mounted . 


10 


159 Muscarinus polychlorus, Scop ... 


8 


223 


Cacatua alba, Mull, mounted ... 


30 


160 — sinensis, Gm. 


8 


224 


— sulphurea, Gm., mounted 


25 


,161 Tanygnathus me;alorhynchos, Bodd. .. 


16 


225 


Lophocroa leadbeateri, Vig. 


12 


162 — mulleri, Mull and Sch. 


5 


226 


Eolophus roseicapillus, V. 


10 


163 Nestor meridionalis, Gm. 


20 


227 


Licmetis nasicus, Tem. 


16 


164 — productus, Gould 


3° 


228 


Calyptorhynchus banksii, Lath ... 


20 


165 Dasyptilus pecqueti, Less. 


5° 


229 


— — mounted 


25 


166 Vaza nigra, L. 


20 


230 


Callocephalon galeata, Lath 


10 


167 — vaza, Shaw 


20 


231 


— — mounted 


i5 


168 — comorensis, Pet. ... 


20 


232 


Microglossum aterrimum, Gm. ... 


30 


169 — barkleyi, Newt. 


40 


233 


Strigops habroptilus, G. R. Gr. ... 


30 


170 Geoffroy personatus, Shaw 


8 


234 


— greyi, G. R. Gr. 


30 



IV 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[March i, 1891. 



TO ORNITHOLOGISTS. 



FOE SALE. 

Fine mounted specimen of Alca impennis, the Great Awh, 
(extinct species). Pedigree from the date of capture, 1836, to 
this date, will be given to buyer. 

Fine male specimen of the exceedingly rare new genus of 
bird Reinhardtia ocellata Bp., the greatest discovery of the 
century. Price £50 

Fine male specimen of the beautiful bird Calyptomena 
Whiteheadi, n. sp., the second species known of this rare 
genus, four times larger and more beautiful than C. Viridis. 

Fine pair, male and female, of the rare Paradise bird. 
Semioptera Wallacei. Price £4. 

Fine pair of the magnificent bird of Paradise, Astrapvi 
nigra. Price £6. 

Pair of Epimachus maximus. Price £5. 

Pair of Paradisea raggiana. Price £5. 

Pair of Parotia sextacea. Price £fi. 

Pair of Paradisea rubra. Price £2 10s. 

Pair of Schlegelia willsoni (Dyphillodes republica). 

Price £4. 

Pair of Lophorina atra. 

Pair of Ptilornis paradisea. 

Pair of Craspedophora magnifica 

Pair of Seleuc.ides albus. 

Pair of Paradigalla carunculata. 

One specimen of Casuarius edwardi 

One specimen of Aptéryx Oweni. 

One specimen of Aptéryx maxima. 

One Pair of Meleagris ocellata. 

One specimen of Chauna chavaria. 

Ditto ditto stuffed 

One specimen of Oreophasis derbianus 

Ditto ditto stuffed 

One specimen of Argus giganteus, stuffed 

One specimen of Argus grayi. 

One stuffed specimen of Chrysolophus 



TO ENTOMOLOGISTS. 



One male specimen of Otidiphaps nobilis. 
One specimen of Hypoleucus carunculatus. 
One specimen of Strigops habroptilus. 
One pair of Pharomacrus mocina. 
One pair of Pharomacrus costaricensis. 
One pair of Xanthomelus aureus. 
One pair of Sericulus melinus. 
One pair of Heteralocha gouldi, female 



Price £4. 

Price £2 10s. 

Price £2 10s. 

Price £4 10s. 

Price £5. 

Price £10. 

Price £1 10s. 

Price £8. 

Price £6. 

Price £8. 

Price £10. 

Price £8. 

Price £10. 

Price £5. 

Price £6. 

amherstiae. 

Price £6. 
Price £2 10s. 
Price £4. 
Price £1 10s. 
Price £2. 
Price £2. 
Price £10. 
Price £1. 
very rare. 



Price £2 10s. 
By pair it means one male and one female. 

WANTED. 



Specimens of : — 
Fregilupus varius Bodd. 
Camptolainus labradorius. 
Chrysolophus pictusL. Gmel. 
ChrysolophuB amherstiae 

Leadb. 
Pterocnemia darwini Gould 
Dromaius novœ hollandise 
Sypheotides macqueeni Gr. 
Cariama crista ta L. 
Chunga burmeisteri Hartl. 
Palamedea cornu ta L. 
Ischyornis derbiana Gr. 
Aburria carunculata Tern. 
Leipoa ocellata Gould 
Polyplectron, all the species 

except hardwicki 



Lobiophasis bulweri Sharpe 
Alectrophasis cuvieri Tern. 
Gennœus nycthemerus L. 
Grammatoptilus lineatus 

Lath. 
Hieropha3is swinhoei Gould 
Diardigallus diardi Tern. 
Lophophorus lhuysii Verr. 
Calcophasis sclateri Ierd. 
Gallus sonnerati Tem. 
Creagrius varius Shaw 
Sarkidiornisœgyptiaca Gmel. 
Ara ararauna L. 
Ara militaris L. 
Ara hyaeinthinus Lath. 
Cotinga amabilis Gould 
Cotinga cayana L. 



FOE SALE. 

One very fine pair, male and female, of Morpho Qodarti 

Price £10. 
One fine male specimen of the same species. Price £2 10s. 
Ditto medium. ' Price £1. 

One fine pair, male and female of Ornithoptera pegasus. 

Price £2 10s. 
Ditto medium. £1 10s. 

Ornithoptera broolciana. 30s. 

Pair of GolioAhus Druryi, very large and very fine. Price £4. 
Pair of Qoliathus cacicus, very fine. £1. 



Dicranocephalus bowriug 


i20s. 


Carabus speciosus 


12s. 


Ceratorhina morgani 


20s. 


mochcae 


40s. 


— hornimani 


10s. 


bomplandi 


8s. 


Heterorhina imperialis 


10s. 


— robustus 


8s. 


Lomaptera albertisi 


10s. 


— tuberculosus 


8s. 


— ignipennis 


10s. 


— riffensis 


8s. 


Steraspis herculana 


10s. 


— aumonti 


8s. 


Sternocera pulchra 


10s. 


Damaster blaptoides 


20s. 


Catoxantha gigantea 


10s. 


— fortunei 


12s. 


— eduardsi 


10s. 


Haplothorax burchelli 


20s. 


Psiloptera principalis 


10s- 


Cychrus angusticollis 


4s. 


Taphrosoma dohrni 


10s. 


— elevatus 


8s. 


Cyphus germari 2 


s.6d. 


— ventrieosus 


2s. 


— augustus 2s. 6d. 


— alternatus 


2s. 


— ■ nigropunctatus 1 


s. 6d. 


— punctatus 


4s. 


Eupholus magnificus 


3s. 


Mormolyce phyllodes 


10s. 


Psalidognatus bou iardi 


16s. 


— hagenbachi 


20s. 


— - erythroeerus 


16s. 


— castelnaudi 


25s. 


Hippocephalus armatus 


30s. 


Chiasognathus granti 


10s. 


Derobrachus inœqualis 


10s. 


— peruvianus 


40s. 


— brevicollis 


10s. 


— gaujoni 


50s. 


Aulacocerus mundus 


10s. 


— feisthameli 


30s. 


Mallaspis rhomboderi 


4s. 


— buckleyi 


30s. 


— belti 


10s. 


Maoronoxia crinita 


5s. 


— xanthaspis 


10s. 


Euchirus longimanus 


20s. 


— leucaspi 1 * 


6s. 


Pelidnota burmeisteri 


16s. 


Pyrodes pulcherritnus 


103. 


Proculus goryi 


30s. 


Calocomus desoaaresti 


16s. 


— mniszecki 


10s. 


Elateropsis lineata 


8s. 


— opanpennis 


5s. 


Crioprosopus splendens 


10s. 


Plusiotis resplendens 


20s. 


— tricolor 


10s. 


— batesi 


30s. 


Batoeera victoriana 


20s. 


Chrysophora chrysochlora 4s. 


— celebiana 


16s. 


Chrysina mniszecki 


16s. 


— gigas 


20s. 


— adolphi 


16s. 


— wallacei 


20s. 


Anoplognathus grayi 


20s. 


Sagra buqueti 


4s. 


— mastersi 


10s. 


Amblychila cylindriform 


is 


— n. sp. 


12s. 




10s. 


Golofa imperâtor 


5s. 


Omus Dejeani 


20s. 


Dynastes hercules 


16s. 


— audouini 


8s. 


Chalcosoma hesperus 


20s. 


Oxygonia floridula 


16s. 


Mesgasoma thersites 


10s. 


— gloriola 


12s. 


Aegopsis curvieornis 


8s. 


— buckleyi 


12s. 


Lycomedes reichei 


20s. 


— moronensis 


8s. 


Prionocalus cacicus 


60s. 


Carabus valdiviae 


8s. 


— atys 


60s. 


— buqueti 


8s. 


Ancisthrosoma buckleyi 


4s. 


— sybarita 


8s. 


— rufipes 


3s. 


— elegantissimus 


12s. 


Mitrocephala humboldti 


20s. 


— castroensis 


12s. 


Tetracha klugi 


5s. 


— subnitens 


12s. 


— bifasciata 


5s. 


— andestus 


12s. 


— laminata 


5s. 


— inexpectatus 


16s. 


Catoxantha eburnea 


20s. 


— gloriosus 


10s, 


— opulenta 


3s. 


— villaricensis 


12s. 


Goliathus torquatus 


20s. 


— hypocrita 


20s. 


— polyphemus 


20s. 


— temucensis 


30s. 


Ceratorhina juliae 


4s. 


— darwini 


8s. 


— derbyana 


8s. 


— bimarginatus 


10s. 


— ruficeps 


20s. 


— chonchicus 


12s. 


Tmesorhina saundersi 


5s. 


— chiloensis 


12s. 


Dymusa cyanea 


2s. 


— chilensis 


10s. 


Neptunides polychrous 


20s. 


kraatzianus 


20s. 


Eanzenia bertolini 


10s. 



March i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



i7 



iummtng $tri>. 



Notes on Rare Species of Humming Birds 
and Descriptions of Several Supposed 
New Species in Boucard's Museum. 
By A. Boucard. 



Threnetes leucurus, L. 1766. 

Male. — Head, back, and tail coverts, golden-green ; 
central rectrices, bronzy-green ; wings, purple ; chin 
black bordered on each side with a buff line, exactly 
of the same colour as the throat, which is reddish- 
buff; lores nearly black, a black line crosses the 
breast just under the buff of the throat : breast and 
sides of the abdomen, bronze-green ; abdomen, grey- 
ish-buff; under tail coverts, bronzy-green margined 
with pale buff; tail, white, the two central feathers 
tipped and bordered with blackish-purple ; upper 
mandible, black ; lower mandible, flesh colour with 
black tip. 

Total length, 4J inches; wings, 2^ inches; tail, 
ijinches; bill, \\ inches. 

Habitat, French, Dutch, and British Guiana. 

Threnetes cervinicauda, Goui/d, 1854. 
Male. — Differs from the preceding species by the 
general colour of the upper surface, which is dark 
bronzy-green, the lines bordering the chin, white ; the 
abdomen, pale buff, and chiefly by the tail, which 
is reddish-buff, the two central feathers tipped and 
bordered externally with purple-black. 
Length, the same as T. leucurus. 
In a box sent from Bogota I was pleased to find a 
very good series of this species, among which some 
very adult males, with which I was able to ascertain 
the distinction between this species and T. leucurus. 
All the specimens received from Bogota are alike, 
not one of them has the slightest sign of white on 
the tail feathers. 

I think I have some females. It is very much 
similar to the male, but lighter in colour ; the black 
of the chin is not quite dark, the buff on the chest 
is lighter ; the black band under it is golden, and all 
the under surface is buff tinged with very few- bronzy 
feathers on the sides ; the feathers of the tail, except- 
ing the central rectrices, which are bronzy-green with 
buff tips, are pale buff with black tips and black 
borders internally, and more so externally. 

Threnetes fraseri, Gould, 1861. 
Male. — Upper surface, including tail-coverts, 
golden green, distinguishing the species from Ruckeri, 
. which is metallic dark green, central rectrices bronzy 
green with white tips ; wings blackish purple ; chin 
black; throat and breast buff; abdomen reddish 
grey ; under tail-coverts olive green, margined with 
buff; In T. ruckeri they are green with a very slight 
buff margin. Rectrices black, largely tipped with 
white. In ruckeri they are shorter, wider, bluish 
dark, and narrowly tipped with white ; upper man- 
dible black ; lower mandible flesh colour. Total 



length, 4^ inches ; wings, 



2 2 



bill. 



This species is very rare, and inhabits Guatemala. 
I consider it as valid. 

PtLETORNIS GOUNELLEI, N.SP. 

Male. — Head, dark brown ; back, bronze green ; 
central rectrices, rather long, bronze green tipped 
with white ; under surface throat and breast, pale 
buff with black line in the middle of the chin ; 
abdomen, grey ; flanks, rufous ; all the feathers of 
the tail, bronze green, black and white in about the 
same proportions ; wings, purple brown ; bill, black, 
curved. Total length, 4J inches : wing, 2 inches ; 
bill, 1 inch; tail, 2 inches. 

This pretty species resembles somewhat Phœtornis 
pretrei, for which I took it at first ; but after a 
careful examination, I saw it was quite distinct, and 
it only resembles that species by the colouring and 
the form of its tail, which also resembles that of 
Phaetornis prelrei at first sight ; but they also differ 
greatly, all of them being rounded. In fact a new 
genus could be made with that bird, forming the 
passage from Phmtornis to Pygmornis. 

I have a great pleasure in dedicating this fine 
species to Monsieur Gounelle, of Paris, the well- 
known collector of Hippoceptialus, who discovered it 
in Brazilia in the year 1887. He only found this 
unique specimen. Among others, he also collected 
specimens of the true Thalurania erlphile and 
tiulochans lactea. 

Ph^thornis COLUMBIANUS, N.SP. 

Head brownish black, tipped with buff; back 
bronzy green, edged with buff ; upper tail coverts red- 
buff ; line behind the eye and middle of chin white ; 
sides of chin dark rufous, nearly black ; breast and 
flanks buff, very accentuated on flanks ; abdomen 
white; under tail-coverts, buff; rectrices bronze- 
green at base, black under, tipped and bordered with 
buff ; upper mandibles black ; lower mandibles flesh 
colour to the middle, the rest black ; wings purplish 
brown. 

Total length, 5f inches ; bill \\ ; wing 2-| ; tail 2-f. 

Habitat Columbia. 

This new species is allied to P. syrmatophorus and 
finds its proper place between this species and P. auto- 
philus. It came in the same lot of birds with 
Threnetes cervinicauda. 

PH/ETHORNIS GUIANENSIS, N.SP. 

Upper surface, golden, with purple reflections, each 
feather bordered with black ; wings, purple-brown ; 
rectrices, black, tipped with white ; line behind the 
eyes of chin and entire under surface, pale buff; lores, 
black; centre of chin, white; under tail-coverts, whitish 
grey, with the centre slightly buff; rectrices, bronze- 
grey for thé two-thirds of its length, then purple-black, 
edged with pale buff ; upper mandible, black ; lower 
mandible, flesh colour, with black tip. 

Total length, 6-J- inches; wing, 2^ ; tail, 3 inches; 
bill 4. 

Habitat Demerara. 

I have also one specimen of Trinidad exactly alike, 
but a little smaller, and seems to be a male or a young 
female. It must be placed near longirostris. 



i8 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[March i, 1891 



Phaethornis whitelyi, n.sp. 

Male. — Upper surface bronze green, with yellow 
reflections ; central rectrices of same colour to about 
two'thirds of its length ; then white ; wings, purple ; the 
entire under surface, rufous grey ; tail, bronze-green, 
slightly tipped and edged with rufous grey ; bill, black ; 
lower mandible, flesh colour, with black tip. 
j^Total length, 5! inches ; wing, 2\ ; tail, 2J ; oil- 
men, i|. 

Habitat, Roraima, B. Guiana. 

This species is closely allied to P. bourcieri ; but it 
is easily distinguishable from that species by the colour 
of the back and also by the colour of the under sur- 
face, which is white in P. bourcieri. 

I have two specimens sent to me by Mr. Whitely 
as P. bourcieri. 

I have great pleasure in dedicating this new species 
to Mr. Whitely, junior, its discoverer. 

Aphantochroa alexandri, n.sp. 

Upper surface, dark green, more brilliant on the 
rump ; forehead, shiny metallic-green ; upper tail 
coverts, metallic green ; central rectrices, bronze-green ; 
under surface, shining green with golden reflections, 
especially on the flanks ; middle of the abdomen, dirty 
white ; under tail coverts, bronze green, edged with 
buff; wings, purple-brown; tail, purple, tipped with 
buff; bill, black ; under mandible, flesh-colour, 
with black tip ; spot under and above eye, pale buff. 

Total length, 4 inches ; wing, 2.\; bill, 1 ; tail. \\. 

Habitat : Demarara, B. Guinea. 

I have dedicated this species to Mr. Alexander, of 
New York, who dtscovered it in 1878, 
Florisuga sallei, n.sp. 

Head and neck, dark shiny green, passing to bronze 
on nape of neck ; white band on neck ; rest of upper 
part, including tail-coverts, golden-bronze ; central 
rectrices, white, with large spot bronzy green at tip 
and narrow external margin of same colour ; chin and 
breast of metallic-green, with blue reflections ; sides of 
flanks and part of abdomen golden bronze ; rest of 
under parts, including tail-coverts, pure white ; tail 
white, with purple tip, very slightly marked ; wings, 
purple-black ; bill, black. 

Trtal length, 4^ inches ; wing, 2 \ ; bill, 1 ; tail, 1 J. 

Collected by me in South Mexico. 

I hane a great pleasure in dedicating this beautiful 
species, the second known of the Genus, to my inti- 
mate friend, Mr. Auguste Salle, the well-known 
Mexican explorer. 

EUSTEPHANUS BURTONI, N.SP. 

Entire head magnificent metallic gold ; upper sur- 
face, including wing coverts, dark green ; tail, bronze- 
green ; under surface, white spotted green ; flanks, dark- 
green, as back; under tail-coverts, white, edged with buff. 

Total length, 4^ inches ; wing. 2 \ ; tail, if ; bill, f. 

Habitat : Chili." 

This species is very much allied to E. galeritus, 
but easily distinguishable by the splendid golden 
colour of the head and the general colour ot the upper 
surface and flanks, which are bronzy-green in E. 
galeritus and dark green in E. burtoni. 

I dedicate this magnificent new species, the fourth 
of the Genus, to Mr. Walter Burton, of London, who 
had the kindness to dispose of it in my favour. 
Zo, be contirmeds 



SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY. 



Notes on the Genus Pharomacrus or 
Resplendent Trogon. 

By A. Boucard. 
{Continued from page 7.) 



Pharomacrus Mocina, Var costaricensis. Boucard. 

Female.- — As the preceding species, but a trifle 
smaller in general size. 

Pharomacrus antlsianus d'Orbigny, Mag zool, 1837. 

Capite viridi, semi cri 'stato ; rectricibus tribus exter/u's 
utrinque albis. 

Male. — Head, throat, chest, all the upper surface 
of the body, wing and tail coverts, deep bronzy 
green, the green hue prevailing on the lower part of 
the back : wings, black ; under surface of the body 
and under tail-coverts, deep blood-red ; thighs blaek 
four centre tail feathers black ; the three outer ones 
black at the base and white for the remainder of their 
length with black shafts ; bill, bright yellow. 

Total length, 13 \ inches; bill, 1; wings, 7^; 
tail, 7£. 

Female, — -Head and chest brown, the latter marked 
with green ; wing-coverts and back, reddish green ; 
upper tail coverts, golden green ; wings, black ; 
primaries, brownish black, margined with buff_, 
lower part of the abdomen and under tail coverts, 
light blood-red ; tail, black ; the three outer feathers 
on each side toothed on their outer webs and nar- 
rowly tipped with greyish-white. 

Trogon antisianus d'Orb, 1837. 
,, antisiensis d'Orb. 

Calurus pulchellus Gould. 
,, peruvianus Gould. 
,, antisianus, Gray and Mitch. 
,, pulchellus Ponap. 

Habitat, Peru to Columbia. 

Pharomacrus fulgidus. Gould, Trog., pi., 24. 
Shining Train Bearer. 

Mas. — Capite aureo-viridi ; rectricibus tribus ex- 
ternis utrinque ad basin nigris per partem apicalem 
dimidiam albis. 

Male. — Face and head, golden bronze ; chest, 
wing-coverts, upper surface of body and upper tail 
coverts, deep golden green ; wings, jet black ; tail, 
black ; the apical portion of the three outer feathers 
on each side, white, with black shafts ; under surface 
very deep blood-red ; thighs, black ; bill, rich yellow. 

Female. — Head, dark brown ; chest, brown, washed 
with green on its upper portion ; wing-coverts and 
back, reddish or bronzy-green ; upper tail coverts, 
golden green ; wings, black ; primaries, blackish 
brown, margined with buff; lower part of the abdomen 
and under tail coverts, light blood-red ; tail, black ; 
the three lateral feathers on each side toothed on 
their external webs a.nd narrowly tipped with greyish 
white. 



March 



1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



19 



Trogon fulgidus Gould, Calurus fulgidus Gray é Mitch. 
Habitat Venezuela a?id Colombia. 

Pharomacrus auriceps Gould Trog pi. 25. 

,, ,, Gr. é Mitch Gen. of Bird. 

Golden Headed Train Bearer. 

Mas : — Capite splendide aureo-viridi ; rostro flavo, 
c auda in toto nigra. 

Male. — The whole of the head, throat, cheeks, and 
back of the neck goldy-bronze ; chest, all the upper 
surface, wing and tail coverts rich golden green ; wings 
and tail jet black ; breast, abdomen and under-tail 
coverts of the deepest blood-red inclining to crimson ; 
feathers clothing the tarsi, black ; bill, yellow; feet, 
reddish brown. 

Total length 15 \ inches; bill \\ inches; wing 8 
inches ; tail 8 inches. 

Female. — Face, chin and head chocolate-brown ; 
chest, upper surface, wing and tail coverts, golden 
green ; wings, brownish black ; primaries margined 
with buff; across the breast a band of brown; 
abdomen and under tail coverts, blood-red; tail, black ; 
the three outer feathers toothed on their outer webs 
and slightly tipped with white ; bill, blackish-brown ; 

Trogon {Colurus) auriceps Gould. 

Calurus auriceps. Gray & Mitch. 

Habitat Colombia. 

Pharomacrus auriceps. Var xanthogaster Turati & 
Salvadori. 

Male. — Exactly the same as auriceps ; but with 
yellow chest and abdomen instead of red. 

The only two specimens known are the type in 
Turati Collection, now in the Museum at Milan, the 
other in Count Berlepsch Collection. They were 
received by me in two large consignments of Pharo- 
macrus from Bogota (Colombia). I am quite certain 
that it is only an accidental yellow variety of P. 
auriceps ; nevertheless it is exceedingly rare and 
very interesting. These were the only two specimens 
seen amongst several thousand skins which have 
passed in my hands. 

Habitat, Neighbourhoods of Bogota (Columbia). 

Pharomacrus pavoninus Spix. 
Red-billed Train Bearer 

Mas. — Rostro ad basin miniaceo und apicem 
flaveo ; cauda nigra. 

Male. — Head and breast glossy green in some 
specimens, rich golden-green in others ; wings and the 
whole of the upper surface, rich glossy green ; upper 
tail coverts, green, the two centre ones reaching to the 
the end of the tail, but rarely exceeding it ; wings 
and tail, black ; breast and under-tail coverts, rich 
scarlet ; feathers of the thighs and tarsi, black with 
green reflections ; hides, dark red inclining to car- 
mine ; feet, ochre yellow; bill, carmine at the base 
and yellow at the tip. 

Female — Head, throat, and chest, dark greyish 
brown tinged with green ; upper part of the abdomen, 
dark greyish-brown ; the lower part and the under- 
tail coverts, deep scarlet ; feathers of the thigh and 
tarsi, black with green reflections ; shoulders and the 



whole of the upper surface, including the upper-tail 
coverts, whichf nearly reach to the end of the tail, 
rich green ; wings, brownish-black, with the outer 
edges of the feathers, buff; tail feathers, black, the 
two outer on^each side obscurely rayed with greyish- 
white ; Cupper mandible, dark brown ; under man- 
dible, dusky carmine, becoming brown at the point ; 
irides, brown. 

Trogon pavoninus. Spix. 

m „ Gould, P 2 S, 1833. 

Calurus pavoninus Sw. 

,, „ Gray Genera of Birds. 

„ „ Bonaparte Comp Avium. 

Tanypcplus pavoninus Lab a?id Heine. 
Pharomacrus pavoninus Sclat and Salv, 1867. 

These last descriptions were taken from the mag- 
nificent work on the Trogons, Monograph of th'. 
Trotjonidœ, Gould, Second Edition. They agree 
exactly with the specimens in my collection. 

A. B. 



Second Internationa! Ornithological 



igress. 

I have just received a personal invitation to the 
Second Ornithological Congress, to be held at Buda- 
pest, on the 17th of May next. 

This Congress is under the patronage of 
Count Bethlen, Minister of Agriculture, President. 
Emeric de Szalay, Ministerial Councillor, Vice 

President. 
Charles Kamermayer, Burgomaster, Vice President. 
Dr. Geza Entz, Professor to Polytechnical School, 

Vice President. 
Etienne de Chernel, General Secretary. 

The Scientific Committee has for its President, 
Otto Herman, Esq., Deputy, and Dr. Jules de 
Madarasz as Secrectary. 

Persons wishing to take part in the Congress are 
requested to arrive not later than the 16th of May. 

From the 16th of May, names of Members can be 
registered and detailed programmes can be had at 
the Hungarian Committee, National Museum, before 
and after twelve every day. 

Extract of Programme : 
17th May, Solemn Opening of Congress and 

Exhibition. 
1 8th May, Formation of Sections and Committees. 
19th ,, Working of Sections and Committees. 
20th ,, Solemn Meeting of Closing. 
From the 21st May, Excursions. 

Sections. 
I. Systematic III. Anatomy. V. Oology. 
II. Biologia IV. Avigeography. VI. Migration. 

VII. Economic Ornithology 
Dissertations with exact indication of Title and 
Section, must be declared not later than the 30th of 
April, to Budapest, National Museum. 



20 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[March i, 1891 



SCIENCE AND ART. 
The McKinley Bill. 



The notice on the McKinley Bill, printed in No. 1 
of The Humming Bird, has attracted a good deal of 
attention in America, and many letters about it have 
been received at the office of the Journal. Among 
them is one which I consider of great interest to the 
readers of The Humming Bird. Here it is : — 
" New Britain, Conn., 

"Jan. 9th, 1 89 1. 
" Editor of The Humming Bird. 

" Dear Sir, — I have this day received a specimen 
copy of your bright little paper. I note with regret 
the article on ' The McKinley Bill.' Your corres- 
pondent is very evidently misinformed when he states 
that the United States charge custom duties on ob- 
jects of science and art. I would call attention to the 
text of the McKinley Bill : ' Free List ' under the 
letter ' S.' 

" ' Specimens of natural history, botany and 
mineralogy when imported for cabinets or *as objects 
of science, and not for sale.' 

"Again the ' Free List ' : ' Philosophical and 
scientific apparatus .... statuary, casts .... 
paintings, drawings and etchings .... for the use 
of any society or institution .... for scientific or 
literary purposes, or for the encouragement of the fine 
arts, and not intended for sale.'' 

" In the list of dutiable objects, ' Miscellaneous 
Manufactures ' under letter ' F' : 

" ' Paintings in oil or water-colours and statuary not 
otherwise provided for in this Act, ad valorem 15 per 
cent.' 

*' Under the old tariff law, the duty was 30 per 
cent. We see that the McKinley Bill has actually 
reduced the duty on works of art for mercantile pur- 
poses, admits them free for truly artistic purposes, and 
also admits objects of natural history free for collec- 
tions and other than mercantile purposes. 

" Nearly all the objections raised against the 
McKinley tariff laws arise from unfamiliarity with the 
text of the Bill. 

" Trusting you will place this matter in a proper 
light with your many readers, 

" I remain, yours, 

" E. M. HULBERT, 

" New Britain, Conn., 

" U.S. of N.A." 
I am very glad to hear from the honourable corres- 
pondent just cited that objects of natural history and 
works of art will be admitted free for truly scientific 
and artistic purposes ; but I maintain that this is not 
enough. All objects of Natural History and works of 
art ought to be free everywhere, and these distinctions 
between objects for cabinets of science and not for 
sale, will be a source of vexations all along to all 
parties concerned. How will it be known that the 
objects sent to America are for scientific cabinets 
only, or for the trade ? It would be much better that 
it should be altogether free as in England, France, 
Germany, &c, 

The Editor. 



The Panama Canal. 

Continued from page 12. 



Supposing that Columbia should act in the way I 
have suggested in my preceding notice, it would be 
only just that a' committee composed of eminent 
Colombians should have a control over the ex- 
penditure made until the termination of the Canal, 
and I don't think that a serious and honest company 
would object to it. 

Help could also come from Europe, principally 
from Italy and Spain, which countries are preparing 
to celebrate in a sumptuous manner the four hun- 
dredth anniversary of the discovery of America by 
Christopher Columbus, 

What could be more appropriate for the celebra- 
tion of such a remarkable event in the history of the 
world, than a general subscription of all the inhabi- 
tants, rich and poor, of these two countries, to be 
handed to the company for the termination of the 
Colombus Canal. 

I have no doubt that if such a general subscription 
was started by Italy and Spain, all the other countries 
would unite in the same grand idea, and very likely 
enough money could be raised for the completion of 
this wonderful work ; especially if the Press of all 
countries was willing to help, and there are no 
reasons to have any doubt about it. 

Then it could be called truly an International 
Work, and every subscriber could be proud of having 
contributed to it. 

But if this is to be done, there is no time to lose, 
and the sooner steps are taken by Italy and Spain the 
better it will be ; as work must be resumed as soon as 
possible in the Isthmus, or else the expenses will get 
beyond the estimates made by the Committee of 
Engineers sent last year in Panama. 

I will call to the attention of the Special Com- 
missions appointed in Italy, Spain,. Buenos Ayres, 
&c, &c, all what precedes, in the hope that they will 
include in their programme of the celebration of the 
anniversary of the discovery of America by Christopher 
Columbus, the subscription mentioned above. 

Some days ago I received from France the follow- 
ing circular which I consider of interest to the bond- 
holders. 

It is directed by the President of the Paris Central 
Committee of the Panama Share and Bondholders to 
the Presidents of the Departmental Committees of 
France. Here it is : — 

Comité Central des Actionnaires et Obliga- 
taires de la Compagnie de Panama, 39, 
rue Taitbout, 39. 

Paris, le 12 janvier 1891. 
Monsieur le président, 
Je vous prie de vouloir bien donner communication 
à votre comité du projet d'achèvement dont je vous 
soumets aujourd'hui, d'une façon sommaire, les bases 
générales, me réservant de compléter, dans le plus 
bref délai possible, par de nouvelles explications, 
celles qui vous sont adressées dans cette circulaire. 



March i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



2f 



Après un travail de sept mois consacré à l'étude de 
ce projet, j'ai la satisfaction de vous annoncer que 
nous avons obtenu, d'une part, l'appui du gouverne- 
ment, et, de l'autre, l'approbation de la Liquidation. 

Voici en quelques mots les considérations qui nous 
ont guidés dans l'élaboration de ce projet. 

Soucieux de sauvegarder les intérêts des porteurs 
de titres, dont nous sommes les représentants et les 
défenseurs, nous nous sommes préoccupés avant tout 
de trouver une combinaison qui laissât intacts, dans 
toute la mesure du possible, leurs droits dans les pro- 
duits du canal une fois achevé. Pour atteindre ce 
résultat, il fallait que le capital pût, pour ainsi dire, se 
rémunérer lui-même sans grever les produits ultérieurs 
du transit. 

En second lieu, on ne pouvait s'arrêter à l'idée de 
demander directement aux anciens porteurs de nou- 
veaux sacrifices ; la plupart d'entre eux n'auraient 
vraisemblabbment pas répondu à cet appel. Enfin, 
on ne pouvait pas davantage songer à s'adresser à la 
généralité du public, sans lui offrir des advantages 
immédiats et un attrait supérieur à tous ceux qui ont 
pu le solliciter jusqu'à ce jour. 

C'est ce résultat que nous avons obtenu. 

Nous inspirant d'un système financier qui, dans un 
court espace de temps, a permis d'exécuter en Louisiane 
plus de 600 millions de travaux publics, en offrant 
aux souscripteurs l'espoir d'un gain immédiat et con 
sidérable par une combinaison de loteries successives, 
nous avons pensé que le même système pourrait être 
appliqué en France, et avec un succès au moins égal, 
en considérant l'importance des intérêts engagés dans 
l'entreprise du Panama, et en tenant compte des res- 
sources financières presque inépuisables de notre pays, 
ressources dont nous avons eu maintes fois des preuves 
si éclatantes. 

Nous nous sommes donc arrêtés au principe d'une 
succession de loteries annuelles, de cent millions 
chacune, et comportant chacune vingt millions de 
lots ainsi répartis. 

Un lot de cinq millions ; 
Deux lots de un million ; 
Six lots de cinq cent mille francs ; 
Cent lots de cent mille francs. 

Le résultat net de chacune de ces opérations, dé- 
falcation faite du montant des lots et des frais 
d'émission, sera affecté au payement des travaux au 
fur et à mesure de leur exécution et jusqu'à leur 
parfait achèvement. 

En souscrivant, ou en faisant souscrire à ces loteries, 
suivant ses ressources ou ses moyens d'action, 
chacun des anciens porteurs saura qu'il contribue 
ainsi à l'achèvement du canal qui restera sa propriété. 
En même temps, s'il est favorisé par le sort, 
il courra la chance de gagner des lots d'une impor- 
tance exceptionnelle et telle qu'aucune loterie au monde 
n'en a encore jamais offert l'équivalent à aucun 
public. 

Ceux qui, au contraire, n'auront pas été favorisés 
par le sort auront tout au moins obtenu ce résultat 
considérable d'assurer l'achèvement du canal et de 
reconstituer ainsi, à leur seul profit, la fortune qu'ils 
ont aujourd'hui perdue. 



C'est ce qui nous permet de vous dire, Monsieur 
le Président, qu'il n'y a pas, pour achever Panama, 
d'autre combinaison que la nôtre. 

En effet, ce qui a empêché jusqu'ici et ce qui 
empêcherait certainement encore tout autre com- 
binaison financière, c'est la nécessité de faire une 
nouvelle série d'appels à l'épargne publique, sous 
forme d'actions et d'obligations qu'il faudrait encore 
rémunérer par un service d'intérêt des plus onéreux. 
Et chacun sait que dans une affaire qu'il s'agit 
de relever, les derniers venus imposent toujours à 
leurs prédécesseurs des conditions qui, sous quelque 
forme qu'on les déguise, n'en constituent pas moins 
une surcharge écrasante pour l'ancien capital. 

Au contraire, le caractère vraiment unique de 
notre combinaison, caractère qui suffit à démon- 
trer sa supériorité sur tout autre système financier, 
c'est que sa réalisation est assurée sans qu'il soit 
nécessaire de demander le moindre sacrifice aux 
anciens porteurs de titres, et qu'en outre son résultat 
final sera de restituer à ces porteurs de titres 
l'intégralité de leur capital primitif. L'argent fourni 
par les loteries offre, en effet, sur tout autre cet 
avantage inappréciable d'être donné une fois pour 
toutes et de ne comporter ni intérêt ni remboursement. 

Ce système, d'une simplicité et d'une efficacité 
démontrées par l'exemple de la Louisiane qui, nous le 
répétons, en a retiré une somme de six cents millions, 
réussira en France comme il a réussi dans un simple 
Etat de l'Amérique du Nord. Nous en avons pour 
garants les puissants concours qui nous sont acquis 
pour sa mise en œuvre et son fonctionnement. 

Nous nous sommes d'abord assuré l'appui du 
gouvernement, qui demandera aux Chambres en 
notre nom, l'autorisation nécessaire pour une opération 
financière de cette nature. En second lieu, nous 
avons garanti d'avance, par le groupement et la colla- 
boration de nos premières maisons de crédit, le service 
régulier de nos loteries. 

Le détail de ces opérations fera l'objet d'une cir- 
culaire qui vous sera très prochainement adressée et 
dont la présente lettre ne fait que résumer les traits 
principaux. 

Si nous avons cru devoir, monsieur le président, 
vous adresser ces explications préliminaires, c'est que 
nous avons tenu à bien établir, dans notre intérêt 
commun, que ce projet, dont nous nous occupons 
depuis plus de sept mois, au mon du comité central 
et des comités régionaux, est notre propriété exclusive, 
et que nous avons à la fois le droit et le devoir de le 
revendiquer hautement en notre nom collectif. 

Cette idée que nous émettons aujourd'hui, main- 
tenant que nous l'avons entourée de toutes les 
garanties qui vont lui assurer le succès, nous appar- 
tient en propre, et j'entends, dans notre intérêt 
commun, qu'étant le fruit du travail élaboré par le 
mandataire des comités régionaux de France, elle reste 
la propriété de ces derniers, dont les pouvoirs ont été 
dévolus à cet effet au comité central et à son président. 

Enfin, monsieur le président, je vous informe en 
même temps que, se ralliant aux conclusions de la 
commission d'études, qui a posé les bases du projet 
d'achèvement et fait dans son rapport les évaluations 
des travaux, la nouvelle Compagnie s'assurera des 
contrats à forfait, offrant les garanties les plus sérieuses. 



22 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[March i, 1891 



Dans le choix des personnes chargées de cette 
mission, il faut à tout prix, et sous peine d'un échec 
certain auprès de l'opinion publique, éviter de retomber 
dans les errements du passé. 

Il est nécessaire de bien montrer aux malheureuses 
victimes d'une catastrophe sans précédent que les 
noms compromis dans les fautes de l'ancienne ad- 
ministration ne pourraient en aucun cas se retrouver à 
la tête de l'entreprise nouvelle. Pour fermer de suite 
la porte à des compétitions dangereuses, et dont nous 
ne voulons à aucun prix, il est indispensable de bien 
établir ce 'principe de l'exclusion formelle de toute 
personnalité ayant contribué, à un titre quelconque, 
au lamentable résultat de la première entreprise. C'est 
ce principe qui fait la base de nos négociations pour 
nous assurer des concours d'une valeur et d'une hon- 
nêteté éprouvées, négociations dont nous sommes 
heureux de pouvoir vous garantir d'avance le succès. 

Je borne là, pour aujourd'hui, monsieur le président, 
ces explications préliminaires qui seront complétées 
dans quelques jours ; et je vous prie de vouloir bien 
me répondre immédiatement, au nom de votre comité, 
que vous vous ralliez à la combinaison élaborée par le 
comité central et par son président, tant en leur nom 
qu'au nom des comités régionaux de France. 

Si sommaires que soient les explications qui pré- 
cèdent, vous en dégagerez aisément la ligne de con- 
duite qui nous est imposée par les circonstances et dans 
laquelle je ne saurais trop vous engager à entrer 
immédiatement. 

C'est du Parlement, auquel le gouvernement va sou- 
mettre notre projet, que va dépendre, dans quelques 
jours, la réalisation de nos légitimes espérances. C'est 
donc aux membres du Parlement, c'est-à-dire aux 
sénateurs et députés de votre région, que vous devrez 
faire connaître votre désir formel de voir aboutir une 
combinaison qui peut seule sauver notre fortune com- 
promise, et qui ne peut se réaliser sans la sanction 
préalable de leur vote. Vous recevrez dans la huitaine 
la formule de la requête que, d'accord avec nous, vous 
devrez adresser aux représentants de votre départe- 
ment. 

Cette manifestation d'un désir unanime sera, aux 
yeux du Parlement, la démonstration de cette vérité 
que les comités régionaux de Panama représentent en 
cette circonstance l'épargne française dans sa géné- 
ralité la plus réelle et la plus large, et que c'est bien une 
question d'intérêt national, dans le véritable et plein 
sens du mot, qui est ici en jeu. 

Ce n'est donc pas à une société financière quel- 
conque que le gouvernement sera appelé à concéder 
la faveur d'une mesure exceptionnelle, mais au pays 
lui-même, qui a fourni les quatorze cents millions 
actuellement engloutis dans l'affaire de Panama, et qui 
lui demande aujourd'hui, par votre voix, de l'aider à 
reconquérir cette énorme partie de lafortunepublique. 

Tel est, monsieur le président, votre rôle et celui de 
votre Comité. Telle est la tâche urgente à laquelle 
je vous convie, car elle constitue la première et la plus 
indispensable phase d'une action pour la suite de 
laquelle nous comptons sur votre actif dévouement et 
dont une très prochaine circulaire vous apportera in- 
cessamment le programme complet, 



Recevez, monsieur le président, l'assurance de ma 
considération la plus distinguée. 

Le président du Comité central des action- 
naires et obligataires de Panama. 

Hennet de Goutel. 

Although myself and friends possess large quan- 
tities of shares and bonds, we had never heard before 
of the said Central Committee and branches. 

I am very glad that it exists, and will take the 
liberty to call the attention of the members to the 
two preceding notices on the Canal, published in The 
Humming Bird, parts 1 and 2. 

This idea of a lottery seems to me a very good 
one if the authorisation of the French Government 
can be had, which is rather doubtful ; but I think 
that my idea of a general subscription all over the 
world, especially in Europe, America, Australia, and 
Japan, which countries are more or less interested in 
the Canal, has more chance to succeed, if it is 
properly submitted to the public. 

If necessary, a printed receipt of the sums sub- 
scribed could be given to each subscriber from one 
franc upwards, to be repaid with a large bonus by 
public drawings from the benefits, after payment of 
dividends to the bondholders and to the shareholders, 
not exceeding ten per cent for the last. For instance, 
five francs for each franc subscribed. 

In that way all subscribers would have, not 
only the pleasure to co-operate to one of the most 
extraordinary works of the nineteenth century, but 
would receive in a certain time four hundred per 
cent profit on their original subscription. 

This would be philanthropic and profitable 
business combined together. If these combinations 
don't succeed there are still some other ways of saving 
the Canal, and one of them will make the subject of 
another chapter. 

To be continued. 



Answers to Correspondents. 

Messrs. Boucard, Pottier & Co., in answer to the 
numerous letters received from the Continent and 
from America offering Objects of Natural History for 
sale, remind their Correspondents that their establish- 
ment is a Naturalist's Agency, started with the special 
purpose of serving as intermediary between the 
collectors and the amateurs. They will be glad to 
receive in commission all sorts of Objects of Natural 
History, and will do their utmost to give entire satis- 
faction to both parties concerned. Rare Objects, 
either in Curios, Paintings, AVorks of Art, Natural 
History in general, sent in commission will be adver- 
tised free of charge in the journal. 

Lists of desiderata for rare specimens of Natural 
History, Works of Art, Curios, etc., will also be in- 
serted free of charge. 

All communications should be addressed — 
Naturalist's Agency, 

225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 

Obituary. — Mr. Edmond André, the well-known 
Hymenopterist of Beaune, (Côte d'Or, France), died at 
the end of January ; his Species on the Hymenopterae 
of Europe and Algeria is one of the best works on 
these insects. He leaves a widow and five children. 



March i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



23 



An 



Easy Way of Making One Hundred 
Pounds Sterling a Year. 

BIRDS AND MAMMALS. 
By Mr. Walter Burton. 



In collecting birds, mammals, &c, the first neces- 
sary is the gun and its appurtenances, I need not 
say that it is advisable to purchase these of good 
quality. I have collected in North Western Australia 
with a very simple breech-loading walking-stick gun, 
by Cogswell & Harrison, 410 bore, with paper shells; 
but should recommend solid-drawn brass rifle shells, 
which can be reloaded many times. For humming 
birds a friend of mine has used a "380 bore " Excel " 
gun, purchased in New York, of American make, 
which he found very useful for the purpose, using 
solid-drawn rifle shells. A 12 bore breech-loading 
double-barrelled gun, with shells loaded with large 
and small shot, is the most useful for all-round work, 
when, if you are after large birds and a small bird 
turns up, you can perhaps bag it without doing too 
much harm to its plumage. As for powder, get the 
best that can be procured in the district in which the 
collecting is being done. I may mention that Curtis 
and Harvey's black is the most reliable in my estima- 
tion, if it can be got. This I had to pay 5s. per lb. 
for in Derby, N.W. Australia ; but in Sydney for 3s. 
or 3s. 6d. Be very careful to keep the caps for re- 
capping the shells, in well closed boxes ; a tightly 
corked bottle in a wooden case is a good way of 
carrying them, so as to keep the air and damp from 
them as effectually as possible ; even an immersion in 
water will do no damage to them. I am rather a 
believer in shot of small size, as a rule, one gets 
pretty close to the bird before one sees it. For wads, 
a thick felt one over the powder and a thin card- 
board one over the shot is all that is required, unless 
a great quantity is loaded at one time, when a thin 
greaseproof wad between the powder and thick wad 
can be used to prevent the grease from the thick wad 
soaking into and caking the powder, which reduces 
its strength and fouls the barrel of the gun. In hot 
climates it is absolutely necessary to clean the inside 
of the barrels every evening, as the residue left of the 
powder dries hard, and it requires a tight fitting piece 
of tow wrapped around the cleaning rod to dislodge 
it ; vaseline is the very best cleanser and lubricant, a 
pound tin goes a long way, and, moreover, it is useful 
in a number of instances in camping out, for softening 
leather straps, saddles, boots, abrasions of the skin, 
etc. Particular attention should also be paid to the 
break-off, the extreme breech of the barrels and the 
face of the breech piece where the strikers come 
through, to see that it is well lubricated and free from 
dirt and grit, as it is important that these parts should 
fit well. The tools for reloading the shells are a de- 
and re-capper, a graduated powder and shot measure, 
a short wad rammer and a resizer, a piece of steel 
with a hole the size of the shell to drive the empty 
shells through to the flange in case they should 
bulge. This is necessary in the case of paper shells 
as they expand more readily than the brass. 

A strong cleaning-rod should be taken, one 
nearly the size of the bore, by which less tow 



is required, it is much firmer to grasp and not easily 
broken. In the manner of carrying the gun there 
are so many ways, one's experience will tell the best 
and handiest ways of carrying with the least fatigue. 
If there are two guns to carry, a sling over the 
shoulder can be used for one, the other carried ready 
in the hand. With a pack-horse do not put the gun 
in the pack in case the horse should knock against a 
tree or rock or the pack be dislodged, when, perhaps, 
some irreparable damage may be done. In riding on 
horseback the butt should be rested on the thigh, the 
barrels pointing upward, or laid across the saddle in 
front in open country ; if travelling by waggon, the 
spare guns should be placed in their respective cases, 
and the one to be used carried in the hand. Do not 
rest a gun upright against a tree in the forest or lay 
it on the ground, as it is so easy to overlook it, and 
perhaps lose a lot of time hunting after it ; lay it on 
top of a dead bush, or, if convenient, across the 
trunk of a tree, as it is then more easily seen than 
when standing upright. If travelling by canoe, spare 
guns should be packed away in the driest place ; the 
one in use laid so that it will not fall down or be 
trodden upon. In a permanent camp, or one in 
which a long stay is made, some natural forks of 
hranches can be stuck in the ground inside the tent 
in which to lay them like a gun-rack, or two straight 
sticks with loops tied at intervals. 

To be a good shot the principal things are plenty 
of practice and a liking for shooting. x\s a rule 
collectors are not good shots in a sporting sense, for 
if a collector sees a good bird sitting he will shoot it 
without risking the chance of losing it by making it 
fly, and in forests very few flying shots are to be had, 
and powder and shot are not to be recklessly thrown 
away ; still some little skill with the gun and rifle 
is very useful in an emergency. I have found 
sometimes a great difficulty in finding the birds I 
have shot which have dropped into the grass or 
undergrowth, the colours of the birds in many 
instances assimilating with those of the vegetation 
among which it has fallen. If you have a dead bird 
lay it on the place where the other was seen to fall 
and so accustom the eye to the look of the bird in 
that situation, this 1 have found a great help. I have 
also found it awkward to carry the birds after they are 
shot, to keep them clean and in good condition, the 
best way I know of for small birds is to pass a needle 
with thread through the nostrils, tie the thread into a 
loop and pass a short stick through the loop and 
carry them in the hand : large birds may be carried 
in the hand by the legs ; as soon as the bird is shot a 
little cotton-wool should be thrust into the throat to 
prevent any saliva running from out the bill, notes 
should now be taken of the colours of the soft parts 
such as the eyes, cere, bill, legs, feet, toes, claws and 
any bare skin as a help to the mounter who eventually 
stuffs the birds as well as the naturalists who describe 
them. A small note book can be conveniently carried 
in a pouch fastened to the belt ; these notes can be 
copied out in the evening after work, with anything of 
interest observed of the birds, habits, etc., in this 
manner : — 

No. 1. Name of bird. Sex. Length. Colours 
of soft parts. Remarks. Locality. Date. 
(To be continued.) 



24 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[March i, 1891 



Report on the two last Public Sales of 
Natural History Specimens at Stevens'. 

In November Sale, lot 90, Omithoptera durvillana 
realized £2 2 o ; lot 109, Morpho centralis, fetched 
1 6s ; Morpho AI exandrowna 24s; Morpho Achhillides 
i6$.; lot 119, Morpho up. sold at 15^.; lot 66, a 
splendid series of Carabus from Chili realized ^12. 
It was bought by Messrs Boucard, Potter & Co. Lot 
220, Moth* from China 30s. ; lots 283 to 286 inclusive, 
a small collection of birds from Gaboon was bought 
by Messrs. Boucard, Potter & Co. for 47s. 

In January Sale some very rare species of Butter- 
flies were offered, and a very good collection of 
Cetonidae which sold at very fair prices. 

Coliathus abbosignatus, Kirby, was knocked down 
at j£>5 T 5 °"> l ot 58, 21 Cetonidae, including 
D. ivallichi ; bowrimji berloloni, nireus, moryani, 
der jiana, homimani and others 40s. ; all the other 
lots of Cetonidae were sold from 7s. to 35^. each ; 
lot 1 00 a, two very fine Owls under glass shades 
realized 9 guineas; lot 101 a, one specimen of 
Frilled Bustard 45s.; lot 103 a, Three Armadillos in 
Case 50s. ; Lot 105 a, pair of Common Pheasants with 
young, in case, 2 guineas. Several lots of Goliathus 
D'ruryi imperfect fetched 20s. and 2ij>\ ; Omithoptera 
Durvillana 30s. ; two large collections of Darjeeling 
"Butterflies and Moths were knocked down at £4 10s. 
and 5 guineas ; Omithoptera priamvs 14s. ; Ornithop- 
iera hippolythus 1 5s. ; several pairs of Charaxes 
pyrrhus were sold at 10s. / Charaxes euryalus £1 126 
Stichopthalma howqua from North China 16s.; Morpho 
anaxibia female, 24s. ; Morpho ega female, 18s. ; 
Agrias claudia female, 2 guineas; Agrias amydon male, 
2 guineas; Agrias phalcidion male. 50s. ; Omithoptera 
platen i, £2 18 o ; Omithoptera ruf colli* 20s. ; 
Morpho cisseis 3 guineas, (Boucard, Pottier & Co.); 
Morpho Centralis, 12s. ; Morpho achillides, 15s. ; 
Papilio telegonus, 2\s. ; Papilio penelope, 22s.; Papilio 
blumei, 26s. ; Papilio daedalus 14s. ; Papilio deip hontes, 
16s. ; Papilio evan, 16s. ; Teniopalpus imperialis 
female, £1 15 o ; Charaxes imperialis, 26s.; Charaxes 
ameliœ, 17s. ; Sphynx Moth from North-east Sumatra 
fetched £3 10 o; a unique British specimen of 
Cuculia abrotana taken in Devonshire fetched the 
nice sum of i8.r. 

There was a large attendance and the competition 
for some of the best lots was very keen. 

Report on January and February Public 
Sales of Postage Stamps. 

At Mr. Thomas Bull's sale on January 9th and 
10th several lots realised good prices. 

Bahamas, imperf., id., 22s.; Canada, 12^/. black, 
surcharged, "Specimen," 26s.; Ceylon, imperf., 
4d., rose 90s. New Brunswick, is., violet, unused, 
one corner of margin a little cut, 95s. Barbadoes, 
provisional, id. on half 5s., 36s. Cape of Good 
Hope, wood block, id. ; red grand copy, 45s. ; India, 
\ anna, red, grand copy, 115s. 

On Saturday, January 24th, Mr. W. Hadlow held 
his first sale at Tottenham, the best lots realised fair 
prizes. Vancouver Island, 10c, blue, imperf., 
22s.; Brazil, 180 R, slanting figures, 25s.; Canada, 
6d., purple black, perf., 30s. ; ditto, dd., green, fine 



margins, i6.r. ; ditto, \od., blue fine pair on original 
paper, 2<~s. Messrs. Boucard, Pottier and Co. 

Ceylon, imperf., 8c/., fine margins, 90s. ; ditto, 
gd., brown violet, 305. Great Britain, Mulready, 2d.., 
blue, with 2d. blue, no lines attached, 40s. ; ditto, 
^"5 orange, 29s.; India, long rect, service postage, 
2 annas, splendid copy, 24s. New South Wales, $s., 
imperf. ; fine margins, 30^. Prince Edward Isle, 
2d., rose, a fine pair, unused, 30s. Queensland, 6d., 
emerald green, no W'mark, thin wove paper, 5s. 
Tuscany, 6, crazie red, 57s. 6d. Virgin Isles, id., 
green on buff, imperf., 275-. Western Australia, 
6d., bronze, good copy, 21s. 

Messrs. Cheveley and Co. started their sixteenth 
sale on Friday, February 13th. Below we give a few 
prices. Columbia (1861), 5^. yellow, unused and 
used, ios. United States (185 1), splendid pair of 
5c. imperf., 18s. Victoria, beaded oval, 6^/., orange, 
perf., sli, cut, 29s. West x\ustralia, 6d., green, 
unused, 14s. Tasmania, 3d., red-brown, imperf., 
unused, 65s. Costa Rica, 10 pesos, black, unused, 
20s. New Zealand, 4-/., yellow, no watermark, a 
pair unused, and original gum, perf., 32s. New 
South Wales, id. and 3d., 26s. British East Africa, 
first issue, pair of 4 annas, used, 32^. Suez Canal, 
20c, used, original (guaranteed), 77s. 6d. 

Messrs. Boucard, Pottier and Co, will be happy to 
execute commissions for gentlemen who cannot 
attend the sales. 

Bird Skins, and Feather Sales. 

There was no Feather and Bird Skin Sale this 
month. 

The next Sale will take place on the 6th of March. 

FOR SALE.— Insects Coleoptera. 

Private Collection of Mr. Boucard. 

Cicindelidae, including types of Oxygonia, 
Boucardi Chev, Cicindela costaricensis and others, 
2s. each. Carabidae, including many types, is. each. 
Dytiscidae, 6d. each. Staphylinidae, 3d. each. 

Pselaphidas, Gnostidae, Paussidae, Scydmaenidae, 
Silphidae, Scaphididae, Histeridae, Nitidulidae, Trog- 
ositidas, Rhyssodidae, Cucujidae, Cryptophagidae, 
Derodontidse, Latrididae, Mycetophagidae, Dermestidae 
Byrrhidae, Parnidae, and Heteroceridae, 3d. each. 
Lucanidae and Passalidae, including many types, is. 
each. Copridae, 6d. each. Melolonthidae, 6d. each. 
Rutelidae, including all the types of Plusiotis, 
Chrysina, Heterosternus, 2s. each. Scarabaeidae, is. 
each. Cetonidae, is. each. Buprestidaa, is. each. 
Trixagidae, Monommidae, Eucnemidae, and Elateridae, 
6d. each. Cebrionidae, Rhipidoceridae, Dascillidae, 
and Malacodermidae, 3d. each. Cleridae, 6d. each. 
Lymexilonidae, Cupesidae, Ptinidae, Bostrychidae, and 
Cioidae, 3d. eaeh. Tenebrionidae, 3d. each. Nilion- 
idae, Pythidae, Melandryidae, Lagriidas, Pedilidae. 
Anthicidse, Pyrochroidae, Mordellidae, and Rhipidoph- 
oridae, 3d. each, Cantharidae, 6d. each. Cephaloidae, 
Oedemeridae, and Mycteridae, 3d. each. Curculionidae 
and Scolytidae, 3d. each. Brenthidas and Anthotribidae, 
6d. each. Cerambycidae, is. each: Bruchidae, 3d. each. 
Chrysomelidae, 3d. each. Cassididas, 6d. each. 
Languridae and Erotylidae, 6d. each. Tritomidae and 
Cocciaellidae, 3d. each. 



March i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



BOUCARD, POTTIER & CO., 

NATURALISTS AND FEATHER MERCHANTS, 

W.C., England. 

EXPORTATION. 



COMMISSION. 



Messrs. BOUCABD, POTTIER & CO. offer to sell on commission all kinds of Objects of Natural 
History, Collections of Mammal and Bird Skins, Skeletons, Human and Animal Skulls, Insects of all 
orders pinned and set, or in papers ; Marine, Fresh Water, and Land Shells ; Reptiles and Fishes in spirit ; 
Crustacea and Arachnids in spirit ; Ethnological collections from all parts ; Showy Bird Skins and 
Feathers for Plumassiers and Naturalists ; Mammal Skins for Furriers ; Bright species of Insects for 
Artificial Florists ; Rare old Stamps, used and unused; Curios of all sorts, Pictures and Works of Art, etc., 
etc., etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting Messrs. Boucard, Pottier 
& Co., who having a large connection with Amateurs in all parts of the world, are able to get the very best 
prices for them. 

Messrs. Boucard, Pottier & Co. beg to advise Directors of Museums and private Amateurs that they 
undertake to stuff from a Humming Bird to a Whale at very reasonable prices. Only experienced and 
scientific Taxidermists are employed by the hour for that work, which will always be of the best class. 

An inspection of their Galleries, where a large number of specimens are always on show, is solicited. 

Special fabrication of Mammals and Birds Eyes at wholesale prices which defy all competition, either 
as quality or price. See special Advertisement. 

New Stands for Birds, suitable for Museums and Scientific Institutions. No one should be without 
them. The appearance of the Birds on these stands is unequalled, and everyone should adopt them and 
renovate the old ones. See Advertisement. 



TO PLUMASSIERS AND FEATHER MERCHANTS. 



Lots of PLUMES and BIRD SKINS, consigned to the Naturalist's Agency Office and for sale. 

ALL THE SKINS ARE OF FIRST QUALITY. . 



1 Lot of 12 Eifle Birds from Australia (magnificent skins) 

Price £13 4 

,, „ 12 Eegent Birds (very fine skins). ... £4 

„ „ 50 Mock Begents £6 

,, „ 60 Sterna minuta ... ... ... ... £7 

,, ,, 50 Sterna various £4 

,, „ 50 Fire back Pheasants " £5 

„ „ 10 Bed and Black Argus £4 



6 oz. Long Osprey " £9 

20 skins Short Osprey, selected £8 

20 Bed Osprey, flat skins £3 

20 Long Tailed Trojans ...* £20 

20 ditto from Columbia (splendid skins) ... £8 

50 Cock of Eock ; 1st choice £10 

20 Bed Paradise birds, sound skins ... £10 

100 Boilers, flat skins £4 

100 King Fishers £6 

100 Sea Snipes, various, fine skins ... £4 

50 Sea Gulls £3 

2 Golden Turkey, fine skins £6 

10 Goura Pidgeon from N. Guinea ... £6 

50 Wild Pidgeons £4 

20 Small Bustard £4 

25 African Bed Partridge £2 

50 Californian Quails £3 

20 Mandarin Ducks £4 

50 Hawks, various £5 

50 Large Owls £6 

50 Owls, medium £2 

50 Scops £6 

20 Barn Owls £8 

50 Parrots, various £4 

50 Grey King Fishers £6 

50 Mexican Jays, new to Plumassiers ... £8 

25 Mexican Wood Peckers £2 10 

50 Golden Oriole £4 

50 Shrikes £2 10 



1 lot de 12 Paradis gorge d'acier de l'Australie (peaux splen- 
dides Prix 330 fr. 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 

1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



12 Eégenfs d'Australie, très belles peaux ... 

50 Faux Bégents 

60 Hterna minuta 

50 Sternes variées ... ... 

50 Ithagines 

10 Argus satyres à ventre rouge et à ventre 

noir ... 

6 oz. Aigrette longue 

20 Peaux Aigrette crosse, 1ère qualité 

20 Aigrette rouge, peaux plates 

'20 Couroucous à longue queue 

20 ditto de la Colombie, peaux de 1er choix 

et bien préparées 
50 Coqs de roche, 1er choix ... 

20 Paradis rouge, peaux rondes 

100 Eolliers, peaux plates 

100 Martins pécheurs, peaux plates... 

100 Bécassines Pluviers, etc., belles peaux... 

50 Goélands et Mouettes 

2 Dindons ocellés, belles peaux 

10 Pigeons Goura de la N. Guinée 

50 Pigeons sauvages .... 

20 Petites Outardes 

25 Perdrix d'Afrique 

50 Colins de la Californie 

20 Canards mandarins 

50 Oiseaux de proie, divers 

50 Grandes Chouettes 

50 Chouettes moyennes 

50 Chouettes Scops ... 

20 Chouettes Effraies ... 

50 Perroches diverses 

50 Martin Pécheurs gris 

50 Geais du Mexique (nouveauté) ... 

25 Pics à Baguettes 

50 Orioles, dorés 

50 Pie Grièches 



100 fr. 
150 fr. 
175 fr. 
100 fr. 
125 fr. 

100 fr. 
225 fr. 

200 fr. 

75 fr. 

500 fr. 

200 fr. 

250 fr 

250 fr. 

100 fr. 

150 fr. 

100 fr. 
75 fr. 
... 150 fr. 
... 150 fr. 
... 100 fr. 
... 100 fr. 
... 50 fr. 
... 75 fr. 
... 100 fr. 
... 125 fr. 
... 150 fr. 
... 50 fr. 
... 150 fr. 
... 200 fr. 
... 100 fr. 
... 150 fr. 
... 200 fr. 
62 fr. 50 c. 
... 100 fr. 
62 fr. 50 c 



vî 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



\ March i, 1891 



1 Lot of 100 Hoopooes Price £6 

1 „ „ 50 Wax Wings £3 

1 ., ,, 50 African Humming £2 

1 „ „ 100 Blue Creepers £5 

1 ,, ,, 50 Green Creepers ... ... ... ... £2 

1 ,, ,. 50 Bed Tanagers £2 

1 „ ,, 100 Yellow and Black Tanagers £4 

1 „ ,, 50 Five Coloured Tanagers £4 

1 ,, ,, 100 Tanagers, various £2 

1 ,, ,, 50 Mexican Starlings £5 

1 ,, ,, 100 European Starlings £2 

1 ,, „ 25 Blue Jays £2 

1 ,, „ 50 Alpine Crows £4 

1 ,, ,,50 Metallic Starlings £4 

1 ,, „ 50 Large New Guinea Pitta £8 

1 ,, „ 25 Eoyal Fly Catchers £5 

1 ,, ,, 50 Fly Catchers, various £2 

1 ,, ,, 50 Yellow-Headed Manakins £1 

1 „ „ 50 Bed and Black ditto £1 

1 „ ,, 20 Goat Suckers £2 

1 „ „ 100 Swallows £4 

1 ,, „ 10 Bower birds £2 

1 „ ,, 100 Green Humming, all males £2 

1 „ „ 100 Améthyste Humming £4 

1 ,, ,, 100 Large Humming £2 

1 ,, ,, 50 Ruby Topaz Humming £2 

1 ,, ,, 25 Long Blue Tail Humming £5 

1 ,, „ 10 Fire Tail Humming £12 

1 „ ,, 50 Long Tail Humming, various £4 









1 lo 








1 ,, 








1 „ 








1 1, 








1 ,, 


10 





1 ,, 








1 „ 








1 „ 








1 ,, 








1 „ 








1 „ 








1 ,. 








1 M 








1 „ 








1 „ 








1 „ 








1 „ 


5 





1 „ 


5 





1 » 








1 1, 








1 „ 


10 





1 ,1 


10 





1 „ 








1 „ 


10 





1 „ 


10 





1 „ 








1 ,1 








1 „ 








1 ,. 



100 Huppes 

50 Jaseurs -. 

50 Sui manga 

100 Guit guits à tête bleue 

50 Guit guits verts 

50 Tangaras rouges 

100 Tangaras noirs et jaunes 
50 Tangaras, quinticolor 

100 Tangaras divers 

50 Etouvn,eaux du Mexique 

100 Sansonnets 

25 Geais 

50 Corbeaux des Alpes 

50 Merles Métalliques bleus 

50 Grandes Brèves, de la N. Guinée 
25 Gobe mouches royaux 
50 Gobe mouches divers 

50 Manakins à tête jaune 

50 Manakins à tête rouge 

20 Engoulevents 

100 Hirondelles 

10 Oiseaux satinés 

100 Oiseaux mouches Verts, tous mâles 

100 Clarisses et Parzudaki 

100 Grands Oiseaux mouches divers 

50 Bubis Topazes 

50 Kings 

10 Saphos ou Queues de feu ... 

50 Oiseaux Mouches à longue queue 



Prix 150 fr 
... 75 fr 
... 50 fr 
... 125 fr 
... 50 fr' 
62 fr. 50 c' 
... 100 fr' 
... 100 fr' 
... 50 fr* 
... 125 fr" 
... 50 fr* 
... 50 fr" 
... 100 fr" 
... 100 fr" 
... 200 fr" 
... 125 fr" 
... 50 fr" 
36 fr. 25 c" 
36 fr. 25 c" 
... 50 fr' 
... 100 fr' 
62 fr. 50 c" 
62 fr. 50 c" 
... 100 fr" 
62 fr. 50 c - 
62 fr. 50 c" 
... 125 fr' 
... 300 fr' 
... 100 fr- 



1 Lot of 5 Magnificent Fire back Pheasant ; quite new 

to Plumassiers (A Splendid Bied) Price £8 
1 ,, ,, 25 Macaws, flat skins £4 



JUST ARRIVED, DECEMBER, 1890. 

1 ,, ,, 100 Hoopooes 
1 ,, ,,50 Indian Crows 



Price £6 
£7 



TO ARTIFICIAL FLORISTS, JEWELLERS, 
BRIGHT INSECTS. 



etc. 



1 Lot of 25,000 Blue beetles 



25,000 Green „ large 

25,000 „ „ small 

25,000 Purple „ 

1000 Golden Phaneus 

5000 May Bugs 

1000 Golden Antichira 

1000 Large Green Buprests 

1000 Golden Buprests 

500 Oeellated Buprests 

50 Diamond Beetles 

500 Brazilian Golden Cacides 

500 Butterflies from West Africa in papers 



Price £4 
... £5 



£4 
£8 

£10 
£4 

£10 
£4 
£4 
£5 
£5 
£4 
£4 






lLo 





1 „ 





1 >, 





1 » 





1 ,, 





1 ., 





1 M 





1 „ 





1 „ 





1 „ 





1 ,. 





1 >, 





1 „ 



Lot de 25,000 Hoplies bleues 

25,000 Grandes Chrysomèles vertes 
25,000 Petites 

25,000 Chrysomèles violettes 
1000 Phaneus dorés ... 

5000 Hannetons 

1000 Petits Hannetons vert dorés . 
1000 Grands Buprestes vert dorés 

1000 Buprestes dotés 

500 Buprestes ocellés 

50 Chareuçons dorés 

500 Cacides 

500 Papillons d'Afrique 



Prix 100 fr. 

... 125 fr. 

... 100 fr. 

... 200 fr. 

... 250 fr. 

... 100 fr. 

... 250 fr. 

... 100 fr. 

... 100 fr. 

... 125 fr. 

... 125 fr. 

... 100 fr. 

... 100 fr. 



LIST 

OF THE 



PR 



CED UTENSILS 

NECESSARY FOR COLLECTING 

REPTILES, FISHES, INSECTS, SHELLS, etc, 



Benzine bottle 

Tin box for collecting Insects, from ... 

Bottle ... ... 

Glass tubes or phials, doz 

Digger 

Butterfly nets, from 

Sweeping and water, nets from 

Umbrella for Insects, from 

Cork in boards, per doz., from 

Pins for Insects, per thousand, from • 

Pill boxes, per gross, from 

Corked boxes for Insects, from 

Wooden box same size 

Boucard's Insecticide, per oz. 

Flax, per pound 

Cotton -wadding, per sheet 

Nippers, from 

Fishing rods with accessory, from ... 

Other Utensils for collecting Mammals 
obtained at the Naturalist's Agency, 
London, W. C. 



Bird 
225, 



s, etc., 
High 



Is. Od. 

Is. 6d. 

0s. 3d. 

Is. Od. 

2s. 6d. 

Is. 6d. 

2s. 6d. 

8s. Od. 

2s. 6d. 

Is. 6d. 

4s. Od. 

Is. 6d. 

Is. Od. 

0s. 6d. 

0s. 6d. 

0s. 6d. 

Is. 6d. 

2s. 6d. 
are to be 
Holborn, 



BOUCARD'S INSECTICIDE POWDER 

against Mites, Insect larvae etc. 



Wholesale and Retail. 
- Success guaranteed - 



This new Powder is of easy use, not dangerous to manipu- 
late, and a good disinfectant against Choleea morbus and all 
Epidemic diseases. 

It destroys immediately all vermine, such as Fleas, Bugs, 
Mites, Larvae of Deemestes, etc. 

Sixpence for a trial packet of one ounce. It lasts a long 
time, a small quantity beiDg necessary each time. 

Trades supplied at a liberal discount. 

No House ought to be without it. 

Once tried, always used ! 



COCOA BUTTER. 

Guaranteed pure. 

Very useful to soften the skin, a preservative against 
Chaped Hands and Chilblains and a remedy for Cuts, Burns, 
etc etc. 

Sold in cakes, Sixpenoe and one shilling. 



March i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



Vll 



MONTHLY LIST OF STAMPS. 



FOE SALE. 

Bahamas, Id. lake, no wmk 

Vancouver's Island, 2£d. pink, perf., unused 

British Guiana, 1 cent, on 1 dollar, 1 cent, on 2 dol- 
lars, 1 cent, on 3 dollars, 1 cent on four dollars... 

Canada, 3d. oblong, unused 

Cape of Good Hope, 1857, fine pair of Is. green 
Denmark, 1853, 16 Skill, lilac, roul, fine copy 

Great Britain, set of 8 Gov. Parcels 

Ditto, £1, wmk. anchor, bluish paper 

India, 1854, 4 annas, blue and red, uncut 

Madeira, 1868, 100 black and lilac 

Mexico, 1867, Gothic surcharge, 4 reals, rose on lilac, 

fine copy ... . . 

Ditto, 8 reals, black on brown 

Natal, 1857, Id. buff, fine copy 

„ „ 3d. pink „ ,, 

; , ,, 6d. green, fair copy 
New Zealand, 6d. brown, pelure paper 
Ditto, Is. green, pelure paper 



s. d. 
3 

5 



4 





6 





12 





10 





5 





8 





2 


6 


15 





10 





30 





30 





25 





10 





6 





12 


6 



10 





3 


6 


20 





1 


3 


50 





7 





10 





15 






STAMPS (continued). 

Pacific Steam Navigation Company, 2 reals, rose, un- 
used 

South Australia, 1859, Is. yellow, roul 

Straits Settlements, 1867, 12 cents, red and green, 
fine used copy 

Ditto, 1872, 5 cents, plum 

United States, 1851, 5 cents, brown, fine unused copy 

Ditto, 5 cents, brown, perf., with projections... 

Victoria, 1862, 3d. lake 

Western Australia, 1855, Is. brown, uncut ... 



WANTED. 

Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwards, to 
which none have been added since the last 20 years. 

Old stamps on their original letter sheet or envelope, especi- 
ally Colonials and old German states. 

Mulready Wrappers and Envelopes. 

Old unused English and Colonials. 

Old works on stamps. 

Proofs of stamps, etc. etc. 



TO BE LET 
OR SOLD. 



Several Splendid VILLAS, with Beautiful Gardens, 

at SAN REMO, the well known Winter Resort, 

40 minutes from MONTE CARLO. 

Apply at the Office of the Journal. 



TO CONCHYLIOLOGISTS. 



JUST AEKIVED. 

A large collection of Shells from Japan which are to be sold 
at very moderate prices. 

Also Shells from Central America, N. Africa, New Guinea, 
etc., etc. 

List of these will be published in successive numbers. 

FOE SALE. 

100,000 Marine, FluvialUe and Land Shells, about 20,000 
species (collection of Mr. Boccard). It contains the celebrated 
Saunders, Layard, Walpole, and Fritsch collections and many 
others, and a very large choice of the species collected by 
Messrs. Wallaae, Cuming, Brewer, French, Salle, Wallis, 
Bartlett, Chesterton, Buckley, Crossley, Duboulay, Majastre, 
Pianos, Reed, Bebouch, Bland, Gabb, etc., etc., etc., as also all 
the Shells collected by Mr. Boucard in N. America, Mexico, 
Central America, Panama, etc., etc. 



TO ETHNOLOGISTS. 



TO ZOOLOGISTS. 



FOR SALE. 

Twelve finely carved Arrows and 1 Bow from New Guinea 

Price 20s. 



African Bhinoceros War Club 



Price 30s. 



Three distinct Zulu War Clubs, made of iron wood and very 
nicely carved Price 30s. each. 

Pagaie from New Guinea, made of palm tree Price 30s. 

Magnificent Gold Antiquity from Panama, representing what 
appears to be Musicians, two large figures in the centre and 
six small ones round. It weighs 6 oz. 187 grammes. It is 
quite unique, and no Museum in the world possesses anything 
like it Price £50. 

A great variety of American Antiquities, chiefly from Central 
America, in hardstone, agathe, Idols, Vases, etc. from 5s. 



JUST ARRIVED. 

1 Lot of 100 Diptera from Japan Price 25s. 

1 Lot of 100 Orthoptera from Japan Price 30s. 

1 Lot of 100 Neuroptera from Japan Price 35s. 

1 Lot of 100 species of Butterflies from Japan Price 150s. 
1 Lot of 200 species of Moths from Japan Price 200s. 

1 Lot of 100 Coleop'era from Japan, including Damaster 

Price 50s. 
Price 100s. 
Price 100s. 
Price 100s. 
Price 75s. 
Price 100s. 
Price 100s. 
Price 80s. 

bottles 
50s. 



fortunei and other rare species 

1 Lot of 100 species of Shells 

1 Lot of 100 Crustaceœ from Japan 

1 Lot of 100 Sea Urchins from Japan 

1 Lot of 302 Coleoptera from Morocco 

1 Lot of 100 Butterflies from Guatemala 

1 Lot of 100 Butterflies from Venezuela 

1 Lot of 100 Moths from Venezuela 

1 Lot of Coleoptera in spirit from Venezuela, 10 
containing thousands of specimens. Price 

1 Lot of 100 Butterflies from West Africa in papers, Papilio, 
Charaxes, etc. Price 80s. 

1 Lot of 100 Butterflies and Moths from India, many fine 
species of Papilio etc. Price 100s. 

1 Lot o! 100 Butterflies from Trinidad including a rare 
species of Morpho Price 80s. 

1 Lot of 100 Butterflies from Borneo, containing many rare 
Papilio, etc. Price 100s. 

1 Lot of 100 Coleoptera from Brazil Price 20s. 

TO MUSEUMS, ETHNOLOGISTS, etc. 

Modern pottery from Mexico and Central America 

from 6d. 
Statuettes representing the Indians of Mexico and Guatemala 

from 3s. 
Hats, Baskets, Mats and various Objects made with pal 
leaves and various textile plants, from Central America, Mada 
gascar, New Guinea, etc. from 6d. 

Samples of Textile Fibres, Seeds, Qums, Eesins, Medicinal 
Plants, etc. from Mexico and Central America from 6d. 

Old and Modern Coins from Mexico from li. 

Etc., etc., etc. 



vm 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[March i, 1891 



m 



^OUCARD 



NATURALIST 




Corresponding Member of the Royal Zoological Society of London, de la Commission Scientifique 

du Mexique à Paris, &c, &c. 

Now Ready, the Second Edition of 

txm oî pictorial §kgram0 mû ^attirai (SpmmOT0, 

ILLUSTRATIVE OF 

HUM PHYSIOLO&Y, ZOOLOGY, BOTABT, GEOLOGY and MINERALOGY. 

Adopted by the London School Board and all the principal Colleges of England. 

The Series contains 20 sheets, 18 in. by 24 in., comprising 166 Diagrams of Animals and Plants, 
life size, beautifully printed in colours, and 37 Natural Specimens, of Woods and Minerals, neatly 
mounted on very stout cardboard, with rings for hanging on the wall. 

The Set Complete, with Handbook, in a Strong Box, 32s., Varnished, 40s. 
Handbook separate, Price 4s., paper; 4s. 6d., cloth. \* The usual Discount to Schools and the Trad- 

TO BE HAD ONLY AT 

225, migloL ££oH>ox»ra 9 IL«oïa.elo ja 5 W.C 



FOR SALE 



Life Admission to Royal Aquarium. 

Price 5 Guineas. 



TO BOOKSELLERS AMD OTHERS. 



Bouc»rd. Catologus Avium, English or French preface, Syste- 
matic Classification of Birds, 8s. instead of 12s. 

Catalogue of Birds, published by the British Museum. 

Vol. 1 to 6 inclusive. The first three Volumes are out of 
print. Price £10. 

Hand List of Birds, Gray, published by the British Museum. 
3 vol. 8vo. Price 25s. 

Guide pour collecter, préparer et expédier des Collections 
d'histoire naturelle. ls. 

Guia para colectar, conservar y despachar Colecciones de 
historia natural. Is. 

Petit Atlas d'Ornithologie ou Collection choisie d'Oiseaux 
les plus connus, dessinés d'après nature par Martinet, 
Paris, 1784. 
1 Vol. grand in folio, in magnificent condition. Contents : 

Spître à Buffon, Tableau général du classement des Oiseaux 

iivisés d'après Buffon en neuf Ordres et cent un Genres ou 

Familles. 150 splendid coloured plates par Martinet. Exceed- 
ingly rare. £50. 

America, by John Ogilby Esq., London, 1671. Grand in folio, 
675 pages, 121 splendid Engravings and Maps. £30. 

Historia de la Conquista de Mexico, etc., by Don Antonio Solis, 
Brusselas, 1741. 

1 Vol. in folio, 276 pages, 13 Engravings and Maps. Pages 
1 to 9 slightly stained. £20. 

Historia General de las Cosas de Nueva Espana, by Rev. 
Bernardino de Sahagun, con notas y suplemento3, por 
Carlos Maria de Bustamante, Mexico, 1829. 4 vols, in 
4to., uncut. £5. 

Historia de las Conquistas de Hernando Cortez, por Francisco 
Lopez de Gomara, con varias notas y addiciones, por Carlos 
Maria de Bustamante, Mexico, 1826. 1 vol. in 4to, 315 pp. 

£2. 

Tezcoco en los ultimos tiempos de sus antiguos Reyes. 
Tomada de los manuscritos ineditos de Boturini y redac- 
tados por el Lio. Mariano Veytia, Mexico, 1826. 1 vol- 
16mo, 276 pages. £2. 

Catecismo y Declaracion de la Doctrina Christiana en lengua 
OTOMI, con un Vocabulario del mismo idioma, por el 
B. P. Joaquin Lopez Yepes, Mexico, 1826. 1 Vol. in 4to, 
254 pages. £4. 



D. R. Kainpuysens Stichtelyke Rymen, by M. Mathieu, Rot- 
terdam, 1688. 1 Vol. in 8vo., 680 pages. £2. 

Clara y Sucisita Exposicion del pequeno Catecisino impreso 
en el idioma MËXICAN0, por un Saeerdote devoto de la 
Madré santissima de la Luz, etc. 

Puebla, 1819. 1 Vol., 67 double pages, one side in Mexican, 
the other in Spanish. £2 10 

Various Calendarios Slexicanos, 1830 to 1860. 2s. each. 

N T AMDS, N K IV S T 1 L K. 

Wholesale Price. 
No. 1 for Humming birds and Small birds at 20s. per hundred 
,, 2 ,, Small birds up to Tanagers at 24s. ,, 

,, 3 ,, Tanagers up to Magpies at 28s. ,, 

,, 4 „ Magpies up to Crows or Small 

Hawks at 32s. ,, 

,, 5 ,, Small Hawks to Large Hawks 

and Owls at 40s. ,, 

- A R T I M C I A L JO M £.- 



Wholesale Price. 
Black Coloured Cornered 



No. 



to 4 

., 8 

„10 

11 

12 

13 



per gross 



6d. 

8d. 

ls. Od. 
2s. Od. 
2s. 3d. 
2s. 6d. 



ls. 6d. 

2s. 6d. 

4s. Od. 

5s. 6d. 

7s. Od. 
. 10s. Od. 
doz. of pairs 
. ls. 6d. 
. 2s. 6d. 
. 2s. 6d. 

3s. 0d. 

4s. Od. 
for 



per doz. pairs 

No. 4 to 6 3s. 6d. 

„ 7 „ 8 5s. Od. 

„ 9 6s. Od. 

„ 10 7s. Od. 

„ 11 8s. Od. 

„ 12 9s. Od. 



Cornered 

& Veined 

per doz. pairs 

4s. 6d. 

• 6s. Od. 

8s- Od. 

Od. 

Od. 

Od. 



9s. 
10s. 
lis. 



13 
14 
15 



„ 14 3s. Od. 
„ 15 3s. 6d. 
„ 16 4s. Od. 
„ 17 8s. Od. 
„ 18 12s. Od. 

Nr. 1 to 4 are good 
the size of Tanagers. 

No. 5 to 8 Tanagers to Magpies. 

No. 9 to 10 Magpies to Gulls, 

No. 11 to 12 Pheasants, etc. 

No. 13 to 18 Hawks, Owls, Herons 



12s. 
13s. 



Od. 
Od. 



15s. Od. 



10s. Od. 
lis. Od. 
13s- Od. 
Larger sizes can be made 
to order, 
humming birds and others up to 



etc. 



LONDON 



Published lay A. BOUOA.RD, at 225, High Holborn, W.C. ; and Printed at J. S. LEVIN'S Steam Printing Works, 75, Leadenhall Street, E.G. 

March 1, 1891. 



vL a 




Zbe 




ummtng JBtrb 

A MONTHLY SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC, AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW. 



GUARANTEED CIRCULATION, 5000. 



VOL l„ NO J. 



April 1, 1891. 



PRICE SIXPENCE. 



Annual Subscription: United Kingdom, Post free, 4 shillings ; all countries included in the Postal Union, 5 shillings. 

All other countries, 6 shillings. 




OUXÀSYXAAXs Joo^ccx^dC 



EDITED UNDER THE DIRECTION 

OF 

MR. ADOLPHE BOUCARD, 

NATURALIST, 

Officier d'Académie, 1878; Knight of the Royal Military Order of the Conception, 188 1 ; 
Knight Officer of the Royal Order of Cambodje, 1889; Knight Commander of the Royal Order of Isabelle la Catholique, 1882; 

Corresponding Member of the Zoological Society, London, 1865; 

de la Mission scientifique française au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale, 1866; of the Royal Museum of Madrid, 1881; 

Commissioner for the Republic of Guatemala in the Paris International Exhibitions of 1878 and 1889 ; 

Member of the International Jury, Paris, 1889 ; Member of many scientific societies; 

etc. etc. etc. etc. 



CONTENTS OF No. 4. -APRIL 1, 1891. 




Notes on Rare Species of Humming Birds and 

Descriptions of Several Supposed New 

Species in Boucard's Museum. 
Description of a Supposed New Species of Parrot 

in Boucard's Museum. 
Notes on the Crowned Superb Warbler, Malurus 

Coronatus, Gould. 
A Visit to the Gardens of the Zoological Society 

of London. 
British Museum (Zoological Department). 



Royal Aquarium. 

The Panama Canal. 

Answers to Correspondents. 

Books and Journals Received. 

Obituary, Charles Anatole Maingonnat. 

An easy way of making ;£ioo a year. 

Report on the March Public Sales of Ostrich 

and Osprey Feathers, Bird Skins, etc. 
Report on February and March Public Sales 

of Postage Stamps. 




[Entered at Stationers' Hall.] 



11 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[April i, 1 89 1 



FOR SALE. 

Shells. 

Private Collection of Mr. Boucard. 
Land Fluviatele and Marine Shells. 

Glandinidse, is. each. Helicidae, 6^/.' each. Bulimidse 
is. each. Achatinidse, is. each. Cylindrellidse, is. 6d. 
each. Clausilidae, 3d. each. Ampularidse, 6d. each. 
Lymmea, Physa, and Planorbis, 3d. each. Cyclosto- 
nidce, bd. each. Helicinidae, 3d. each. Unio, 
Anodonta, and Ostrea, 6d. each. 

Marine Shells — All the Collection including 
Argonauta, Murex, Fusus, Triton, Ranella, Nassa, 
Oliva, Marginella, Harpa, Terebra, Conus, Strombus, 
Cypraea, Neritina, Patella, Chiton, Haliotis, Turbo, 
Venus, Cardium, &c, 6d. each. 

Can be divided if required. 

All applications to be made at the Journal's Office. 



1 

2 

3 
4 

5 
6 

7 



List of Parrots for 

PSITTACID.E LEACH. 
Platycercus pennanti, Lath • . . . 

— mounted ... 
adelaidae, Gould 
flaviventris Tern. 

— mounted ... 
palliceps, Vig. 
eximius, Shaw 

8 Psephotus multicolor, Brown 

9 haematonotus, Gould 

10 pulcherrimus, — 

11 Nymphicus cornutus, Gm. 

12 Barnardius Barnardi, Vig 

13 semitorquatus Quoy... 

14 Polytelis barrabandi, Sw. 

15 — mounted 

16 — alexandrse, Gould 

mounted 
18 Aprosmictus erythropterus, Gm. 

18 bis — ■ — mounted... 

19 vulnèratus, Wagl ... 

20 cyanopygius V. 

21 — — mounted 

22 broadbenti ... 

23 — dorsalis, Quoy 

24 Pyrrhulopsis personatus, G. R. Gr. 

25 tabuensis, Gm. 

26 Cyanoramphus novoe-zelandiae, Sparm. ... 

27 auriceps, Kuhl ... 

28 pacificus, Forst ... 

29 Melopsittacus undulatus, Shaw 

30 Euphema pulchella, Shaw 

31 — — mounted ... 

32 chrysogastra, Lath 

33 chrysostoma, Kull ... 
aurantia, Gould 

35 Pezoporus formosus, Lath 

36 — mounted 

37 Prioniturus flavicans, Cass 

38 platurus, Kuhl 

39 Urodiscus discurus, V. ... 

40 Pakeornis eupatria, L. 

41 — docilis, V 

42 — docilis, mounted 



s. 
8 
10 
10 
10 
12 
10 
10 
10 
10 
12 
20 
10 
12 
12 

14 
12 

14 
12 

iS 
16 

10 

12 

16 

20 

3° 

3° 
6 

6 

20 

4 
6 
8 

10 

10 

10 

8 

10 

8 

8 

20 

5 

5 
10 



43 - 


3 alseornis torquata, Bodd 


s. 

5 


44 


— — mounted 


8 


45 


bengalensis, Gm. 


5 


46 


— purpureus, Mull 


16 


47 


— schisticeps, Hodgs. 


12 


48 


— columboides, Vig. 


14 


49 


— mounted 


16 


5o 


— calthropse, Lay .. x . 


20 


5i 


Belocercus longicaudus Bodd 


8 


S 2 


— fasciatus, Mull 


5 


53 


javanicus, Osb 


8 


54 


Ara macao, L 


20 


55 


— mounted 


30 


56 


— chloropterus, G. R. G. 


3° 


57 


— ararauna, L., mounted 


3° 


53 


— mili taris, L. ... 


20 


59 


— severa, L. 


20 


60 


— nobilis, I/, 


10 


61 


— hahni, Souancé 


20 


62 


Rhynchopsitta, pachyrhyncha, Sw. 


5° 


63 


Henicognathus leptorhynchus, King 


10 


64 Conurus cyanolycos, Land 


20 


65 


— icterotis, Mas and S. ... 


20 


66 


— carolinensis, L., mounted 


8 


67 


— chloropterus, Souancé .. . 


20 


68 


— wagleri, G. R. Gr. 


5 


69 


erythrogenys, Less 


20 


70 


— pavua, Bodd 


i5 


7i 


— nanday," Desm., mounted 


20 


72 


— luteus, Bodd 


20 


73 


— jandaya, Gm. 


6 


74 


— aztec, Souancé ... 


5 


75 


pertinax, L. 


5 


76 


WeddelliDev 


20 


77 


holochlorus, Sclat 


20 


78 


ocularis, Scl. and Salv. 


6 


79 


petzii, Leihe 


8 


80 


rhodocephalus, Sclat and Salv... 


10 


81 


— aureus, Gm. 


3 


82 


— mounted 


5 


83 


— cruentatus, Max 


4 


84 


— — mounted 


6 


85 


— vittatus, Shaw ... 


4 


86 


— — mounted 


6 


87 


— souancei, Verr ... 


20 


88 


— leucotis, Licht ... 


5 


89 


— cyanopterus, Bodd 


5 


90 


— — mounted... 


8 


9 1 


— luciani, Dev. 


20 


92 


- — roseifrons, G. R. Gr. ... 


10 


93 


callipterus, Man 


4 


94 


— hoffmanni, Cab. .. 


12 


95 


Bolborhynchus monachus, Bodd 


10 


96 


■ — ■ — mounted 


12 


97 


Brotogeris triacula, Hald 


8 


98 


— virescens, Gm. 


8 


99 


— — mounted ... 


10 


100 


tuipara, Gm. 


4 


IOI 


■ — jugularis, Mull 


6 


102 


— tovi, Gnel 


2 


103 


— chrysosema? Natt. ... 


20 


104 


Loriculus galgulus, L 


3 


i°5 


— — mounted 


6 


106 


— stigmatus Mul and Sch. 


8 



April i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



m 



List of Parrots for Sale.— 


-(Continued.) 






s. 






s. 


171 


Geoffroy rhodops, G. R. Gr. 


5 


107 Loriculus vernalis, Sparm. 


... * * 


4 


172 


— aruensis — 


8 


108 — melanopterus, Scop. 




8 


173 


— cyanicollis, Mull and Sch. 


6 


109 ■ — ■ exilis, Schl. 


... 


8 


174 


Poiocephalus senegalus, L. 


10 


1 1 — aurantii frons 


... . . 


3° 


175 


— — mounted 


12 


1 1 1 Licmetulus philippinus, V. 


... . . 


8 


176 


— Levaillanti 


IS 


112 — — mounted 


10 


177 


— ■ — mounted 


20 


113 regulus, Souancé 


... 


8 


178 


— meyeri, Rupp. 


20 


114 Lorius domicella, L. 


... . . 


12 


179 


— versteri, Finsch. 


50 


115 — — mounted 


. . » 


16 


180 


Caica melanocephala, L . . . 


8 


116 — erythrothorax 


... 


20 


181 


— — mounted 


10 


117 — tricolor, Steph. 


... . . 


10 


182 


— xanthomeria, G. R. Gr. 


30 


118 — — mounted 


... . . 


12 


183 


— histrio, Bodd 


8 


119 — garrulus, L. 


... 


12 


184 


— amazonina, Desmurs 


24 


120 — — mounted 


... 


15 


185 


— pyrilia, Bp. ... 


16 


121 — ater, Scop. 


... . . 


12 


186 


— hsematotis, Scl. and Salv ... 


6 


122 — sintillatus, Tem. 


... . . 


12 


187 


— coccineicollaris, Lawr 


12 


123 — fuscatus, Bp. 


... 


12 


188 


Pionus menstruus, L. 


5 


124 — chloropterus, Salv. 


... 


16 


189 


— sordidus, L. 


15 


125 Vini fringillaceus, Gm. 


... . . 


20 


190 


— ■ maximiliani, Kuhl 


20 


126 Phigys solitarius, Lath. 


... . . 


30 


191 


— senilis, Spix 


6 


127 Eos rubra, Gm. , . 


... 


12 


192 


— violaceus, Bodd ... 


5 


128 — — mounted 




15 


193 


Deroptyus accipitrinus, L. 


20 


T29 — cochinsinensis, Lath. 


... •• 


16 


194 


Chrysotis farinosa, Bodd ... • 


10 


130 — reticulatus, Mul and Schl 




16 


195 


— auripalliata, Less 


30 


131 — cardinalis, Hombe and L 




5° 


196 


— amazonica, L. ... 


12 


132 Trichoglossus, haematodus, L. 


... 


10 


197 


— — mounted ... 


16 


133 — rubritorques, Vig 


and H. 


20 


198 


panamensis, Cab 


10 


134 — novae hollandise," 


Gm. 


4 


199 


— sallei, Finsch ... 


30 


135 — — mounted 


... 


6 


200 


— - jamaicensis 


30 


136 — nigrogularis, G. R. Gr. 


10 


201 


— albifrons, Spar . . . 


10 


137 — cyanogrammus, Wagl. t - 


10 


202 


Triclaria cyanogaster, V. 


12 


138 — massena, Bp. 




6 


203 


Psittacula guianensis, Sw. 


6 


139. — — mounted 


TO 


204 


— passerima, L. 


2 


140 ornatus, L. 




5 


205 


— ccelestis, Less 


.. . 


141 — chlorolepidotus, 


Kami. .. 


4 


206 


— conspicillata, Laf. 


2 


142 — — 


mounted 


6 


207 


Urochroma cingulata, Scop. 


4 


143 — flavoviridis ? Sclat. 


16 


208 


— purpurata, Gm. 


6 


144 — meyeri, Schl. 


... 


8 


209 


— surda, HI. 


5 


145 Ptilosclera versicolor, Vig. 


... 


20 


210 


Agapornis pullaria, L. 


5 


146 Glossopsitta concinna, Shaw 


... 


4 


211 


— — mounted ... 


7 


147 — — mounted 


6 


212 


Poliopsitta cana, Gm. 


8 


148 — pusila, Shaw 


... 


3 


213 


— — mounted ... 


10 


149 — — mounted 


... .. 


5 


214 


Cyclopsitta diophthalma, H. and F. 


6 


150 — porphyreocephala, 


Diet. .. 


16 


215 


— Bremei 


30 


151 — — 


mounted 


20 


216 


— desmaresti, Garn 


6 


152 Psiteuteles euteles, Tem. 


. . ■ • . 


6 


217 


— coxeni, Gould 


10 


153 — placentis, Tem. 


... . . 


6 


218 


— suavissima, Sclat 


20 


154 — muschenbrooki 


... 


16 


219 


— loxia, Cuv. 


20 


155 Charmosyna papuana, Gm. 


... 


12 


220 


Psittinus incertus, Shaw 


4 


156 — — mounted 


16 


221 


Nasiterna pygmaea, Quoy 


20 


157 — arfaki, Ver. 


. * > * . 


20 


222 


Calopsitta novae hollandiae, Gm. 


8 


158 — stellae 


... . . 


12 




— — — mounted . 


10 


159 Muscarinus polychlorus, Scop 


... .. 


8 


223 


Cacatua alba, Mull, mounted ... 


30 


160 — sinensis, Gm. 


... 


8 


224 


— sulphurea, Gm., mounted 


25 


16 r Tanygnathus me^alorhynchos, 


Bodd, .. 


16 


225 


Lophocroa leadbeateri, Vig. 


12 


162 — mulleri, Mull and 


Sch. 


5 


226 


Eolophus roseicapillus, V. 


10 


163 Nestor meridionalis, Gm. 


... 


20 


227 


Licmetis nasicus, Tem. 


16 


164 — productus, Gould 


... 


3° 


228 


Calyptorhynchus banksii, Lath ... 


20 


165 Dasyptilus pecqueti, Less. 


•«• . . 


5° 


229 


— — mounted 


25 


166 Vaza nigra, L. 


... 


20 


230 


Callocephalon galeata, Lath 


10 


167 — vaza, Shaw 


... e * 


20 


231 


— — mounted . 


15 


168 — comorensis, Pet. ... 


• •• . . 


20 


232 


Microglossum aterrimum, Gm. ... 


30 


:6g — barkleyi, Newt. 


... •• 


40 


233 


Strigops habroptilus, G. R. Gr. ... 


30 


170 Geoffroy personatus, Shaw 


». « » » 


8 


234 


— greyi, G. R. Gr. 





IV 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[April i, 1 89 1. 



FOR SALE. — Insects Coleoptera. 

Private Collection of Mr. Boncard. 

Cicindelidae, including types of Oxygonia, 
Boucardi Chev, Cincindela costaricensis and others, 
2j-.each. Carabidae, including many types, is. each. 
Dytiscidae, 6d. each. Staphylinidae, 3d. each. 

Pselaphidae, Gnostidse, Paussidae, Scydmaenidae, 
Silphidae, Scaphididae, Histeridae, Nitidulidae, Trog- 
ositidae, Rhyssodidae, Cucujidas, Cryptophagidae, 
Derodontidae, Latrididae, Mycetophagidae, Dermestida; 
Byrrhidae, Parnidse, and Heteroceridae, 3d. each. 
Lucanidae and Passalidae, including many types, is. 
each. Copridae, 6d. each. Melolonthidas, 6d. each, 
Rutelidae, including all the types of Plusiotis, 
Chrysina, Heterosternus, 2s. each. Scarabaeidae, is. 
each. Cetonidae, is. each. Buprestidae, is. each. 
Trixagidae, Monommidae, Eucnemidae, and Elateridae, 
6d. each. Cebrionidae. Rhipidoceridae, Dascillidae, 
and Malacodermidas, 3d. each. Cleridae, 6d. each. 
Lymexilonidae, Cupesidee, Ptinidae, Bostrychidae, and 
Cioidae, 3d. each. Tenebrionidae, 3d. each. Nilion- 
idae, Pythidae, Melandryidas, Lagriidae, Pedilidae. 
Anthicinae, Pyrochroidae, Mordellidae, and Rhipidoph- 
oridae, 3d. each. Cantharidae, 6d. each. Cephaloidae, 
Oedemeridae, and Mycteridae, 3d. each. Curculionidae 
and Scolytidae, 3d. each. Brenthidae and Anthotribidae, 
6d. each. Cerambycidae, is. each : Bruchidae, 3d. each. 
Chrysomelidae, 3d. each. Cassididae, 6d. each. 
Languridae and Erotylidae, 6d. each. Tritomidae and 
Coccinellidae, 3d. each. 



TO ORNITHOLOGISTS. 



FOE SALE. 

Fine mounted specimen of Alea impennis, the Great Awk, 
(extinct species). Pedigree from the date of capture, 1836, to 
this date, will be given to buyer. 

Fine male specimen of the exceedingly rare new genus of 
bird Reinhardtia ocellata Bp., the greatest discovery of the 
century. Price £50 



LIST OF DESIDERATA OF PHAN.FI. 



Achilles Bohem, 
Bitias Har., 
Charon Har., 
Columbi, Me L., female,! 
Hastifer Germ., male, J 
Foveolatus Har., 
Horus Waterh. Reiche, 
Melibceus Blanch, 
Mirabilis Har., 

Noctis Bates, 

Perseus Har., 
Pteroderus Reiche in litt, 
Rhadamanthus Haï., 
Rosalia Fabr., ? 
Tepanensis Bates, 
Thalassinus Perty, 



Guayaquil. 

Mexico. 

Guayaquil. 

Brazil. 

Guayaquil. 

Brazil. 

Chiquitos. 

Brazil. 

/Colombia and 

\ Nicaragua, etc. 

Colombia. 

Uruguay. 

Brazil. 

America. 

Tepan. 

Brazil. 



Steinheili Har., male and female. Guatemalensis 
Plar., male. Beltianus, male - Scutifer, Bates, male 
and female. Lunaris, Tasch, male. Actaaon, Erichs, 
male and female. Bispinus, Bates. Cadmus, Har. 
Dejeani, Har., female. Lautus, Macleay, male. 
Silenus, Cast, male and female. Spinifer, Cast, male 
and female. 



List of Pittidae for Sale. 



Pitta strepitans, Australia 

— ■ maxima, N. Guinea 

— brachyura Malacca 

— bengalensis, India 

— elegans, Malacca 

— cyanurus, Java 

— arcuata, Borneo 

— granatina, Borneo 

— erythrogaster, Philippines 

— mackloti, N. Guinea 

— rosenbergi, N. Guinea 

— novae guineas, N. Guinea 

— mulleri, Borneo 

— cucullata, India 

— Var, Malacca 

— coerulea, Malacca 
Philepitta castanea, Madagascar 



s. 

5 

10 

8 

8 

10 

16 

3° 
8 

10 

10 

3° 
10 

10 

8 

8 

16 

12 



FOR SALE. 
From Kina Balu (Borneo). 

Calyptomena whiteheadi, male, 100s. 

A magnificent bird, discovered lately by Mr. White- 
head in the interior of Borneo. 

Many other species from the same collector (mag- 
nificent skins). 



FOR SALE. 

A magnificent bound copy of T. A. Naumann's 
Naturgeschichte der Vogel Deutschlands, 13 vols, in 
ato and 391 coloured plates. 

Apply at the office of the Journal. 



from all parts of the world. 

Manuscript catalogue over 

medal at International Exhi- 



FOR SALE. 

Collection of Woods 
1,000 blocks nicely cut. 
2 vols. Awarded gold 
bition. 

For price and particulars apply at the office of the 
Journal. 

Fine group of Harpyornis feeding on a Dendro- 
lagus. Two rare species of mammal and bird, from 
New Guinea. Price ^12. 

Fourteen species of Carabus from Chili. In the 
most perfect condition. 23 specimens, at 5s. each. 



April i, 1 891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



25 



%\% pitmmmg $irï>. 



Notes on Rare Species of Humming Birds 
and Descriptions of Several Supposed 
New Species in Boucard's Museum. 

By A. Boucard. 
Continued from page 17. 



Lampornis obscura, n.sp. 

Lampornis violicauda Var Boucard, P.Z.S., 1879, 

p. 178. 

Male. — Upper surface, purplish black, lighter on 
the rump ; tail-coverts and central tail feathers, black ; 
lateral tail feathers, metallic purple with tip and 
external edge of each feather dark blue ; chin and 
breast, black, with a line of lustrous purplish black 
feathers commencing at the angle of the bill and pass- 
ing, down the sides of the neck; abdomen, black in 
centre, paler on sides, as in L. violicauda ; under tail- 
coverts, purplish black ; bill and feet, black. 

Length, 4 inches, 2 lines ; bill, 9 lines ; wings, 2 
inches, 6 ; tail, 1-5. 

Habitat, Brasilia. 

eulampis chlorol^emus, gould. 

sericotes chloroliemus reich, 1 853. 

eulampis chlorol^emus bonap, 1 854. 

Anthracothorax chlorol/emus, Reich, 1855. 

Lampornis chlorouemus, Cab & Hein, i860. 

Male. — Upper surface, dark green with a large 
golden tinge on the rump ; upper tail-coverts, bright 
green in the centre, with several bright blue feathers 
on each side ; tail, bright purple blue, the two central 
feathers of same colour with greenish reflections ; 
throat, very dark metallic grass green ; breast, very 
dark purple blue, extending over the belly ; abdomen, 
black in the centre, greenish black on the sides ; 
under tail-coverts, bright purple blue, as breast, with 
green base ; wings, steel black ; feet and bill, black. 

Length, 4 f ; wing, 2 | ; tail, i| ; bill, £. 

Habitat, Trinidad. 

This species, which has been considered by many 
authors as a synonym of L. holosericeus, is quite 
distinct of that species, and easily distinguishable by 
the colour of the throat, which is of a very distinct 
green, and also by its blue breast in its entirety, and 
not a patch as in C. holosericeus. I am of opinion 
that it is a very good and valid species. 

I have several specimens of this very rare species. 

Lafresnaya cinereorufa, n.sp. 
Sex (?). — Head, golden green ; back, grey, with 
base of feathers black ; slight rufous reflection on 
rump ; upper tail-coverts grey ; central tail feathers 
pale rufous for three thirds of their length, then dark 
grey with black tips ; wings, steel black ; under sur- 
face rufous, with sides and abdomen greyish ; under 



tail-coverts rufous, with tips golden green ; feet, flesh 
colour; bill, black. 

Length, 4^ ; wing, if; tail, if; bill, 1 inch. 

Habitat, Colombia. 

This species is quite distinct of Lafresnaya flavi- 
cauda, to which it is somewhat allied. The unique 
specimen from which the above description is taken 
came in a large consignment of Bogota birds sent to 
Paris in 1888. The colour of its plumage is quite 
extraordinary. 

Petasophora corruscans, Gould, 1846. 

polytmus corruscans, gray. 

Colibri corruscans, Bp., 1850. 

Praxilla corruscans, Reich, 1855. 

Petasophora corruscans, Elliott, 1879. 

Male, — Upper surface, shining grass green ; line 
under the eye and ear coverts, shining blue ; tail, 
bronze green, with a sub-terminal blackish bar ; chin 
and centre of breast, shining blue ; throat, metallic 
pink, green at base ; abdomen and flanks, shining 
grass green ; under tail-coverts, green, with edges and 
base buff ; tail, shining green, with blue reflections, 
and sub-tennhial bar steel blue ; wings, purplish 
brown ; feet and bill, black. 

Length, 4% ; wing, 3 ; tail, 2 ; bill, \\. 

Habitat, Colombia. 

I have received two specimens of this rare bird in 
a large collection sent from Bogota, and after a care- 
ful examination, I have come to the conclusion, that 
it is only our old friend, P. anais accidentally coloured. 
I think this accidental colouring is due to a chemical 
action produced by humidity and zinc. I am nearly 
certain about it, because the two specimens which I 
have were found in similar circumstances, and I 
believe the same can be said of the other two speci- 
mens known. They were packed with many others 
at Bogota in tin cases, before quite dry, and the result 
was that when they arrived to Paris one third of the 
contents of the boxes were injured by dampness, so 
much so, that some claims for damages were made to 
the Maritime Company which brought them over 
from Columbia to Paris, alleging that they had got 
wet by sea water. I saw them at the time and 
eventually I bought some of them. I was called by a 
friend of mine, who asked my opinion, which I gave. 
I said that the damage was produced by having 
packed the skins in the cases before they were quite 
dry, and that in consequence of being hermetically 
shut up, the damp settled at bottom of cases and 
destroyed entirely a good number of skins. Those 
which were at top and centre of cases were very 
slightly injured by moisture. On each side of the 
cases some specimens were so firmly attached to the 
zinc that in pulling them away they came to pieces. 
Nearly all of these were altered in colours ; the 
metallic green of Chlorostilbon and Panychlora was 
darker and reddish, the metallic rubi colour of 
Chrysolampis moschitus was darker too, and so forth 
with others. 

At the time I thought little of these changes in 
colours, and I did not take the trouble to keep these 
specimens as I did not see any scientific interest in 



26 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[April i, 1 89 1 



them. It is in these damaged cases that I- found the 
specimens of P. corruscans which are now in my pos- 
session ; one of them has less pink than the other. 

It would be very interesting if the opinion of a 
competent chemist could be obtained on this matter. 

Chrysolampis Moschitus, Linné, 1766. 

I have three varieties of this well known South 
American species found abundantly in Trinidad, 
Venezuela, Colombia, Guiana and Brazil. All of 
them are adult males ; the first has a perfectly white 
chin, the remainder of the throat being topaz as in 
the specimens of the species ; the second has a topaz 
breast lined on each side with a broad white margin 
from the bill to the breast ; and the third has the 
four external feathers of the tail on the left side all 
white with rufous tips ; on the other side, the two 
feathers next to central ones are white three-thirds of 
their length with large rufous spot at tips, the third 
and the two central feathers are totally rufous as in 
the specimens of that species and the last is white 
with rufous tip. 

The two first specimens are from Colombia, the 
third from Brazil. This last one has also white 
feathers on back and three feathers on each wing 
white. 

Lepidolarynx mesoleucus, Tem. 

One adult male specimen agreeing exactly with the 
description of this well known species ; but having a 
very short bill, § inch, instead of \\ inches which is 
the usual length for that species. 

It came from Brazil. 

Helianthea eos, Gould, 1848. . 

Mellisuga eos, Gray. 
Hypochrysia eos, Reich,i853. 

Caeligenia eos, Muls. 

Male. — Forehead metallic dark green ; head, met- 
allic green with the appearance of jet black ; back 
shining green, golden on the • rump ; tail coverts 
golden bronze ; the four central tail feathers, buff to 
the half of their length, the remainder metallic 
bronze, the others buff edged with bronze ; chin and 
breast, shining dark green ; throat, metallic purple 
blue ; abdomen and flanks, fiery metallic bronze ; 
under tail-coverts and tail, buff, each feather edged 
externally with a greenish bronze tip ; wing-coverts, 
bronze, wings, purple ; secondaries buff ; bill black. 

Length, 5| ; wing, 4 ; tail, if bill if. 

Female. — Upper surface, metallic dark green, coppery 
on the rump ; tail-coverts, bronze colour ; throat, buff; 
chest, metallic green ; flanks and abdomen, bronze 
colour, rufous in the centre. 

Habitat, Merida (Venezuela). 

I have received several specimens, both sexes of 
of this magnificent species. 

Helianthea typica, Less, 1838. 

Male. — One specimen of that species all black, 
having the gular spot and the tail coverts, metallic 
silvery green. 

I found it in a large collection of Humming Birds 
sçnl nom Bogota, 



BOURCIERIA WILSONI, DELATT & BOURCIER, 1 846. 

One specimen of this species, with the throat 
metallic purple, intermixed with metallic green. 
Habitat. Ecuador. 

Heliangelus henrici, n. sp. 

Male. — Forehead, luminous dark green ; upper sur- 
face and tail coverts golden green ; medium rectrices, 
bronzy-green as in H. Clarissœ, lateral ones, steel black 
as in H. slrophianns ; wings, purplish brown ; chin 
and lores, black ; throat, metallic violet with purple 
reflections, beneath which is a narrow band of shining 
grass green,succeeded by a wide white band crossing all 
the chest; abdomen and flanks, shining grass green ; 
under tail-coverts, golden grey edged with white ; bill 
short as H. strophianus. 

Length, 4I ; wing, z\ ; tail, i| ; bill, -J-. 

Habitat, Ecuador. 

I have only one specimen of this fine species, which 
was given to me by Mr. Henry Whitely, and I 
have much pleasure in dedicating the same to 
him. It must be placed between H. darissae and 
H. slrophia?ms. 

Thalurania eriphile, Less. 

Male. — Head and throat, metallic emerald green, 
with metallic blue patch on the head ; back of head, 
upper surface upper and under tail-coverts, bronzy 
green ; shoulders, breast and abdomen, metallic pur- 
ple blue ; wing, purplish-brown ; tail, steel black : 
bill, black. 

Length, 4-f- ; wing, i\; tail, 2 ; bill, 1. 

Habitat, Brasilia. 

The specimens in my collection were collected 
by Mr. Gounelle. 

Thalurania verticeps Gould, 1851. 

This species which has been united by Mr Elliott 
to the above species is quite distinct ; it is smaller 
and the colour of the shoulders and abdomen is of a 
very different metallic steel blue quite different of 
the purple-blue of T. eriphile; the metallic emerald- 
green of the throat extends- much more on the breast 
than in T. eriphile ; the under tail-coverts are blue 
edged with grey. In T. eriphile they are shining grey. 

I think that Mr. Elliott had not a true T. eriphile 
in his collection when he united both species. In 
my opinion it is a very good species. 

I have many specimens of T. verticeps collected 
by Mr. Buckley and others. 

Thalurania colombica, Bourc and Muls. 

I have in my Collection one male specimen of this 
species with tail and wing-coverts dark steel blue ; 
forehead, silvery-purple ; back, grey with golden re- 
flections ; throat, silvery-green ; breast and abdomen, 
silvery-blue; flanks, grey; under tail-coverts, white 
with steel blue tips ; wing, purple-brown ; feet, fleshy 
colour ; bill, black. 

Length 3 f ; wing, 2 ; tail, if; bill f. 

Came in a lot of birds from Bogota and may be 
another illustration of discolouring, produced by 
dampness and zinc ; although the skin is in very 
good condition. 

7o be continued. 



April i j 1 89 1 J 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



27 



Description of a Supposed New Species 
of Parrot in Boucard's Museum. 

By A. Boucard. 



In looking over my collection of parrots I found 
two specimens of a species of Pionus, marked 
P. maximiliani, but which I believe to be quite dis- 
tinct. One of them has been for a long time in the 
collection of the late T. C. Eyton. It was collected 
in Bolivia by Mr. Thomas Bridges, the other was col- 
lected at Corrientes (Argentine Republic) by Mr. 
Flamant. I believe that it is justly due to the late 
T. Bridges, the first discoverer of this species, that 
it should bear his name. So I have called it 
Pionus bridgesi, as a feeble homage to the memory 
of this excellent collector. 

Pionus bridgesi, n. sp. 

Male. — Head, neck, cheeks, and lores, grass green 
edged with purple-blue ; back, breast, abdomen, 
wing, and tail coverts, yellowish-green ; tail, deep 
grass green ; chin, rose-purple ; throat, purple with 
rosy reflections ; under tail coverts, crimson ; tail, 
showy green, red at base ; feet, black ; bill, upper 
mandible, black with yellow tip ; under mandible, 
yellow. 

Length, 12 inches; wing, 8; tail, 4^. 

Habitat, Bolivia and Argentine Republic. 

The principal difference between this species and 
P. maximiliani is that this last species is of a deeper 
grass colour all over, and that the colour of the throat 
is bluish-purple. 



Notes on the Crowned Superb Warbler, 
Malurus coronatus, Gould. 

Native Name : Gerial. 



This exceedingly rare and most lovely little bird I 
first had the pleasure of procuring on the banks of 
the Fitzroy River, North Western Australia, in 1886, 
near Maclarty's crossing, where I found it tolerably 
plentiful. In its habits it did not materially differ 
from the other members of the genus except that it 
was always seen in the bamboo-like grass growing 
from three to eight feet high in patches here and 
there bordering the river, never more than a few yards 
from the edge of the water. The adult males, as in 
the other species of the genus, were the most difficult 
of approach, keeping to the bottom of the reeds and 
those the most dense. The females and young males 
being bolder showed themselves more frequently at 
the edges of the clumps cf grass, but I rarely, if ever, 
saw them creep to the tops. Their call is similar to 
the Maluri in general, but more harsh, much louder 
and sustained for a longer period. One young male 
which I was watching and which was assuming the 
lilac features of the crown, whistled beautifully and 
with a ventriloquial effect, beginning low at first, 
which seemed to come from another bird at a dis- 
tance, and then bursting out into full song, similar to 
our Wren Troglodytus parvula, and, like it, very loud 
for such a tiny bird. 



The species cannot be confounded with any other 
member of the genus, its far greater size and marked 
character in the colouring of its plumage^at all ages 
preclude the possibility of a mistake. The beautiful 
lilac crown of the adult male, with its oblong patch of 
black feathers in the centre, lores, cheeks, ear coverts, 
and nape of the neck forming an uninterrupted 
stripe from one side of the bill to the other of intense 
black ; the light brown colouring of the back, the 
white throat and breast and buffy flanks, renders it a 
very easy species to determine. The young male has 
the crown dull greyish-brown and no trace of the 
black spot in the centre, the black ear coverts and 
nape not so pure, the other parts as in the adult. The 
female has the crown dull grey, the centre having a 
few obscure brown feathers in place of the black spot, 
the ear coverts reddish-brown. The legs and feet in 
all ages and sexes are brownish-flesh colour, bill 
black, hides dark brown ; the colour of their tails, 
too, are the same, being of a light greenish-blue, all 
the feathers (except the two central ones) tipped, and 
the outer one on each side edged with white. The 
tail of the female has a rather more greenish hue than 
in the male, but scarcely perceptible. 

When I have been following them along the steep 
banks of the river where it is difficult to get far 
enough away from them to avoid damaging their 
plumage with the charge of dust shot from such a 
small gun as a "410 gauge on account of the thick- 
ness of the undergrowth and the uprooted trees torn 
from their hold in the banks by the heavy floods of 
the rainy season, their roots and branches interlocked 
in those of the trees still standing, intertwined with 
powerful creepers gnarled and twisted in some places 
like ships' cables, forming a barrier that has to be 
climbed or crept under with the ground at an angle 
of 60 degs., soft and pliable, affording no hold to the 
feet except where some grass has grown or in some 
unevenness of the ground, where a slip will send the 
birds in hiding, I have seen them sometimes fly out 
over the water into a tree which has had the earth 
washed away from its roots and fallen over into 
the river, where they will hop about amongst the 
branches with tail erect and then creep back into the 
dense grass, where it was no easy matter to find them; 
but by waiting at a thin part of the patch of grass 
where they were likely to pass on their way up or 
down the river, was the way in which I got most of 
the specimens. The beautiful crown of the male is 
not to be discerned until after a little practice, but 
when once accustomed to is never forgotten ; it is a 
splendid colour and shows to advantage in its sur- 
roundings when erected. They were mostly seen in 
parties of from five to seven in number, sometimes 
only a pair, very seldom singly, the old male generally 
leading the little flock. The only other species of the 
genus observed at this camp was the M. cruentatus, 
which Professor Ramsay, of the Australian Museum, 
believed to be distinct, and has bestowed the name of 
Malurus cruentatus boweri. This and the coro?iaius 
seemed to be at variance, and I have repeatedly, by 
imitating the call of cruentatus, brought forth the 
male coronutus to do battle with the supposed in- 
truder on his domain. 



28 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[April i, 1 89 1 



Length from point of bill to upper tail coverts: 
male, 3 - 8 ; female, 37; male (juv.), 3-7. Bill on 
culmen, "45. Wings from carpal joint, fifth feather 
longest, 2*2. Tail, from end of upper tail coverts, 
male, 2*2; female, 2 - i ; male juv., 2'4S. Tarsi, "93. 
These two species with M. lamberti were the only 
members of the genus that were procured in this col- 
lecting trip, in which I accompanied the late Thomas 
Henry Bourger-Bower as naturalist, who, to my great 
sorrow and distress, contracted the malarial fever, 
which turned to typhoid, and culminated in his death 
at Palmerston, Port Darwin, Northern Territory, on 
December 23rd, 1886. Scientific naturalists and 
society at large have to regret the loss of such a prac- 
tical and zealous collector and gentleman and myself 
the loss of a true friend. 

" The Lord alone did lead him." 

Walter Burton. 



A Visit to the Gardens of the Zoological 
Society of London. 

A few days ago I went and spent a few hours in 
the gardens of the Zoological Society of London, and 
I was happy to see how Londoners and others con- 
tinue to patronise the said gardens, which shows their 
good sense. 

It is really a magnificent institution, and it is easy 
to see that everything is done in such good style that 
it can only prosper more and more every day. Every- 
thing is in best order, and there is an infinite number 
of rare animals from all parts of the world to be seen. 
No one can go there without being interested in all 
what he sees. 

My compliments to Doctor Philip Lutley Sclater, 
Secretary of the Zoological Society ; to Mr. Bartlett, 
Superintendent of the Gardens, and to all those who 
are under their direction. 

A very useful Guide to the Gardens, sold at the 
moderate price of sixpence, is indispensable to all 
those who really want to see in detail all the zoological 
treasures quartered in the Gardens. 

In the Western Aviary can be admired the extra- 
ordinary Satin Bower birds {Ptilonorhynchus viola- 
ceus), which are constantly seen in search of materials 
of all descriptions for the construction of their nest, 
with a sort of gallery around it, where they disport 
themselves like school boys "in vacation. 

The Laughing Kingfisher {Dacelo giganieus), 
the largest species known of that family, is also an 
interesting bird to observe and hear when it laughs. 

Another very interesting species of bird is the 
Crowned Pigeon (Goura coronata), one of the most 
magnificent birds to be seen. It is originary from 
New Guinea, and is among other allied species, one 
of the largest of pigeons known. 

Then we have the Cranes and Storks of all descrip- 
tions and sizes, among which the extraordinary 
Marabout (Leptofitilus crumeniferus) with its enor- 
mous pouch ; the different species of Emeits and 
Rhea, the Pelicans, the Eagles and Owls, the magnifi 
cent collection of Parrots, containing many of the 
rarest species, the Hornbills, the large series of rare 



Pheasants, Tragopans, and Monals, Ducks and Swans, 
Ostriches, the Australian Cassowary, the Aptéryx, 
and lastly the large Aviary, where are located an 
immense number of small bright tropical birds, doves, 
and another with many species of British birds. 

In Mammals, the Monkeys' House attracts always 
a great deal of attention, and it is sometimes difficult 
to effectuate an entrance. 

Actually there are several rare species, amongst 
which are two Chimpanzees. These large monkeys, 
which natives of Africa call Idlers, saying : " You not 
speak, because not want to work." These last are 
housed in what used to be the old Reptiles' House. 

The Lions' House is also one of the places where 
the public is always numerous, especially at feeding 
time. 

One never tires to admire these magnificent 
animals, justly called the Kings of the Desert, and 
also the Royal Tigers, another noble animal. The 
many species of Leopards, and the Puma, are also a 
great attraction. The Antelopes and Deers are very 
interesting to look at ; the different species of Bears, 
the Rhinoceros, Hippopotamus, Giraffes, Elephants, 
Zebrae, Brazilian Tapirs, Beavers, Sea Lions and, 
many others too long to enumerate. Then there is the 
Reptile's House, which is a real palace, and lastly, 
the Aquarium and Insectorium. 

It is impossible to pass a few hours better than 
those passed in the Gardens of the Zoological Society, 
where everything is interesting. Health and know- 
ledge is acquired in going there, and I hope that this 
sensible taste for live animals will continue to accrue 
every day. By going as many times as you can in 
the year you will contribute to increase the resources of 
the Society, which has no other ambition than to make 
it as perfect and as interesting as possible to the 
genera] public. All the money received from the 
visitors is spent in ameliorations of all sorts, in pur- 
chasing rare animals, and in the expenses of the 
undertaking, all for the benefit of the public. 
Actually, the Society is in parley for the purchase of 
two very rare species of Pheasants brought over to 
England from Thibet per Mr. Antwerp E. Piatt. One 
is the excessively rare Lophophorus FHuysei, and the 
other is Crossoptilon ihibetanum, two species never 
brought to Europe belore. I hope the Society will 
be able to secure them. 

A. B. 



British Museum (Zoological Department.) 

The celebrated Professor Thomas Salvadori of 
Turin (Italy) has been working every day since the 
last five months, at the large and fine collection 
of Psittacidae of the British Museum. His work is 
nearly completed and the Volume containing descrip- 
tions of all the Parrots known will shortly appear. I 
have no doubt that it will be very complete and very 
interesting to all Ornithologists, Professor Salvadori 
having done this work con amore. 

Professor Ernst Hartett of the Museum of Franc- 
furt-on-Main (Germany), the well known scientific 
Traveller in Sumatra, India, and Africa, has also been 



April i, 1 891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



29 



here several weeks and has been working at the 
British Museum. 

Indubitably many other Scientists among the 
Ornithologists and others have been studying and 
working at the British Museum lately, and this shows 
how appreciated are by all the splendid Collections 
gathered in this Museum ; but unfortunately I hear 
from all sides that the accommodation for scientific 
workers is very limited. 

This shows that I was right when I say page 13 of 
the Humming Bird that in building a Museum, rooms 
and library for the use of Students ^should be the 
first thing to think of. 

If there was sufficient accommodation for Students 
with its correspondent attendance, I have no doubt 
that hundreds of Scientists would be seen every day 
at work in the laboratories of the British Museum 
and I hope the day is not far off when this wish of 
many will be realized. 

A. B. 



Royal Aquarium. 

The ordinary general meeting of the Royal Aquarium 
was held on the 4th of March, under the presidency 
of Captain Molesworth, R.N., the Chairman and 
General Manager of the Company. 

It was rather a stormy meeting in consequence of 
the division existing between the Directors. Much 
was said on either side, but it would have been much 
better if half of what was said had been kept to 
themselves. It is not satisfactory to hear Directors 
of one same Company charging one another of deeds 
resulting against the welfare of the Institution. I 
shall not go into details about all what was said at the 
Meeting as every leading Journal of the Metropolis 
has published minutely the report of same ; but I 
was quite surprised that none of the reporters assist- 
ing at the meeting have said a word about several 
speeches made by many of the independent share- 
holders. One of them, Air. F. Stroud, gave a very 
good acccount of what is going on at the Aquarium 
since Captain Molesworth is one of the Directors and 
Chairman. He said that the reports were always 
very promising ; but the fact was that for one reason 
or another, now in consequence of the fogs, at other 
times in consequence of the Italian and Spanish Ex- 
hibitions or for other causes, the dividend for the 
Shareholders was always small ; although we are told 
every year that there will be a fine dividend for the 
next. 

He spoke also of some very valuable properties 
that we have close to the Aquarium which are in a 
very delapidated state and could be let at a high rent 
if properly repaired. He concluded by saying that 
he thought that the Shareholders ought to give 
another chance to Captain Molesworth ; but it should 
be understood between him and the Shareholders 
that if in six months time, he could not give us 
a better dividend than the last, that he should 
resign. These remarks were very well received 
by the Shareholders present at the Meeting. 
Myself, an original Shareholder of eighty shares, 
said that we had a splendid property which well 
managed ought to pay us a dividend not of two or 



five per cent ; but 10, 15, 20, 30 and possibly 50 per 
cent, as many other institutions of the same class had 
done ; but up to the present time we have had yearly 
all sorts of promises about very good dividends ; but 
up to this time we never have had the legal 5 per 
cent, interest of our money. I said that I assisted at 
the meeting when Captain Molesworth was first 
elected a Director and that I thought he might be a 
good Director and a perfect gentleman ; but did not 
think he was the proper manager for such an Institu- 
tion as the Royal Aquarium. 

After a few more remarks from other Shareholders 
the meeting terminated rather abruptly. A gentleman 
proposed a vote of thanks for the Chairman, but the 
meeting was virtually ended when this was done. 

Well now, I repeat what I said at the meeting. 
We have a magnificent property in the Royal 
Aquarium which could give us excellent dividends if 
managed by a competent person and the least that 
Captain Molesworth ought to do is to look for a 
manager accustomed to that sort of business to assist 
him and entrust him the management of the Society 
as soon as he has given proof of his abilities in man- 
aging the Royal Aquarium in such a way that enables 
the Company to pay at least 5 per cent, dividend to 
the Shareholders. Short of this, I think that the 
Shareholders will not rest long satisfied with what has 
been done and is still done at the present time. 
They want good dividends and no more promises. 

A. BOUCARD. 



The Panama Canal. 



On the 2 1 st of February last there was a debate on 
the Nicaragua Canal Bill in the Senate at Washington. 
Being very important that the bondholders of the 
Panama Canal Co. should be acquainted with all what 
occurs in America about the Interoceanic Canal of 
Nicaragua, I reproduce here the telegraphic message 
sent by Reuter to the leading journals of Europe : — 

The Nicaragua Canal. 

Washington, Feb. 21. -During the debate on the 
Nicaragua Canal Bill, Senator Davis, of Minnesota, 
opposed the passing of the measure in a speech in 
which he declared that the Bill virtually proposed a 
subsidy of 100,000,000 dollars for the building of a 
work lying outside the national domain and traversing 
a foreign country. The means by which it was pro- 
posed to construct the canal Mr. Davis described as 
objectionable, and said that if the canal was to be 
made the work should be done by the American 
Government in its sovereign capacity through its own 
corps of engineers. He regarded it as most unfor- 
tunate that the treaty concluded with Nicaragua in 
1884, providing for the construction of the canal by 
the United States, has been withdrawn. In his 
opinion, the question was not embarrassed by any 
complications under the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, 
because he considered that that treaty had been abro- 
gated by the action of Great Britain. The American 
people, however, were not crying out for the canal, 
neither was Great Britain nor any other Power, by 



3° 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[April i, 1 89 1 



assuming a menacing attitude, rendering its construc- 
tion necessary. Mr. Davis doubted whether it was 
feasible to construct and maintain the canal on 
account of the frequency of earthquakes in Central 
America. Senator Edmunds, of Vermont, replying 
to the latter part of Mr. Davis's speech, pointed out 
that railroads and waterworks had been constructed 
in spite of the earthquakes, and that ancient masonry 
was still standing within fifteen miles of Naples. No 
public work that was deemed useful should, he main- 
tained, ever be discarded on account of a possible 
cataclysm of nature. Mr. Edmunds also defended 
the Bill generally. The Senate ultimately adjourned 
without having come to any decision regarding the 
Bill. 

All what precedes shows how important it is for the 
United States the opening of an Interoceanic canal 
shortening the distance between the States of Cali- 
fornia and New York. 

It is quite a mistake to believe that the Nicaragua 
Canal can be made with the sum asked for to the 
Senate of United States, viz., 100,000,000 dollars. 

The same difficulties and the same expenses will be 
encountered there as with the Panama Canal, and I 
consider it very cheap if it could be terminated with 
twice that sum, and I think that if a canal is to be 
opened at all it would be much preferable for United 
States to buy, either in cash or otherwise, from the 
Panama Canal Company all the assets existing, at a 
reasonable price, and terminate the said canal. It 
would cost them much less and could be concluded 
much quicker. 

Besides, the position of Panama is unique, and 
it would be very easy to make of that country an 
independent State, under the control of the Govern- 
ment of the United States, much more easy, in fact, 
than in Nicaragua, where it confines with two district 
Republics, having their capitals near the canal. 
Meanwhile in Colombia the capital Bogota is at a 
considerable distance, and probably it would be easier 
for the Government of United States to come to an 
understanding with that country than with Central 
America. 

As a proof of what I say, I remember that during 
my last trip to Colon and Panama in 1876 and 1877, 
I spoke with many of the railway authorities, and 
many times I was told by them that in selecting 
Panama for the construction of the Interoceanic Rail- 
way, it was, because in the opinion of the best engineers 
of the epoch if a canal was to be made at any future 
time Panama was the only place where it could be 
made, and I believe that even now there exists a sort 
of agreement between the Panama Railway Company 
and the Colombian authorities that no canal can be 
made by any others than by the Panama Railway 
Company sixty leagues above or under the line of the 
railway. This clause was the chief reason why the 
Exploring Interoceanic Canal Company, under the 
direction of General Turr, sent an expedition to 
explore the Darien, which is just outside the limits 
claimed by the Panama Railway Company. 

Seeing the impossibility of digging the Inter- 
oceanic Canal in the isthmus of Darien, Baron de 
Lesseps had to buy the Panama Railway Company 
with its privileges to the American Society which 



owned it, and it was considered by all a masterful 
stroke of business at the time. 

Many of the directors of the said Company are 
alive, and can very well substantiate what I say, 
and, furthermore, tell to their countrymen that no one 
did interfere with them during all the time of their 
management. In fact, they were as the real 
owners of Pariama, to the point of not receiving- any 
other money than American gold in payment for 
transit of passengers and goods, and acting in every- 
thing entirely as they liked. 

Panama is the proper place for the Colombus 
Canal, and, notwithstanding all what is done else- 
where, I have not the least doubt that the canal will 
be opened there one day or another. 
To be continued. 



Answers to Correspondents. 

Messrs. Boucard, Pottier & Co., in answer to the 
numerous letters received from the Continent and 
from America offering Objects of Natural History for 
sale, remind their Correspondents that their establish- 
ment is a Naturalist's Agency, started with the special 
purpose of serving as intermediary between the 
collectors and the amateurs. They will be glad to 
receive in commission all sorts of Objects of Natural 
Plistory, and will do their utmost to give entire satis- 
faction to both parties concerned. Rare Objects, 
either in Curios, Paintings, Works of Art, .Natural 
History in general, sent in commission will be adver- 
tised free of charge in the journal. 

Lists of desiderata for rare specimens of Natural 
History, Works of Art, Curios, etc., will also be in- 
serted free of charge. 

All communications should be addressed — 
Naturalist's Agency, 

225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 



Books and Journals Received. 

North American Fauna, Nos. 3 and 4, two very 
interesting pamphlets on mammals and birds found 
in North America. 

Rivista italiana di Sciense natural!. Le A T ov Latin, 
international scientific Lingua, by Dr. Daniel Rosa. 

The Antigua Observer. 

The Canadian Entomologist. 

The Naturalisfs Gazette. 

PViiling's British and Lrish Tress Guide, a very 
useful book. 

With thanks, 

A. B. 



Obituary. — Charles Anatole Maingonnat, the 21st 
of February, aged 54. Charles Anatole Maingonnat 
of Paris, a very old friend of mine, was a pupil of 
Messrs. Jules and Edward Verreaux, Brothers, "the 
firm who had travellers in all parts of the world, and 
supplied so many museums during a number of 
years with rare or new apecies collected everywhere. 
Under such masters, Charles Anatole Maingonnat 
became a very skilful taxidermist. He studied 
anatomy and sculpture. He always used to make a 



April i, 1 89 1. 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



3i 



model of the objects which he had to stuff, and 
he acquired great ability in modelling animals and 
birds. I possess several works made by him, which I 
consider excessively good. Many of the specimens of 
mammals and birds exhibited by the Republic of 
Guatemala, and by myself at the International Paris 
Exhibition of 1889, were prepared in his workshop. 
The French Government awarded him a silver medal, 
and the Republic of Guatemala awarded him a gold 
medal, and two silver medals for his assistants. He 
was ailing for some time, but his family and friends 
never thought the end was so near. He leaves a 
widow and two children, to whom we address all our 
sympathies. 



An Easy Way of Making One Hundred 

Pounds Sterling- a Year. 

BIRDS AND MAMMALS. 

By Mr. Walter Burton. 

If a powerful billed bird, such as a cockatoo, is 
wounded lay the barrel of the gun across the neck, 
and press the bird to the ground with the hand until 
dead, this also in the case of herons, which are 
dangerous if only winged ; eagles if wounded require 
careful handling, lay the barrel across the neck with 
one hand, holding the feet with the other, and press 
them with the knee to the ground, this will kill the 
bird without damaging the plumage, and beware of the 
claws of hawks and owls, they are exceedingly sharp 
and poisonous. 

I now come to the process of skinning and 
" making up " the birds into skins, premising my 
description with the remark that if it is possible to 
get a lesson from a professional taxidermist before 
starting it will be found a great help, but to those so 
situated that they cannot profit by this instruction I 
hope I can make myself understood in the manner in 
which I explain the process, it is exactly the way in 
which I work myself, and in which I have had a life- 
long, experience, some thousands of birds having been 
through my hands in England and abroad, and for 
which I have gained much praise from scientific 
naturalists. To proceed, the tools requisite for the 
proper " making up " of the skins, the most useful next 
to the knife or scalpel is a pair of straight scissor- 
forceps, such as are used by surgeons for polypus of 
the nose, about seven inches long, a scalpel for small, 
a knife for large birds, two pairs of scissors, large and 
small, a pair of spring tweezers, needles, cotton, 
thread, pins, cottonwool, tow, arsenical soap and some 
pine boxwood sawdust as used by jewellers, and ground 
alum for large birds, any of these instruments of 
course can be duplicated for a very lengthened stay. 

• The easiest bird to commence practice with here in 
England is the common starling, having a good tough 
skin of his own ; unpractised fingers will not be so 
liable to injure as with a more tender skinned bird. 

Remove the cotton- wool that was pushed into the 
throat when shot, and break the wing bones as close 
to the body as possible, lay the bird on a table or 
anything that is about that height, sometimes I have 
skinned the bird laid on my knee whilst sitting on the 
ground, take the length on a rule marked in inches 
and tenths from tip of bill to end of tail-feathers ; with 
the bill pointing to the left, part the feathers of the 



breast with the left thumb and forefinger, and make 
an incision with the knife from near the top of the 
keel of the breast bone to near the anus, part the 
skin from the body by pushing with the handle of the 
knife, holding the skin by the left forefinger on both 
sides until the legs are exposed to view, cut through 
the joint first seen on either side and skin round the 
back a little further, using some of the sawdust dusted 
on the body and feathers round the opening, then 
push the skin over the breast when the broken wings 
will be seen, cut through both and through the neck 
close to the body, using plenty of the sawdust to soak 
up and prevent any moisture from the body soiling 
the feathers, then the body can be removed altogether 
by skinning down the back, and cutting off at the base 
of the tail, not too close to the root of the tail-feathers, 
lay the body aside for the present, skin the thigh, and 
clean the thigh bone of all flesh, the easiest way is to 
cut through the thinnest part, cutting the sinews and 
stripping up to the joint where first cut through, and 
cut the joint and flesh right away, brush a little arsenical 
soap on the bone and skin, and wrap around the bone 
enough cotton-wool to make up to the size of the 
flesh taken away and return the leg to its normal 
position, repeat with the other, then with the wings, 
skin down to the first joint from the body and cut 
away the flesh, tie a piece of cotton on each stump 
of bone, and return the wings to their proper places 
after brushing a little soap on the bone, take hold of the 
neck in the right hand and strip down the skin with 
the left forefinger and thumb until the base of the skull 
appears ; then come the ears, which dig out with the 
point of the knife, taking care not to cut the skin. Skin 
on until the eyes are reached, being extremely careful 
not to cut the eyelid, which is a great detriment to 
the look of the skin when finished, or to cut into the 
eyeball, which take out with the handle of the knife. 
Skin right down to the bill, and cut the base of the 
skull right away, but not the joint of the mandibles, 
which just miss, then with the scissors cut the flesh 
from between the lower mandible with the tongue 
right to the top of the skull, when all the flesh and 
brains will come away together. Then with a brush 
cover with arsenical soap and turn right side out, the 
feathers will look rather rough at first, but with a little 
shaking and manipulating the feathers will all come 
into their right places. Take the two ends of the cotton 
which were tied to the stumps of the wing bones and 
tie them together, leaving the natural width of the 
back. Between the cotton and the skin of the back 
place a small piece of cotton wool, which gives a nice 
level back to the skin. With the scissor-forceps take a 
piece of cotton-wool, about the size of the eye taken 
out, and insert up the neck through the skull into the 
orbital space, then with a piece of cotton-wool or tow 
somewhere about the size of the original body and 
neck, with the scissor-forceps fill out the neck and 
body, making the neck rather short. A good plan where 
practicable is to have a bird in the flesh lying before 
you, and so make the skin as near like it as possible. 
Then with a needle and cotton proceed to sew up 
the incision first made, beginning at the vent and 
finishing off at the breast, a few stitches will suffice, 
and the two edges of the skin need not be drawn close 
together, as the feathers will cover the open space. 
Then arrange the feathers of the breast with spring 



32 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



\_April i, 1 891. 



tweezers, and pricking up the feathers with a needle, 
tie the legs together, crossed, turn the bird on its 
breast, and regulate the feathers of the back with the 
spring tweezers, placing the wing-coverts in their 
proper places. Make a cylinder of paper, the size of the 
bird, to keep the wings in position and the feathers 
from being rough, push the skin in head-foremost, 
seeing that all the feathers are in place as it goes in ; 
now is the time to finish with the original body taken 
out, it is necessary in cases where both sexes of birds 
do not differ in outward appearance that dissection is 
resorted to to find out their individual sex, in fact, in 
all cases it is as well that this should be done, as 
young males are usually very much like females, and 
females will sometimes assume the plumage of the 
male ; the testes in the male are found at the middle 
of the back, appearing as two little white, black, or 
black and white specks, the ovaries in the female in 
the same place, but on the left-hand side like a small 
bunch of grapes, in the breeding season these organs 
are very much larger, in the females the egg with shell 
will sometimes be found ; when this is done the body 
may finally be disposed of, either thrown away or 
relegated to the pot if good for eating, as the process 
of skinning does not at all in.3rfere with its use for 
gastronomic purposes ; a small label should be tied to 
the leg of the skin with the sex marked on one side, 
and a number corresponding to the journal on the 
other ; then put away to dry. I may mention here 
that care is necessary to keep the feathers, especially 
the small, feathers of the head and neck as smooth as 
is possible, which through the skin being turned 
inside out are sometimes very rough. 

( To be continued.) 



Reports on the March Public Sale of Ostrich 
and Osprey Feathers, Bird Skins, etc. 

The sale of Ostrich feathers lasted two days. 

In all, 1405 cases Cape were offered and 1334 
cases sold. 

There was an advance of about ten per cent. 
all round. 

The quantity sold realized ,£72,000. 

The next sales are fixed for Monday, 13th of 
April. Last receiving day, 21st March. 

White Primes, 1st, 2nd and 3rd, were sold from 
£,£> to ;£i6 according to quality. 

White Femina from £6 5 oto^n 10 o. ; black 
from 20s. to £8. ; Drab, 12^. 6d. to jQ6 10s. ; Floss, 
18s. to 505. ; Spadonas, 50^. to _£6 15. ; Boos 
white, 505-. to g2s. 6d. ; Boos femina and Drabs, 35^. 
to 65^. 

The sale of Osprey, Peacock feathers and Bird 
Skins took place on the 6th of March. There was a 
good attendance and a great competition for good 
qualities of Long and Short Osprey feathers. Red 
and Brown Herons were steady, Birds of Paradise 
increased 2s. per skin for good quality. Bird Skins 
were very dull. Long Osprey, igs. to 275. per oz. ; 
Medium, 22*. to 2gs. ; Short selected, 61s. to .£$. : 
White Paddy, i6.r. 6d. to 2$s. ; Grey Paddy, 12s. to 
14-r. ; Peacock feathers, Eyes, 2\d. to 5^. per bundle; 
Impeyan Pheasant fetched 6^., Red Argus Pheasants, 



2S. 2d. ; Parrots, various, id. to 2d. ; Indian birds, 
various, about id. each ; Birds of Paradise, Male, 
14s. to 16s.; females, n*. to 14^. 3d.; many wires, 
igs. 6d. ; green and king birds of paradise, 15-. 6d. 
to is. gd ; Regents, 3s. 6d. ; Red Tanagers, 8| d ; 
Blue Creepers, 6\d. ; Orange Tanagers, 6d. ; Seven 
Colored Finches, io^d. ; Various Finches, 2d. to \d. 
Messrs. Boucard, Pottier & Co. will be happy to 
execute commissions for gentlemen who cannot 
attend the sales. 

Reports on February and March Public 
Sales of Postage Stamps. 

Messrs. Cheveley & Co. continued their sixteenth 
sale on Saturday, February 14th, which consisted of 
a very fine collection of English stamps, collected by 
Mr. Westoby. Some varieties reached very good 
prices, a list of which we give hereunder. 

Great Britain, id. black, V.R. unused, £6 15.) 
i\d. Lilac Rose, block of four, unused, 35 s. ; 3d., 
small letters, plate 3, with secret mark, unused and 
imperf., with original gum, ,£38.; id. red, Archer Rou- 
lette, unused, 65s. ; is. Octagon, unused, original 
gum, 48jt. 4a., no letters, small garter carmine on 
blue, unused, very rare, 60s. 4a. small letters, plate 
4, imperf., unused, original gum, 44X. gd. small 
letters, plate 3, with hair lines in angles, used, ^15. 

Messrs. Cheveley & Co. lightning like held their 
seventeenth sale on Saturday, March 7th, the best 
lots realized good prices. 

Cape of Good Hope woodblock, error, mended at 
one corner, ^26 10. Woodblock id., red, 26s. 
Confederate States, Charlestown, entire envelope, 5 
cents on white, used, 32^. Same on yellow paper, used, 
one corner off, 255-. Same on gold paper, used, flaps 
all cut off, 275- Gd. Knoxville, entire envelope, 5 c, 
dull sap green on cream wove paper, used, 50^., the 
same on pale green, fancy paper, used, 46s. ; two 
shades of same on very thin bluish wove paper, both 
unused, 23s. Lynchburg, entire envelope, 5 c, 
black, used, the stamp had been cut out and then re- 
placed, 50s. Dominican Republic (1865) value 
reading downwards |- rl. pale green, fine, 72s. 6d. ; 
same issue, 1 rl. straw, J~6 10. Great Britain, lod. 
brown, and strip of four id. red on blue paper, im- 
perf., all unused and original gum, 13s. (B. P. & Co.) 
Hanover: 10 gr. green (two shades), 38^. India, 
2 a. green, a fine used specimen, 40^. Mauritius : 
large fillet, 2d. blue (mended). ,£5 5^. Naples : \ 
tornese, Arms, slightly mended, £4. Arms \ grano 
and 50 grani, 275. New Brunswick, is. violet, fine 
copy, but poor margin, £4 17 6. Newfoundland, 
6d. vermilion, 20s ; ditto but pen cancelled, 14s. 
New South Wales, laureated, 8d. yellow, 34s. New- 
Zealand 4 'N.Z." wmk. id. vermillion unused 16^. 
Oldenburg, 1st issue, complete set, 18s. Prussia, entire 
envelope. 7s. gr. vermillion, small size, used, rare, 55s. 
Schleswig Holstein: 1st issue, 1 sch.blue, (two shades) 
and 2 sch, rose, all unused, 46s. United States, 1869, 
!5> 2 4, 3° a »d 90 c, 27s.; 185 1, 5 c, imperf., very 
fine, unsevered pair, 15s. Victoria "Registered 
Stamp, rouletted, 32s. 

Messrs. Boucard, Pottier & Co., will be happy to 
execute commissions for gentlemen who cannot 
attend the Sales. 



April i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



V 



BOUCARD, P 



CO., 



NATURALISTS AND FEATHER MERCHANTS, 

Eîoltoo:*»:**, London, 1Z!T.G. 9 



COMMISSION. 



EXPORTATION. 



Messrs. BOUCARD, POTTIER & CO. offer to sell on commission all kinds of Objects of Natural 
History, Collections of Mammal and Bird Skins, Skeletons, Human and Animal Skulls, Insects of all 
orders pinned and set, or in papers ; Marine, Fresh Water, and Land Shells ; Reptiles and Fishes in spirit ; 
Crustacege and Arachnidae in spirit ; Ethnological collections from all parts ; Showy Bird Skins and 
Feathers for Plumassiers and Naturalists ; Mammal Skins for Furriers ; Bright species of Insects for 
Artificial Florists ; Rare old Stamps, used and unused; Curios of all sorts, Pictures and Works of Art, etc., 
etc., etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting Messrs. Boucard, Pottier 
& Co., who having a large connection with Amateurs in all parts of the world, are able to get the very best 
prices for them. 

Messrs. Boucard, Pottier & Co. beg to advise Directors of Museums and private Amateurs that they 
undertake to stuff from a Humming Bird to a Whale at very reasonable prices. Only experienced and 
scientific Taxidermists are employed by the hour for that work, which will always be of the best class. 

An inspection of their Galleries, where a large number of specimens are always on show, is solicited. 

Special fabrication of Mammals and Birds Eyes at wholesale prices which defy all competition, either 
as quality or price. See special Advertisement. 

New Stands for Birds, suitable for Museums and Scientific Institutions. No one should be without 
them. The appearance of the Birds on these stands is unequalled, and everyone should adopt them and 
renovate the old ones. See Advertisement. 



TO PLUMASSIERS AND FEATHER MERCHANTS. 



Lots of PLUMES and BIRD SKINS, consigned to the Naturalist's Agency Office and for sale. 

ALL THE SKINS ARE OF FIRST QUALITY. 



Lot of 12 Rifle Birds from Australia (magnificent skins) 

Price £13 4 

,, ,, 12 Eegent Birds (very fine skins). ... £4 

,, „ 50 Mock Regents £6 

,, ,, 60 Sterna minuta £7 

,, ,, 50 Sterna various £4 

„ ,, 50 Fire back Pheasants £5 

„ „ 10 Red and Black Argus £4 

,, ,, 6 oz. Long Osprey £9 

,, ,,20 skins Short Osprey, selected £8 

„ „ 20 Red Osprey, flat skins £3 

„ „ 20 Long Tailed Trojans £20 

,, ,, 20 ditto from Columbia (splendid skins) ... £8 

„ 50 Cock of Rock. 1st choice £10 

,, 20 Red Paradise birds, sound skins ... £10 

„ 100 Rollers, flat skins £4 

, ,, 100 King Fishers £6 

, ,, 100 Sea Snipes, various, fine skins ... £4 

, „ 50 Sea Gulls. £3 

, „ 2 Golden Turkey, fine skins £6 

, ,,10 Goura Pidgeon from N. Guinea ... £6 

," „ 50 Wild Pidgeons £4 

, „ 20 Small Bustard •. £4 

, ,, 25 African Red Partridge £2 

, ,, 50 Californian Quails £3 

, „ 20 Mandarin Ducks ... £4 

, „ 50 Hawks, various £5 

, ,, 50 Large Owls £6 

, „ 50 Owls, medium £2 

„ ,, 50 Scops £6 

„ ,, 20 Barn Owls £8 

,, ,, 50 Parrots, various £4 

,, „ 50 Grey King Fishers ... ... ... £6 

,, „ 50 Mexican Jays, new to Plumas&iers ... £8 

., „ 25 Mexican Wood Peckers £2 10 

„ „ 50 Golden Oriole £4 

„ „ 50 Shrikes £2 10 



1 lot de 12 Paradis gorge d'acier de l'Australie (peaux splen- 
dides Prix 330 fr. 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 

1 

1 
1 
1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 



12 Régents d'Australie, très belles peaux ... 

50 Faux Régents 

60 Sterna minuta 

50 Sternes variées 

50 Ithagines 

10 Argus satyres à ventre rouge et à ventre 

noir 

6 oz. Aigrette longue 

20 Peaux Aigrette crosse, 1ère qualité 

20 Aigrette rouge, peaux plates 

20 Couroucous à longue queue 

20 ditto de la Colombie, peaux de 1er choix 

et bien préparées 

50 Coqs de roche, 1er choix 

20 Paradis rouge, peaux rondes 

100 Rolliers, peaux plates 

100 Martins pécheurs, peaux plates 

100 Bécassines Pluviers, etc., belles peaux... 

50 Goélands et Mouettes 

2 Dindons ocellés, belles peaux 

10 Pigeons Goura de la N. Guinée 

50 Pigeons sauvages 

20 Petites Outardes 

25 Perdrix d'Afrique ... 

50 Colins de la Californie 

20 Canards mandarins 

50 Oiseaux de proie, divers 

50 Grandes Chouettes 

50 Chouettes moyennes 

50 Chouettes Scops 

20 Chouettes Effraies 

50 Perruches diverses... 

50 Martin Pécheurs gris 

50 Geais du Mexique (nouveauté) 
25 Pics à Baguettes ... 
50 Orioles, dorés 
50 Pie Grièches 



100 fr. 
150 fr. 
175 fr. 
100 fr. 
125 fr. 

100 fr. 
225 fr. 
200 fr. 
75 fr. 
500 fr, 

200 fr. 

250 fr. 

250 fr. 

100 fr. 

150 fr. 

100 fr. 
75 fr. 
... 150 fr. 
... 150 fr. 
... 100 fr. 
... 100 fr. 
... 50 fr. 
... 75 fr. 
... 100 fr. 
... 125 fr. 
... 150 fr. 
... 50 fr. 
... 150 fr. 
... 200 fr. 
... 100 fr. 
... 150 fr. 
... 200 fr. 
62 fr. 50 c. 
... 100 fr 
62 fr. 5Q 



n 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



'April i, 1 89 1 



1 Lot of 100 Hoopooes 

1 „ „ 50 Wax Wings 

1 ., ,,50 African Humming 

1 ,, ,, 100 Blue Creepers ... 

1 ,, ,,50 Green Creepers 

1 ,, ,. 50 Bed Tanagers 

1 ,, ,, 100 Yellow and Black Tanagers 

1 ,, „ 50 Five Coloured Tanagers 

1 ,, ,, 100 Tanagers, various 

1 ,, ,, 50 Mexican Starlinps 

1 ,, ,, 100 European Starlings 

1 ,, ,, 25 Blue Jays 

1 ,, ,, 50 Alpine Crows 

1 ,, ,, 50 Metallic Starlings 

1 ,, ,, 50 Large New Guinea Pitta 

1 ,, ,, 25 Royal Fly Catchers 

1 ,, ,, 50 Fly Catchers, various ... 

1 ,, ,, 50 Yellow-Headed Manakins 

1 ,, „ 50 Bed and Black ditto 

1 ,, : , 20 Goat Suckers 

3 „ „ 100 Swallows 

1 ,, ,, 10 Bower birds 

1 „ ,, 100 Green Humming, all males 

1 ,, ,, 100 Améthyste Humming ... 

1 „ ,, 100 Large Humming 

1 ,, ,,50 Buby Topaz Humming ... 

1 ,, ,, 25 Long Blue Tail Humming 

1 ,, ,, 10 Fire Tail Humming 

1 „ ,, 50 Long Tail Humming, various 



Price £6 

... £3 

... £2 

... £5 

... £2 

... £2 

... £4 

... £4 

... £2 

... £5 

... £2 

... £2 

... £4 

... £4 

... £8 

... £5 

... £2 

... £1 

... £1 

... £2 

... £4 

... £2 

... £2 

... £4 

... £2 

... £2 

... £5 

... £12 

... £4 













10 























5 

5 





10 

10 



10 

10 









1 lot de 100 Huppes Prix 150 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Jaseurs 75 fr. 

1 ,, . ,, 50 Sui manga ••• 50 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 100 Guit guits à tête bleue 125 fr. 

1 ,, „ 50 Guit guits verta 50 fr. 

1 „ ,, 50 Tan.aras rouges ... 62 fr. 50 c. 

1 ,, ,, 100 Tangaras noirs et jaunes 100 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Tangaras. quinticolor ... ... ... 100 fr. 

1 ,, „ 100 Tangaras divers 50 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Etourneaux du Mexique 125 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 100 Sansonnets... 50 fr. 

1 ,. ,, 25 Geais ... 50 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Corbeaux des Alpes 100 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Merles Métalliques bleus 100 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Grandes Brèves, de la N. Guinée ... 200 fr. 

1 „ ,, 25 Gobe mouches royaux 125 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Gobe mouches divers ... ... ... 50 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Manakins à tête jaune 36 fr. 25 c. 

1 ,, ,, 50 Manakins à tête rouge 36 fr. 25 c. 

1 „ ,, 20 Engoulevents 50 fr. 

1 „ „ 100 Hirondelles 100 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 10 Oiseaux satinés 62 fr. 50 c. 

1 ,, ,, 100 Oiseaux mouches Verts, tous mâles 62 fr. 50 c. 

1 ,, ,, 100 Clarisses et Parzudaki 100 fr. 

1 ,, „ 100 Grands Oiseaux mouches divers 62 fr. 50 c. 

1 „ „ 50 Bubis Topazes 62 fr. 50 c. 

1 ,, „ 50 Kings .. ... 125 fr. 

1 ,, ,, 10 Saphos ou Queues de feu ... 300 fr. 

1 ,, „ 50 Oiseaux Mouches à longue queue ... 100 fr. 



1 Lot of 5 Magnificent Fire lack Pheasant ; quite new 

to Plumassiers (A Splendid Bikd) Price £8 
1 ,, „ 25 Macaws, flat skins £4 



JUST AKRIVED, DECEMBER, 1890. 

1 ,, ,, 100 Hoopooes 
1 ,, ,,50 Indian Crows 



Price £6 
£7 



TO ARTIFICIAL FLORISTS, JEWELLERS, 

SECTS. 



etc. 



B R^I G H T 



1 Lot of 25,000 Blue beetles 

1 ,, ,, 25,000 Green ,, large ... 

1 ,, „ 25,000 ,, ,, small ... 

1 ,, ,, 25,000 Purple „ 

1 „ ,, 1000 Golden Phaneus 

1 „ ,, 5000 May Bugs 

1 ,, ,, 1000 Golden Antichira 

1 ,, ,, 1000 Large Green Buprests 

1 „ „ 1000 Golden Buprests 

1 „ ,, 500 Ocellated Buprests 

1 „ „ 50 Diamond Beetles 

1 ,, ,, 500 Brazilian Golden Cacides 

1 ,, ,, 500 Butterflies from West Africa in papers 



Price- £4 





... £5 





... £4 





... £8 





... £10 


Q 


... £4 





... £10 





... £4 





... £4 





... £5 





... £5 





... £4 





pers £4 








I N 





1L< 





1 , 





1 , 





1 , 





1 , 





1 , 





1- , 





1 , 





1 , 





1 . 





1 , 





1 , 





1 , 



Lot de 25,000 Hoplies bleues Prix 100 fr. 

25,000 Grandes Chrysomèles vei tes 125 fr. 

25,000 Petites „ „ 100 fr. 

25,000 Chrysomèles violettes 200 fr. 

1000 Phaneus dorés 250 fr. 

5000 Hannetons 100 fr. 

1000 Petits Hannetons vert dorés 250 fr. 

1000 Grands Buprestes vert dorés 100 fr. 

1000 Buprestes dorés 100 fr. 

500 Buprestes ocellés 125 fr. 

50 Chareuçons dorés 125 fr. 

500 Cacides 100 fr. 

, 500 Papillons d'Afrique 100 fr. 



LIST 



OF THE 



L 



PRICED UTENS 

NECESSABY FOB COLLECTING 

REPTILES, FISHES, INSECTS, SHELLS, etc. 



Benzine bottle 

Tin box for collecting Insects, from ... 

Bottle 

Glass tubes or phials, doz 

Digger 

Butterfly nets, from 

Sweeping and water, nets from 
Umbrella for Insects, from 
Cork in boards, per doz., from 
Pins for Insects, per thousand, from 

Pill boxes, per gross, from 

Corked boxes for Insects, from 
Wooden box same size 
Boucard's Insecticide, per oz. 

Flax, per pound 

Cotton-wadding, per sheet 

Nippers, from ... 

Fishing rods with accessory, from . . . 

Other Utensils for collecting Mammals 
obtained at the Naturalist's Agency, 
London, W. C. 



Bird 
223 



s, etc., 
High 



Is. Od. 

Is. 6d. 

0s. 3d. 

Is. Od. 

2s. 6d. 

Is. 6d. 

2s. 6d. 

8s. Od. 

2s. 6d. 

Is. 6d. 

4s. Od. 

Is. 6d. 

Is. Od. 

0s. 6d. 

0s. 6d. 

0s. 6d. 

Is. 6d. 

2s. 6d. 
are to be 
Holborn, 



BOUCARD'S INSECTICIDE POWDER 

against Mites, Insect larvae etc. 



Wholesale and Bétail. 
- Success guaranteed 



This new Powder is of easy use, not dangerous to manipu- 
late, and a good disinfectant against Choleba morbus and all 

Epidemic diseases. 

It destroys immediately all vermine, such as Fleas, Bugs, 
Mites, Laev.e of Dermestes, etc. 

Sixpence for a trial packet of one ounce. It lasts a long 
time, a small quantity being necessary each time. 

Trades supplied at a liberal discount. 

No House ought to be without it. 

Once tried, always used ! 



COCOA BUTTEB. 

Guaranteed pure. 

Very useful to soften the skin, a preservative against 
Chaped Hands and Chilblains and a remedy for Curs, Burns, 
etc. etc. 

Sold in cakes, Sixpence and one shilling. 



April i, 1 891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



vu 



MONTHLY LIST OF STAMPS. 



FOR SALE. 



Brazil, 1843, large figure 60. E fine copy 

British Bechuanaland, 1881, Id. without. surcharge ... 

2d. do. do. 

Id. with surcharge 

2d. do. „ 

6d. do. „ 

set of 5 for 

British Columbia, 1868, 2 cents, on 3d. brown, unused 
n ,, ,, 25 cents, yellow and violet ... 

British Guiana, 1863, 24 cents, green 

,, 1889, 1 cent, black and purple 

, 2 cents do. do. 

, do. with red 2 

, 8 cents black and purple 
get of 4 for 

, 1 cent on 1 dollar 

, 1 do. 2 dollars 

, 1 do. 3 do. ' 

1 do. 4 do. 

set of 4 for 

Id. no wmk. 

Is. no wmk 

„ Is. wmk. CC, and crown 

Canada, 3d. oblong, fine copy 

Cape of Good Hope, 4d. blue triangular, fine copy ... 

Ceylon, 1857, 2d. green unused 4s., used 

1861, 5d. brown 
„ 1864, %i. lilac, 
Id. blue, 
„ „ 5d. green, 

,, „ 6d. brown, 

,, ,, lOd. orange -red, 

,, ,, lOd deep mauve 

,, „ 4d. rose, 

,, ,, 8d. brown, 

,, ,, 2s. blue, „ ,, 

,, One Rupee Twelve Cents in words on (2 R, 50 cents) 

,, Service Postage, Id. black and blue 

Costa Rica, set of 5 for 

Faridhot, set of 37, different 

Prance. 1852, 10 centimes, buff, fine copy 

Gibraltar, 10 centimes on Id. unused 

,, 25 do. on 2d. ,, or used ... 

,, 25 do. on 2Jd. used 

,, 75 do. on Is. unused 



British Honduras 



unused 9d. 


used 


11 


M 


,, OS. 


H 


2s. 


1> 


,, oS. 


λ 


,, oS., 


») 


4s.. 


) J 


,, 6s., 


Ï» 



2 


6 




4 




4 




4 




4 


1 





2 







9 


2 


3 




6 




9 


1 


4 




6 


1 


6 


3 


10 




9 




9 




9 


1 


3 


4 





1 


9 


2 


6 


1 


6 


1 










1 


3 


2 


6 




9 




4 


1 


3 


1 


3 


1 


3 


1 





1 


9 


2 


6 


2 





1 


6 


2 


6 




8 


12 


6 


3 


6 




6 


2 







4 


2 






TO ETHNOLOGISTS. 



FOR SALE. 

Twelve finely carved An ows and 1 Bow from New Guinea 

Price 20a. 

African Rhinoceros War Club Price 30s. 

Three distinct Zulu War Clubs, made of iron wood and very 
nicely carved Price 30s. each. 

Pagaie from New Guinea, made of palm tree Price 30s. 

Magnificent Gold Antiquity from Panama, representing what 
appears to be Musicians, two large figures in the centre and 
six small ones round. It weighs 6 oz. 187 grammes. It is 
quite unique, and no Museum in the world possesses anything 
like it Price £50. 

A great variety of American Antiquities, chiefly from Central 
America, in hardstone, agathe, Idols, Vase*, etc. from 5s. 



3 6 

4 
6 

1 6 

1 6 

2 6 

3 6 
6 

6 



STAMPS (continued). s. d. 

Great Britain (1840), Id. black, fine copy 2 

,, (1840), Id red on bluish paper unused 9 

,, 1840, lOd. brown, uncut fine copy ... 2 6 

,, do. do. do. unused 15 

,, 1863, pink, unused 3 6 

,, ,, lilac, do. 3 

,, 1867, 3d. rose, wmk. spray plate 6 unused 5 

1884, £1, oblong 

,, set of 8 Gov. Parcels 

Grenada, 1881, Jd. black and purple 

,, ,, 3£ black and lake ... 

,, ,, ^d. on 2s. orange, black and green ... 

India, 1854, 4 Annas, blue and red, uncut 

„ 1866, 6, a, Provisional lilac and green 1st type 
,, do. do. do. do. do 2nd type 

,, 1882, 12 annas, brown on red ... 
New South Wales, 1851, 3d. on blue paper fine copy 5 

,, 1854, 3d. on white paper 3 6 

,, 1856, 6d. square, grey brown imperf. 

grand copy 

,, 1860, 3d. green, wmk., 3 

,, ,, 3d. green, wmk., 6 ... 

,, 1864, 2d. blue wmk. single line 2 

,, ,, do. double line 2 

,, ,, do. double line 5 

New Zealand, 1863, Is. green fine copy 

Norway, 1870, 1 Krone, green 

,, ,, 2 do. carmine 

Oldenburg, 1859, 1 Gr. black on blue 

Queensland, 1882, £1 green 

,, 6d. yellow, Registered unused ... 

Russia, 1864, 3 Kcpecs, 
Sierra Leone, 1876, 6d. 
Siam, 1883, Att, 2 Atts, 

4 used ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 6 

South Australia, 1859, 1 yellow, roul ... 3 6 

Tasmania, 1870, Id. wmk. 10 2 6 

„ „ 2d. wmk. 2 1 

1882, Fiscal Postals 3d. brown 1 

Turk's Islands, Id. dull rose, wmk. star 1 

Urugay, set of 4, surcharged Official ... 2 

Victoria, 1873, lOd. slate 4 

WANTED. 

Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwards, to 
which none have beeu added since the last 20 years. 

Old stamps on their original letter sheet or envelope, especi- 
ally Colonials and old Geromn states. 

Mulready Wrappers and Envelopes. 

Old unused English and Colonials. 

Old works on stamps. 

Proofs of stamps, etc. etc. 

TO MUSEUMS, ETHNOLOGISTS, etc 



error ... 

mauve ... 

4 Atts and 16 Atts and set of 



3 
6 

2 
4 

1 

3 9 
9 
6 
6 

1 3 

3 

10 

1 3 

6 



Modern pottery from Mexico and Central America 

from 6d. 
Statuettes representing the Indians of Mexico and Guatemala 

from 3s. 
Hats, Baskets, Mats and various Objects made with pal 
leaves and various textile plants,- from Central America, Mada 
gascar, New Guinea, etc. from 6d. 

Samples of Textile Fibres, Seeds, Gums, Resins, Medicinal 
Plants, etc. from Mexico and Central America from 6d. 

Old and Modern Coins from Mexico from lc. 

Etc., etc., etc. 



TO BE LET 
OR SOLD. 



Several Splendid VILLAS, lith Beautiful Gardens, 

at SAN EEMO, the well known Winter Resort, 
40 minutes fi-om MONTE CARLO. 

Apply at the Office of the Journal, 



vm 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[April i, 1 89 1 



MR. ADOLPHE BOUCARD 

NATURALIST, 

Corresponding Member of the Royal Zoological Society of London, de la Commission Scientifique 

du Mexique à Paris, &c, &c. 

Now Ready, the Second Edition of 

Q§>zàz8 of pictorial §mgram0 mtb Raturai gramme, 

ILLUSTRATIVE OF 

HITMAN PHYSIOLOGY, ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, GEOLOGY and MDTERAIO&T. 

Adopted by the London School Board and all the principal Colleges of England. 

The Series contains 20 sheets, 18 in. by 24 in., comprising 166 Diagrams of Animals and Plants, 
life size, beautifully printed in colours, and 37 Natural Specimens, of Woods and Minerals, neatly 
mounted on very stout cardboard, with rings for hanging on the wall. 

The Set Complete, with Handbook, in a Strong Box, 32s., Varnished, 40s. 
Handbook separate, Price 4s., paper; 4s. 6d., cloth. \* The usual Discotmt to Schools and the Trade 

TO BE HAD ONLY AT 

225, Hi^h Holborn, London, 1ST.C. 



OR 




Life Admission to Boyal Aquarium. 

Price 3 Guineas 



TO BOOKSELLERS AND OTHERS. 



Boucard. Catologus Avium, English or French preface, Syste- 
matic Classification of Birds, 8s. instead of 12s. 

Catalogue of Birds, published by the British Museum. 

Vol. 1 to 6 inclusive. The first three Volumes are out of 
print. Price £10. 

Hand List of Birds, Gray, published by the British Museum. 
3 vol. 8vo. Price 25s. 

Guide pour collecter, préparer et expédier des Collections 
d'histoire naturelle. ls. 

Guia para colectar, conservar y despachar Colecciones de 
historia natural. Is. 

Petit Atlas d'Ornithologie ou Collection choisie d'Oiseaux 
les plus connus, dessinés d'après nature par Martinet, 
Paris, 1784. 
1 Vol. grand in folio, in magnificent condition. Contents : 

.Epître à Buffon, Tableau général du classement des Oiseaux 

iivisés d'après Buffon en neuf Ordres et cent un Genres ou 

Familles. 150 splendid coloured plates par Martinet. Exceed- 
ingly rare. £50. 

America, by John Ogilby Esq., London, 1671. Grand in folio, 
675 pages, 121 splendid Engravings and Maps. £30. 

Historia de la Conquista de Mexico, etc., by Don Antonio Solis, 
Brusselas, 1741. 

1 Vol. in folio, 276 pages, 13 Engravings and Maps. Pages 
1 to 9 slightly stained. £20. 

Historia General de las Cosas de Nueva Espana, by Bev. 
Bernardino de Sahagun, con notas y suplementos, por 
Carlos Maria de Bustamante, Mexico, 1829. 4 vols, in 
4to., uncut. £5. 

Historia de las Conquis tas de Hernando Cortez, por Francisco 
Lopez de Gomara, con varias notas y addiciones, por Carlos 
Maria de Bustamante, Mexico, 1826. 1 vol. in 4to, 315 pp. 

£2. 

Tezcoeo en los ultimos ticinpos de sus antiguos Reyes. 
Tomada de los manuscritos ineditos de Boturini y redac- 
tidos p:>r el Li'-. Mariano Veytia, Mexico, 1826. 1 vol- 
16mo, 276 pages. £2. 

Catecismo y Declaracion de la Doctrina Christiana en lengua 
OTOMI, con un Vocabulario del mismo idiotna, por el 
R. P. Joaquin Lopez Yepes, Mexico, 1826. 1 Vol. in 4to, 
254 pages. £4. 



D. R. Kampuysens Stiehtelyke Rymen, by M. Mathieu, Rot- 
terdam. 1688. 1 Vol. in 8vo., 680 pages. £2. 

Clara y Sucinta Exposicion del pequeno Catecismo imprest) 
en el idioina MEXICANO, por un Sacerdote devoto de la 
Madré santissima de la Luz, etc. 

Puebla, 1819. 1 Vol., 67 double pages, one side in Mexican, 
the other in Spanish. £2 10 

Various Calendarios Mexicanos, 1830 to 1860. 2s. each. 



STANDS, NEW STYLE. 


Wholesale Price. 




No. 1 for Humming birds and Small birds at 20s. 


per hundred 


,, 2 ,, Small birds up to Tanagers at 24s. 


)) 


,, 3 ,, Tanagers up to Magpies at 28s. 


» i 


,, 4 ,, Magpies up to Crows or Small 




Hawks at 32s. 




,, 5 ,, Small Hawks to Large Hawks 




and Owls at 40s. 


>j 



ARTIFICIAL JUlfiS. 

Wholesale Price. 



Black Coloured 



per gross 
No. 1 to 4 6d. 
„ 5 „ 8 8d. 
„ 9 „ 10 ls.Od. 
„ H 



ls. 6d. 

2s. 6d. 

4s. Od. 

2s. Od. 5s. 6d. 

12 2s. 3d. 7s. Od. 

13 2s. 6d. 10s.0d. 

doz. of pairs 

14 3s.0d. Is. 6d. 

15 3s. 6d. 2s. 6d. 

16 4s. Od. 2s. 6d. 

17 8s. Od. 3s. Od. 

18 12s. Od. 4s. Od. 



Cornered 

per doz. pairs 

No. 4 to 6 3s. 6d. 

„ 7 „ 8 5s. Od. 

„ 9 6s. Od. 

„ 10 7s. Od. 

„ 11 8s. Od. 

„ 12 9s. Od. 

„ 13 10s. Od. 
„ 14 lis. Od. 
,, 15 13s- Od. 



Cornered 

& Veined 

per doz. pairs 

4s. 6d. 

6s. Od. 

8s- Od. 

9s. Od. 
10s. Od. 
lis. Od. 

12s. Od. 
13s. Od. 
15s. Od. 



Larger sizes can be made 
to order. 



Nr. 1 to 4 are good for humming birds and others up to 
the size of Tanagers. 

No. 5 to 8 Tanagers to Magpies. 

No. 9 to 10 Magpies to Gulls. 

No. 11 to 12 Pheasants, etc. 

No. 13 to 18 Hawks, Owls, Herons, etc. 



LONDOX : Published by A.BUUOA.RD,at 225, High Holborn, W.C. ; and Printed at J. S. LEVIN'S Steam Printing Works 75, LcadenhaU street, B.C. 

April 1, 1831. 




£be 



Ibummm 





A MONTHLY SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC, AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW. 



GUARANTEED CIRCULATION, 5000. 



VOL. I„ NO. 5. 



May 1, 1891. 



PRICE SIXPENCE. 



Annual Subscription: United Kingdom, Post free, 4 shillings ; all countries included in the Postal Union, 5 shillings. 

All other countries, 6 shillings. 




CkSLA/YXtJX/ ' Jà-<MXCCL^ÙC 



EDITED UNDER THE DIRECTION 

OF 

MR. ADOLPHE BOUCARD, 

NATURALIST, 

Officier d'Académie, 1878; Knight of the Royal Military Order of the Conception, i88r ; 
Knight Officer of the Royal Order of Cambodje, 1889; Knight Commander of the Royal Order of Isabelle la Catholique, 1882; 

Corresponding Member of the Zoological Society, London, 1865; 

de la Mission scientifique française au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale, 1866; of the Royal Museum of Madrid, 1881; 

Commissioner for the Republic of Guatemala in the Paris International Exhibitions of 1878 and 1889 ; 

Member of the International Jury, Paris, 1889 ; Member of many scientific societies; 

etc. etc. etc. etc. 



CONTENTS OF No. 5.-MAY 1, 1891. 



THE McKINLEY BILL; or, THE UNITED 
STATES' CUSTOMS TARIFF. In Two 
Parts. 

Part I. — Free List. 

Part II. — List of all Dutiable Objects. 




Boucard's Private Collections of Coleoptera 
and Shells for Sale. 

List of Pittidae for Sale. 
List of Stuffed Birds for Sale.. 
Monthly List of Stamps for Sale, etc. etc. 



[Entered at Stationers' Hall.] 



11 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[May i, 1891. 



FOR SALE.— Shells. 

Private Collection of Mr. Boucard. 
Land, Fluviatile and Marine Shells. 

Glandinidae, is. each. Helicidae, 6d. each. Bulimidae 
is. each. Achatinidae, is. each. Chlindrellidae, is. 6d. 
each. Clausilidae, 3d each. Ampularidse, 6d. each. 
Lymmea, Physa, and Planorbis, 3d each. Cyclosto- 
nidae, 6d. each. Helicinidae, 3d. each. Unio, 
Anodonta, and Ostrea, 6d. each. 

Marine Shells — All the Collection includi?ig 
Argonyuta, Murex, Fusus, Triton, Ranella, Nassa, 
Oliva, Marginella, Harpa, Terebra, Conus, Sfrombus, 
Cypraea, Neritina, Patella, Chiton, Haliotis, Turbo, 
Venus, Cardium, &c, 6d. each. 

Can be divided if required. 

All applications to be made at the Journal's Office. 

Insects Coleoptera. 

Private Collection of Mr. Boucard. 

Cicindelidae, including types of Oxygonia, 
Boucardi Chev, Cincindela costaricensis and others, 
2.r.each. Carabidse, including many types, is. each. 
Dytiscidae, 6d. each. Staphylinidae, 3d. each. 

Pselaphidae, Gnostidae, Paussidae, Scydmaenidae, 
Silphidae, Scaphididae, Histeridae, Nitidulidae, Trog- 
ositidae, Rhyssodidae, Cucujidae, Cryptophagidae, 
Derodontidse, Latrididae, Mycetophagidae, Dermestidae 
Byrrhidae, Parnidae, and Heteroceridae, 3d. each. 
Lucanidae and Passalidae, including many types, is. 
each. Copridae, 6d. each. Melolonthidae, 6d. each, 
Rutelidae, including all the types of Plusiotis, 
Chrysina, Heterosternus, 2s. each. Scarabaeidae, is. 
each. Cetonidae, is. each. Buprestidae, is. each. 
Trixagidae, Monommidae, Eucnemidae, and Elateridae, 
6d. each. Cebrionidae. Rhipidoceridae, Dascillidae, 
and Malacodermidae, 3d. each. Cleridae, 6d. each. 
Lymexilonidae, Cupesidae, Ptinidae, Bostrychidae, and 
Cioidae, 3d. each. Tenebrionidae, 3d. each. Nilion- 
idae, Pythidae, Melandryidae, Lagriidae, Pedilidae. 
Anthicinae, Pyrochroidae, Mordellidae, and Rhipidoph- 
oridae, 3d. each. Cantharidae, 6d. each. Cephaloidae, 
Oedemeridse, and Mycteridae, 3d. each. Curculionidae 
and Scolytidae, 3d. each. Brenthidae and Anthotribidae, 
6d. each. Cerambycidae, is. each : Bruchidae, 3d. each. 
Chrysomelidae, 3d. each. Cassididae, 6d. each. 
Languridae and Erotylidae, 6d. each. Tritomidae and 
Coccinellidae, 3d. each. 

TO ORNITHOLOGISTS. 



FOR SALE. 

Fine mounted specimen of Alci impennis, the Great Awh, 
(extinct species). Pedigree from the date of capture, 1836, to 
this date, will be given to buyer. 

Fine male specimen of the exceedingly rare new genus of 
bird lieinho.rdtia ocellata Bp., the greatest discovery of the 
century. Price £50 

LIST OF DESIDERATA OF PHAN^EI. 

Achilles Bohem, Guayaquil. Bitias Har., Mexico. 
Charon Har., Guayaquil. Columbi, Me L, female, 
Hastifer Germ., male, Brazil. Foveolatus Har., 
Guayaquil. Horus Waterh. Reiche, Brazil. Melibceus 
Planch, Chiquitos, Mirabilis Har., Brazil, Noctis 



Bates, Colombia and Nicaragua, etc. Perseus Har., 
Colombia. Pteroderus Reiche in litt, Uruguay. 
Rhadamanthus Far., Brazil. Rosalia Fabr.? America, 
Tepanensis Bates, Tepan. Thalassinus Perty, Brazil. 
Steinheili Har., male and female. Guatemalensis, 
Har., male. Beltianus, male - Scutifer, Bates, male 
and female. Lunaris, Tasch, male. Actaeon, Erichs, 
male and female. Bispinus, Bates. 'Cadmus, Har. 
Dejeani, Har., female. Lautus, Macleay, male. 
Silenus, Cast, male and female. Spinifer, Cast, male 
and female. 

List of Pittidae for Sale. 

Pitta strepitans, Australia, 5s. ; — maxima, N. Guinea 

1 os. ; — brachyura Malacca, &s. ; ■ — bengalensis, 
India, 8^. ; — elegans, Malacca, 10s. ; — cyanurus, 
Java, 16^.; — arcuata, Borneo, 30^.; — granatina, 
Borneo, 8^.; — erythrogaster, Philippines, 10s. ; 

— mackloti, N. Guinea, 10s. ; — rosenbergi, N. 
Guinea, 30^. ; — novae guineae, N. Guinea, 10s. ; 

— mulleri, Borneo, 10s. ; — cucullata, India, 85-. ; 

— — Yar, Malacca, &s. ; — coerulea, Malacca 16s. ; 
Philepitta castanea, Madagascar, 12^. 

FOR SALE.— From Kina Balu {Borneo). 
Calyptomena whiteheadi, male, 100s. A magnifi- 
cent bird, discovered lately by Mr. Whitehead in the 
interior of Borneo. Many other species from the 
same collector (magnificent skins). 

FOR SALE. 
A magnificent bound copy of T. A. Naumann's 
Naturgeschichte der Vogel Deutschlands, 13 vols, in 
4to and 391 coloured plates. Apply at the office of 
the Journal. 

FOR SALE. 
Collection of Woods from all parts of the world. 
2,000 blocks nicely cut. Manuscript catalogue over 

2 vols. Awarded gold medal at International Exhi- 
bition. For price and particulars apply at the office 
of the Journal. 

Fine group of Harpyornis feeding on a Dendrolagus. 
Two rare species of mammal and bird, from New 
Guinea. Price ,£12. Fourteen species of Carabus 
from Chili. In the most perfect condition. 23 
specimens, at 5s. each. 

Books and Journals Received. 

Societas ento/nologica, April 1890, No. 1, edited by 
Fritz Riihl at Zurich Hottingen. 

La Reforma farmaceutica. Director and Editor, 
Luis R. Guzman. La Guayra (Venezuela). 

El Porvenir. Semanario politico y noticioso organo 
de los Intereses de la Regeneracion. Cartagena 
(Colombia). 

Antiguan Observer, Vol. XLVIIL, § Nos. 9 
and 10. 

An accoimt of the former abundance of some species of 
Birds on Neiu York Island, at the lime of their Migra- 
tion to the South, by George N. Lawrence. 

Description of a new subspecies of Cypselidce of the 
Genus Chaetura, with a note on the Diablotin, by 
George N. Lawrence. With thanks, 

The Editor. 



May i, 1 891. 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



33 



e Humming §irfr 



The McKinley Bill. 



I have just received from my correspondent, Mr. John 
H. Thomson, of New Bedford, Mass., United States, a 
copy of the New Customs Tariff, known as the 
McKinley Bill, which took effect since October 
last. 

Considering that Extracts of this Tariff will be of 
great use to all the readers of this Journal, I have 
dedicated the whole of this number to the publication 
of the said Extracts. 

The first part, Free List, contains the List of all 
the Objects not paying duty. The second part, The 
United States Customs Tariff, contains the List 
of all the Objects paying duties. 

McKINLEY BILL. 

Free List. 

All the Products mentioned in this List are free. 



Acorns, raw... 

Albumen 

Almonds (oil of) 

Aloes, crude 

Amber or crude Gum 

Anatomical Preparations and Skeletons 

Animals for breeding or emigration purposes 

Antiquities, not for sale 

„ for cabinet collections prior 

to 1700 and not for sale 
Arrowroot raw or manufactured 
Arsenic 
Art (works of) Paintings, the production of 

American Artists 
Art (works of) prior to 1700, not for sale or 

specially inported for institutions 
Asbestos, unmanufactured ... ... ... 

Bamboo, Rattan, Reeds, raw 

Bananas 

Barks, crude 

Barrels and Casks of American manufacture 

returned empty 
Beans, medicinal, crude 
Bed Feathers and Downs ... 
Beeswax 

Birds, Stuffed for Cabinets ... 
Bird Skins 
Bitumen, crude .... 
Bones, unmanufactured 
Books, printed, bound or manufactured over 

20 years 
,, printed exclusively in any foreign 

language 
,, and Music for the Blind 
,, for Institutions and Societies 
Britannia Metal, old 
Bulbs and Bulbous Roots, crude 
Bullion, Gold and Silver ... 
Cadmium 
Camphor, crude 
Canary Seed and Weed ... 



Free 






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11 

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11 
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Canes and Sticks, rough ... 

Caraway Seed and Oil of ditto 

Catgut Strings ... ... ... ... 

Chalk, unmanufactured 
Chamomile Flowers 
Charcoal 

Chemical Apparatus 
Chicory Root, unground ... 
Citrons, green, ripe or dried 
Clay for manufacture 
Cloth, Bolting 
Cloves, unground ... 
Coal, Anthracite 
Cochineal ... ... ... 

Cocoa, crude 

Coffee 

Cocoanuts and Oil of ditto .. . 

Coke • 

Coral, unmanufactured 

Cork Bark or Wood, unmanufactured 

Cotton, raw, cotton waste or flocks, rags ... 

Currants of all kinds 

Curry and Curry Powder ... 

Dates 

Diamonds, rough ... 

Dishs, Glass Plates, rough cut 

Dividivi, crude 

Drugs, crude 

Dyewoods, crude ... 

Effects, Personal or Household of persons 

arriving in United States, in use over one 

year. 
,, of American Citizens dying abroad . . . 
Eggs (Silkworm) ... 

Fashion Plates engraved on steel, copper, or 
otherwise. ... ... 

Feathers and Downs of all kinds, crude 

Felt, adhesive 

Fertilizers, Guanos and Manures ... 

Fibre, Cocoa, crude or dried 

Fish, products of American Fisheries, fresh 

and frozen except salmon for bait 
,, Skins ... 
Flowers, natural and dried 
Furs, undressed 
Glue, stock ... 
Gold, Bullion 

Grass, Sisal, China, Ramie, Sea Seed 
Guano Manures and Imitations 
Gums and Resins, crude 
Gutta-percha, crude ... ... ... 

Hair of all kinds, raw ... 

Hemp Rags and Seed 

Herbs, not edible, crude 

Hides, raw, dried, salted, pickled, and Hide 

Cuttings 
Horns, Horn Strips unmanufactured, polished 

or bored 
India rubber, crude 
Indigo, real or artificial 
Insects, dried crude 
Iodine, crude 
Istie grass, crude ... 
Ivory, unmanufactured .. . 
Jalap ... .., 



Free 



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34 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



\May i, 1891 



Jet, unmanufactured 

Juice, Lemon, Lime, Sour Orange 

Junk, old ... ... 

Jute Butts, cuttings, rags for paper 

Lava, unmanufactured 

Leaves, crude 

Leeches 

Lemon Juice, oil ... 

,, Peel, not candied ... 
Licorice Root, unground ... 
Lime, Chlorate or Phosphate ..*. 

„ Juice, pure ... 
Lithographic Stones, not engraved 
Logwood, crude 
Mace and Oil of 
Magnesium 
Magnets 

Manures, Guano and all substitutes 
Manuscripts 

Mats, Chinese, round, split straw ... 
Medals, gold, silver, copper, such as trophies 

or prizes 
Medicinal Articles, crude 
Medicines, crude, Roots, and Herbs ... 
Meerschaum, crude or polished, unmanufactured 
Minerals, crude ... 
Mineral Waters (all not artificial) ... 

(bottles are dutiable) 
Models of Inventions, unfit for use 
Molasses 

Jkfoss, crude or dried for bedding ... 
Mother of Pearl, rough 
Music strings, gut 
Mustard Seed, crude 
NATURAL HISTORY SPECIMENS, 

not for sale. 
Needles, hand-sewing, darning 
Newspapers and Periodicals, unbound 
Nickel containing less than 2 per cent, copper 
Nutmegs 

Nuts, Brazil, Cream and Cocoa 
Oakum 

Oil, Cake, Stone 

Oils, Almond, Amber, Ambergris, Anise 
Aniline, Aspic, Bergamot, Caraway, 
Cinnnamon, Chamomile, Fennel, Lemon 
Nut, Olive (not eating) &c. 
Oils, Spermacetti, Whale and others of 

American Fisheries ... 
Olives, green or prepared ... 
Onyx, crude ... ... ... 

Opium, crude, unadulterated containing 9 

percent, morphia or over 
Orange Peel, not preserved 
Ottar or Oil of Roses 
Oysters, raw 
Ozokerite, mineral Wax 
Palm Leaf, crude and Fans 
Paper Stock, crude of every description 
Paraffine 

Parchment and Vellum 
Pearl Ash ... 
Peat Moss ... 

Pebbles, Brazil, unmanufactured ... 
Periodicals, weekly, monthly or quarterly ... 



Free 



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Philosphical Apparatus for Societies 

Pine Apples 

Plants, Orchids, Palms, Tea Plants &c. 

Plaster of Paris, unground 

Platinum, unmanufactured and Chemical 

Apparatus 
Polishing and Artificial Stones 
Potash, crude, carbonate, nitrate, sulphate, 

cholorate, muriate of 
Precious Stones, uncut ... 
Pumice Stones 
Quills, not made up 
Quinine, Sulphate and Salts of 
Quoits, or Curling Stones 
Rags (not woollen) 
Ramie, China Grass 
Rattans and Reeds, unmanufactured 
Regalia, Church, etc., specially imported... 
Resins, Gum, crude 
Sago, crude and Flour 
Saltpetre, crude 
Sarsaparilla, crude ... 

Sauerkraut 

Sausage Skins 

Sausages, Bologna and Ger. Frankfurter ... 
Scientific Apparatus, specially imported 
Seaweed, crude for beds &c. 
Seeds, Celery not suitable for gardens 
„ all Flower or Grass Seeds ... 
„ . Anise, Canary, Caraway, Cardamon, 
Coriander, Cotton, Cummin, Fennel, 
Eengreek, Hemp Hoarhound, Mustard, 
Rape, St. John's Bread, Sugar beet, 
Mangel-wurzel, Sorghum, Bulbs and 
Bulbous Roots 
Shells, unmanufactured ... 
Shellac 

Silk, raw, waste, Cocoons ... 
Silkworms Eggs 
Silver Bullion, Ore, Sweepings, Coins and 

Medals 

Sisal Grass ... 

Skins, all raw, uncured, dry, salted, pickled 
except Angora Goat and Sheep with the 
wool on ... 

Soap stocks of all kind 
Soda, Chlorate and Nitrate of 
Sodium 

Spices, Cinnamon and Clove, Ginger Root 
and Cayenne pepper unground, Cassia, 
Mace, Nutmegs, Pepper, Piments 
Stone, Burr, Cliff, Pumice, Rotten, Sand 

rough, unmanufactured 
Sulphur, lac, brimstone, crude 
Sulphuric Acid 6 per cent. F. sp. gravity 1,380 
Talc, crude ... 
Tapioca, Casssawa 
Tar, coal of Pitch and wood 
Tartar, crude 

Tea, (adulterated liable to seizure) 
Teeth, natural or unmanufactured 
Timber, all round, unmanufactured 
Tin, Ore, Bars, Blocks, Pigs, grain, free after 

July est, 1893 

Tobacco Stems 



Free 



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May i, I89 1 ] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



35 



Turpentine, Venice, and Spirits of 

Turtles 

Types, old ... 

Vanilla Beans, crude 

Vegetable Substances, crude, unmanufactured 

Vegetables for medicine, dyeing, crude . . . 

Vellum 

Wax, Beeswax, Vegetable and Mineral 

Whalebone, unmanufactured 

Whetstones and Hones 
Willow for hat ornaments ... 
Wood, unmanufactured 

END OF FREE LIST. 



Free 



Mckinley bill. 

The United States Customs Tariff. 
$i = ioo cents = 4 shillings, i cent = Jd. 

Acetate of Lead, brown, $\c. ; white ...5|c. per lb. 

Acid, acetic or pyroligneous, not over 
1.04.7 specific gravity, i|c. ; over 
1.047, 4 C - 5 boracic, 5c. ; citric, 
ioc. ; tannic, 75c; tartaric, 10c. ; 
chromic, 6c. ; sulphuric (oil of 
vitriol) ... ...Jc. per lb. 

Acorns, prepared ...ijc. per lb. 

Agate balls or marbles, used as toys ...35 per cent. 

Alabaster ornaments ... ... ...25 per cent. 

— statuary, the work of a sculptor ...15 
Albums, autograph, photograph and scrap, 35 
Alcohol, amylic or fusel oil ... ...10 

Alcoholic perfumery... $2. 00 per gal. and 50 

— compounds ...$2.00 per gal. and 25 
Alkalis and all combinations of alkaloids 25 
Almonds, not shelled, 5c. ; shelled ...7£c. per lb. 
Aloes, crude, free; not crude ... ...10 per cent. 

Alum, alum cake, patent alum, alumina, 

sulphate of alumina, aluminous 

cake, and alum in crystals or ground 

60c. per 100 lbs. 
Aluminium or aluminum unmanufactured 15c. per lb. 
Ammonia, carbonate of, ifc. ; muriate of, 

f c. ; sulphate of ... ... ...^c. per lb. 

Aniline colours or dyes, coal tar products 35 per cent. 
Animals, horses and mules, if under $150 

in value ... ... ... ...$30 per hd. 

— if $150 in value, or over ... ...30 per cent. 

— ■ cattle over 1 year old ... ...$10 per hd. 

— cattle, 1 year and under ... ...$2 ,, 

— hogs $1.50 „ 

— sheep, 1 year old or over ... ...$1.50 ,, 

— less than 1 year old ... ---TS - 

All other animals ... ... ...20 per cent. 

Apples, green or ripe ... ... ...25c. pr. bus. 

— dried, evaporated or prepared, ...2c. per lb. 
Arms, muskets and sporting rifles ...25 per cent. 

— double barrel, sporting, breech-loading 

shotguns, not more than $6.00 
value ... ... $1.50 each and 35 „ 

— over $6.00 value and not more than 

$12.00 value ... $4.00 each and 35 ,, 

— over $12.00 value $6.00 each and 35 ,, 

— single barrel breach-loading shot guns 

$1.00 each and 35 „ 



Arms revolving pistols, not more than $1.50 

value ... 40 cents each and 35 per cent. 

— over $1.50 value ... $1.00 each and 35 ,, 

— side-arms, swords, sword blades • --35 » 
Art, worksof, paintings in oil or water colors 

(frames dutiable according to ma- 
terial) ; marble, stone, or metal 
statuary (the work of a alabaster 
sculptor) ... ... ... ...15 „ 

Asbestos, manufactured ... ... ■••25 ,, 

Bacon and hams ... ... ... ...5c. per lb. 

Barks, otherwise than crude ... ...10 per cent. 

Barley, (bushel of 48 lbs.) ... 30c. per bush. 

— malt (bushel of 34 lbs.) ... ■■■4S C - » 

— pearled, patent or hulled ... ...2c. per lb. 

Barrels and casks, empty... ... ...30 per cent. 

Bay rum or water, distilled or com- 
pounded ... ... ... proof $ 1 per gal. 

Beads and bead ornaments of all kinds ...25 per cent. 

Beans, edible ... ... ... ...25 ,, 

Beef, mutton, and pork ... ... ...2c. per lb. 

Beer, ale and porter in bottles or jugs (no 
additional duty on the bottles or 
jugs) ... ... ... ...40c. per gal. 

— otherwise than in bottles or jugs ...20c. „ 
Benzine and benzole ... ... ...20 per cent. 

Bicycles, tricyles, &c. (of metal) 45 „ 

Billiard balls, of ivory, bone or other ma- 
terials ... ... ... ...50 ,, 

Birds, dressed and finished for millinery, 50 ' ,, 
Biscuits and crackers of all kinds ...20 ,, 

Bismuth, free; salts of bismuth ... ..25 ,, 

Bisque ware, plain white ... ... ...55 „ 

— decorated ... ... ... ...60 „ 

Bitumen, manufactured ... ... ...20 ,, 

Blacking of all kinds and lampblack ...25 ,, 
Bladders, crude, free; manufactured ...25 „ 
Blue, Berlin, Chinese, Fig, Prussian and 

Wash ... ... ... ...6c. per lb. 

Bone games ... ... ... ...35 per cent. 

Bone, manufactured ... ... ...30 per cent. 

Bonnets, silk, 60 per cent. ; straw, grass, &c. 30 ,, 

Books, blank books, pamphlets, engravings, 
bound or unbound, photograph», 
etchings, maps, charts, and all 
printed matter not otherwise speci- 
fied ... ' ...25 „ 

Bottles, empty, common white andcoloured 
glass, holding more than one pint, 
demijohns, carboys ... ...ic. per lb. 

— holding not more than one pint and 

less than \ pint ... ...ijc. „ 

— holding less than \ pint ... 50c. per gross. 
Bran and mill feed ... ... ...20 per cent. 

Brass, in bars or pigs, clippings and old, \\c. per lb. 

— manufactured ... ... ,..45 per cent. 

Brick, fire-brick not glazed or decorated, $1.25 per ton. 

— • glazed or decorated ... ... ...45 per cent 

— other than fire-brick and tiles not 

glazed or decorated ... ' ...25 „ 

— glazed or decorated, and all encaustic 

tiles ... ... " ... ...45 

Bristles ... ... ... ..." ...ioc. per lb. 

Britannia ware ... ... ... ...45 per cent. 

Bronze, unmanufactured... ... ...20 ,. 



36 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



f May i, 1891 



..-45per cent. 
..40 „ 
...40 „ 
15c. per bush. 
...20 per cent. 
..10 



Bronze, manufactures of ... 
Brooms of all kinds 
Brushes of all kinds 
Buckwheat (bushel of 48 lbs.) ... 

— flour ... 
Bulbs and bulbous roots, not crude 
Bunting (not weighing over 4 oz. to sq. yd.) 

i2c. per sq. yd., and 50 ,, 
Butter and substitutes for ... ...6c. per lb. 

Buttons, agate 25 per cent 

— barrel 60c. per lb. and 60 „ 

— bone, horn, ivory and vegetable ivory, 50 ,, 

— pearl, shell, 2c. per line, button 

measure of 1-40 inch per gross and 25 „ 

— shoe, paper mache, &c, value not 

over 3c. per gross... 
Calomel and other mercurial 



preparations 
Cameos, not set . . . 

— set, as jewelry 
Camphor, refined . . . 
Candles and tapers 
Canes and sticks, 

heads 



...ic. pergross. 
medicinal 

...35 per cent. 

10 „ 

5° „ 

4c. per lb. 

...25 per cent, 
finished with metal 

••• 45 „ 

Canvas, for oil cloth, embroidering and 

sails ... 50 „ 

Capers, as pickles... ... ... .--45 ,, 

Cards, playing, 50c. per pack; show ...35 „ 

Carpets : Aubusson, Axminster, Chenille, 

Moquette ; Oriental, Berlin, and 

similar rugs ; Saxony, Tournay and 

Wilton velvet, figured or plain, and 

all similar carpets 

60c. per sq. yd. and 40 

— Brussels and all* similar 

44c. per sq. yd. and 40 
■ — velvet and tapestry velvet, printed on 
the warp or otherwise 

40c. per' sq. yd. and 40 

— tapestry Brussels, printed on the 

warp or otherwise 

28c. per sq. yd. and 40 

— treble ingrain, three-ply and all chain 

Venetian ... 19c. per sq. yd. and 40 

— wool Dutch and two-ply ingrain 

14c. per sq. yd. and 40 

— druggets and bockings, printed, 

coloured or otherwise 

22c. per sq. yd. and 40 
■ — felt carpeting, figured or plain 

nc. per sq. yd. and 40 

— carpets and carpetings of wool, flax, 

or cotton ... ... ... ■•.50 

Cartridges and cartridge shells ... ...45 

Castor beans (bushel of 50 lbs.)... 50c. per bush. 

— oil ... ... ... ... ...80c. per gal. 

Casts of plaster, the works of a sculptor... 15 per cent. 

Caviar, fish eggs ... ... ... •••30 „ 

Cement, Portland, Roman, and other 

hydraulic in bulk... ... 7c. per 100 lbs. 

— in packages (weight of package in- 

cluded) ... ... ... 8c. per 100 lbs. 

— all other ... ... ... ...20 per cent. 

Chalk, prepared, precipitated, French, red, ic. per lb. 

all other preparations ... ...20 per cent. 



...6c. 


per lb. 


...2C. „ 

. . . 1 3 <_. ,, 
...$3 per ton. 
...25c. per lb 
.. 50 per cent 


...2C per lb. 
...35 per cent 



Cheese of all kinds 

Chestnuts, i|c. per lb. ; flour of 

Chicory root, ground 

China clay or kaolin 

Chloroform 

Chocolate, confectionery .. . 

— other than confectionery 
Chromos and chromographs 
Chronometers, box or ship's, and parts of, 10 
Cider ... ... ... ... ...5c. per gal. 

Cigarette paper in any form ... ...70 per cent. 

Cigarettes, asthma, prop, preparations ...25 ,, 
Cinnamon, unground, free; ground ...4c. per lb. 
Citrons, preserved ... ... • ■■ZÎ P er cent. 

Clays or earths, unmanufactured... $1.50 per ton. 

— China clay or kaolin ... ...$3 per ton. 

Cloth, bamboo ... ... ... ...30 per cent. 

— bookbinders, emery .. . ... ...40 ,, 

Cloves, ground ... ... ... ...4c. per lb. 

Coal, anthracite, free; bituminous ... 75c. per ton. 
Coal tar, preparations of, not colours or 

dyes ... ... ... ...20 per cent. 

Cocoa, prepared, not confectionery ...2c. per lb. 
Cod-liver oil, medicinal ... ... ...15c. per gal 

Coffee, free; substitutes for coffee ...i^c. per lb.. 
Collodion, 50c. per lb. ; rolled ... ...60c. per lb. 

— finished 60c. per lb. and ... •••25 per cent. 
Cologne water, and alcoholic perfumery 

$2 per gal. and 50 ,, 
Colouring for brandy and beer ... ...50 „ 

— for sugar ... ... ... ...20 ,, 

Comfits, preserved fruits, jellies ... ...35 „ 

Confectionery, all sugar candy, chocolate, 

value not over 12c. per lb. ; refined 
sugars, tinctured, coloured or 
adulterated ... ... ...5c. per lb. 

— all others, including chocolate •■•50 per cent. 
Copper, old, ic. per lb. ; manufactures of, 45 ,, 
Coral, manufactured ... ... •••25 „ 

Cord, sash, hemp ... ... ■•■^o ,, 

Cordage, tarred, 3c. ; untarred hemp ...2I-C. per lb. 

— untarred manilla or Sisal grass ...i-|c. ,, 
Cork bark or wood, manufactured ...10 per cent. 

— cut into squares or tubes, 10c. ; corks, 15c. per lb. 
Corn, Indian or maize (bushel of 56 lbs.), 15c per bus. 
Cotton, cords, braids, boot, shoe, and 

corset lacings ... ... ...35 per cent. 

— damasks, gimps, galloons, goring, 

webbing, braces, suspenders, towels, 
tracing cloth, and all manufactures 
of cotton ... ... ... ...40 ,, 

— chenille curtains and table covers, 

edgings, embroideries, insertings, 
laces, neck rufflings, ruchings, 
tuckings ... ... ... ...60 ,, 

— clothing ready-made and articles of 

wearing apparel of every descrip- 
tion 50 „ 

if india rubber as component material 

50c. per lb. and 50 „ 

— collars and cuffs, 15c. per doz. and 35 „ 

— gloves ...50 „ 

- handkerchiefs, unhemmed, cut single, 40. „ 

hemmed ... ... ... •••5° » 

hemstitched ... ... ...60 „ 



May i, 189 1] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



37 



Cotton shirts and drawers, value nol over 

$1.50 per doz. ... ... ...35 per cent. 

value over $1.50 and not over $3 

$1 per doz. and 35 „ 
value over $3 and not over $5 

$1.25 per doz. and 40 ,. 
value over $5 and not over $7 

$1.50 per doz. and 40 „ 
value over $7 ... $2 per doz. and 40 „ 

— stockings, value not over 60c. per 

doz. ... 20c. per doz. and 20 „ 

value over 60c. and not over $2 

50c. per doz. and 30 „ 
value over $2 and not over $4 

75c. per doz. and 40 „ 
value over $4 ... $1 per doz. and 40 „ 

— spool thread ... per doz. spools of 100 yds. 7c. 
Cotton thread, yarn, warps, &c, value not 

over 25c. per lb., 10c. per lb. ; 
value over 25 c. and not under 40c. 
per lb., 1 8c. per lb. ; not under 50c, 
23c. ; 60c, 28c. ; 70c, 33c. ; 80c, 
. 38c; $1,480.; over $1,00 ...50 per cent. 

— Velvets, velveteens, plushes, cordu- 

roys, all pile fabrics, (minimum 
rate of duty 40 per cent.) If not 
bleached, dyed, colored, stained, 
painted or printed ... 10c. per 
sq. yd. and ... ... ...20 ,, 

If bleached 12c. per sq. yd. and... 20 ,, 
If dyed, colored, stained, printed 
or painted 14c. per sq. yd. and ...20 ,, 
Crackers and biscuits ... ... ...20 „ 

Cutlery. — Pocket knives of all kinds value 
not over 50c. per doz., 12c. per 
doz. and ... ... ... ...50 ,, 

Value over 50c. and not over $1.50 

50c. per doz. and ... ---So ,, 

Value over $1.50 and not over $3 

$1 per doz. and ... ---50 ,, 

Value over $3, $2 per doz. and 50 ,, 

— Razors and blades, value less than $4 

per doz. $1 per doz. and ...30 ,, 
Value $4 or more per doz. $1.7 5 c. 

per doz. and ... ... ...30 „ 

— Table knives, forks, steels, butchers', 

hunting, kitchen, bread, butter, 
vegetable, fruit, cheese, plumbers', 
painters' pallette and artists' knives 
of all sizes, value not over $1 
per doz. 10c. per doz. and •••30 ,, 

Value over $1 and not over $2 

35c. per doz. and ... ---Z >> 

Value over $2 and not over $3 

40c. per doz. and ... ■■■30 ,, 

Value over $3 and not over $8 
$1 per doz. and .*.. ...30 

Value over $8 $2 per doz. and... 30 ,, 
— - Carving and cooks' knives and forks 
of all sizes, value not over $4 per 
doz. $1 per doz. and ... .--30 ,, 

Value over $4 and not over $8 

$2 per doz. and ... ■••30 >, 

Value over $8 and not over $12 

$3 per doz. and ... ...30 „ 



...10 


)? 


...50 


>) 


...10 

...60 




••■45 


j) 


...10 
... 8 c. 


per lb 



Cutlery — Value over $12 $5 per doz. and 30 per cent. 
Diamonds, cut, not set ... 

— set as jewellery 

— imitation 
Disks, glass plates, cut or ground 

— cut for lenses 
Drugs, not crude ... 
Dyewoods, extracts of 
Earthenware, common brown, stoneware 

and crucibles, not decorated or 
ornamented ... ... ...25 per cent 

— china, porcelain, faience, parian, 

bisque and all manufactures of 

earthen, stone and crockery ware 

decorated or ornamented in any 

manner 

not ornamented or decorated 

— tiles, plain ... .... 

— ,, decorated 
Earths or clays, unmanufactured 

— manufactured 

Eggs 

Electrotype plates... 
Embroideries, cotton, linen or silk 
Embroideries, woolen or worsted, 60c. per 

lb. and ... ... ... ...60 

Gold or other metals ... ---AS 

Emery, grains, ic. per lb. : ground, ref'd.ic 

Cloth 

Scythe stones or whetstones 
Enamel for watch faces ... ... --^S 

Feathers and downs of all kinds dressed, 

color'd, man'd, ... ... ...50 

roofing ... ... ... ...20 

carpeting... 49^0. per yard and... 40 

endless or of hair, not woven, 49^0. 



.60 „ 

•■•45 » 
•••25 „ 

•••45 » 
...$1.50 pr ton 
...$3.00 „ 
...5c. per doz. 
...25 per cent. 
...60 



per lb. 
...40 per cent. 
...20 



Felt 



.60 
.10 

..2§< 

.6c. 
.8c. 



per lb. 



per yard and 

Fiber, cocoa, not crude ... 

Figs, green, ripe or dried... 

Filberts, 3c. per lb. ; shelled ... 

Fire-crackers, all, no allowance for tare.. 

Fish, pickled, salted, ic. ; smoked, dried, 

fresh,. ... ... ... ...y^c. „ 

Herrings pickled, salted \c. : fresh ...}(c. ,, 

Flax, manufactures of ... ... •••50 per cent. 

Oilcloth for floors, stamped, painted 
or printed, linoleum, corticene, cork 
carpets and all other oil cloth (ex- 
cept silk) and waterproof cloth, • 
value not over 25c. per sq. yd. ...40 „ 

over 25c. per sq. yd. i5c.per sq.yd.30 ,, 

Flour, tapioca, free ; wheat 
Buckwheat 

Arrowroot, sago, nut, 
starch, 2c. : rye, j^c. : rice 

Flowers, artificial, of any material 
bleached ... 

Fruits, apples, green or ripe 

do. dried, dessicated, evapora- 
ted... ... ... ... ...2C. per lb. 

plums, prunes ... ... ...2c. per lb. 

grapes, barrel of 3 cubic feet ...60c. per bbl. 
preserved in sugar, etc ... ...35 per cent. 

do. in their own juice ...30 ,, 

Furniture, of wood, finish'd or unflnished.35 „ 



used 



...25 


)) 




...20 


>; 




as 






iC 

— 2 ' 


per 


lb 


...50 


per cent 


...IO 


» 




...25C 


. pr. 


bus 



38 



ÏHE HUMMING BIRD. 



[May i, 189Ï 



Furs, dressed but not made up, hatters... 20 per cent. 

— all articles made of,... ... •■■35 „ 

Games, as toys (except ivory or bone) ...35 ,, 
Gelatine and other similar preparations 

value not over 7c. per lb. ...ijc. per lb. 

value 7c, not over 30c. per lb. ...25 per cent, 
value over 30c. per lb. ... ■■■30 ,, 

German silver, unmanufactured .. . •••25 ,, 

— manufactured ... ... ---AS » 

Ginger-ale, ginger-beer, lemonade, soda 

water, etc., bottles not over y^ pint 

(no duty on bottles) ... ...13c. pr. doz. 

over yh pint and not a pint, (no 
duty on bottles) ... ... ...26c. ,, 

Imported otherwise or in bottles 
overi^ pints, (additional duty on 
bottles) ... ... ... ...50c. per gal. 

root, unground, free ; ground... 4c. per lb. 

Glass, man'fact's of cut, or uncut. ...60 per cent. 

Gloves, kid or other leather, 14 inches in 
extreme length or under, duty to 
be not less than... ... ...50 per cent. 

Ladies' and children's, schmaschen 

$1.75; lamb $2.25; kid $3. 'per doz. pairs > 

Suede and all other leather gloves 50 per cent. 

all leather gloves over 14 inches 

in length ... ... ... ...5o ,, 

men's gloves ... ... ...5o ,, 

in addition to above rates there 
shall be paid on : 
all men's gloves ... .... ...$i per doz. 

all lined gloves ... ... ...$i „ 

all pique or prick seam gloves . ..5oc. ,, 

all embroidered gloves with more 

than 5 single strands or cords ...5oc. ,, 

N.B. — All gloves represented to 
be of a kind or grade below their 
actual kind or grade shall pay an 
additional duty of$5 per dozen pairs 

Glucose or grape sugar ... ... ...^{c per lb. 

Glue, value not over 7c. per lb... ...i^c , 

value over 7c. and not over 30c. 
per lb., 25 percent : over 30c. per 
lb. ... ... ... ... ...30 per cent. 

Glycerine, crude, i^c. per lb ; refined... 4-|c. per lb. 

Gold, manufactures of, (not jewelry) ...45 percent. 

Grape juice containing not more than 18 

per cent, alcohol ... ... ...60c. per gal. 

containing more than 18 p.c. ...$2.5o ,, 

Grapes, (barrel of 3 cubic feet) ... ...60c. per bbl. 

Grass, all manufactures of . . . ... . . . 30 per cent. 

Grease, for soap stock, free : degras ...j4c. per lb. 
all not otherwise specified. . . ... 20 per cent. 

Gum and gum resins, not crude... ...10 „ 

Gunpowder and all explosives value not 

over 20c. per lb... ... ...5c. per lb. 

value over 20c. per lb... ...8c. ,, 

Gutta-percha, manufactured ... ...35 per cent. 

Hair, all kinds of bristles... ... ...10 „ 

curled for beds ... ... ...i5 „ 

human, cleaned ... ... ...20 „ 

manufactures of, ... ... •■•35 ,, 

Hams and bacon... ... ... ...5c. per lb. 



Hats, fur and felt ... 

Hay 

Hemp $25 per ton ; manufactured 

Herbs, not edible, not crude 

Honey 

Hops 

Horn, all manufactures of 

India rubber, manufactures of, ... 
Indigo carmined .. 

other extracts and paste . . . 
Inks of all kinds and ink powders 
Insect powder, vegetable... 
Insects, dried, not crude... 
Iodine, resublimed 

salts 
Iron, all manufactures of 
Ivory, manufactures of ... ... ...40 ,, 

Jellies and jams of all kinds ... •■•35 „ 

Jet, all manufactures of ... ... ...25 „ 

Jewelry, real or mock of all kinds ...5o „ 

Juice, liquorice ... ... ... ...5|c. per lb. 

— Fruit, not over 18 per cent, alcohol, 



...55 per cent. 
... $4,00 pr. ton. 
...5o per cent. 
...10 

...20C per gal. 
...15c. per lb. 
...30 per cent. 

•••3° » 
...ioc. per lb. 

...y A c. 

...30 per cent. 
...10 ., 
...10 „ 
...30c. per lb. 
...2 5 per cent. 
...45 „ 



60c. ; over 18 per cent 



Jute, manufactures of, value not over 5c. 



...$2.50 pr gal. 



per lb 
- value over 5c. per lb. 

Kaoline or china clay 

Kerosine oil and residuum of .. 

6oc. per lb. 



15c. 



Lace, wool, hair, &c 

— all other 
Lampblack 
Lard 
Laths 
Laudanum 
Lava tips for gas burners, plain 

— decorated 
Lead, ore and dross 

— pigs, bars, molten, refuse, scrap 

— sheets, pipes, shot, glaziers', wire 

— white, red, nitrate, litharge ... 

— pencils, 50c. per gross and ... 

— pencil lead ... 

manufactures of, ... 



and 



,.2c. per lb. 
...40 per cent. 

...$3 per ton 
...20 per cent. 

...60 „ 
...60 „ 

•••25 „ 
...2C. per lb. 
per 1000 pes. 
...40 per cent. 

•••55 „ 
...60 



per lb. 



..ifc. 

..2C 
. .2Ac. 



•3 C - » 
.30 per cent. 

.10 „ 
•45 „ 



Leaf, aluminium, Dutch metal, bronze, 

8c. per pack of ... ... ... 100 leaves. 

— silver 75c. ; gold $2. per pack, of 500 leaves. 
Leather, belting, sole, scraps, tanned, but 

unfinished ... ... ...10 per cent. 

— calf, finished morocco skins, patent, 

enameled ... ... ... ...20 „ 

— boots and shoes 25 ; japanned •••30 ,, 

all manufactures of ... ...35 ,, 

Leaves not crude ... ... ...10 ,, 

Lemon peel, candied ... ... ...2c. per lb. 

Lemons, packages of i| cubic ft. or less, 
13c. ; 2^ cubic ft., 25c; 5 cubic 
ft., 50c. per package ; over 5 cubic 
ft. ioc. per cubic ft. extra. On the 
boxes and barrels, 30 per cent, 
additional. In bulk ... $1.50 per 1,000 

Lenses, glass, value$i .50 per gross pairs or less 60 pr. ct. 

— spectacles, eye-glasses, with edges 



ground or beveled 



..60 



May i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



39 



Lenses, glass or pebbles, manufactures of 45 per cent. 
Licorice root, ground ... ... ...10 ,, 

— juice, paste, or other forms ... ■■■^\^- per lb. 
Lime, including weight of barrel ... 6c. per 100 lbs. 

— alcoholic, $2 per gal. and ... •■•25 per cent. 
Linen, brown, bleached/not less than 100 

threads tosq. in. (until Jan. 1,1894)35 ,, 

— collars and cuffs, whole or part linen 

30c. per doz. and ... ...40 „ 

— shirts and wearing apparel, ... ...55 ,, 

— ■ laces, edgings, trimmings, embroid- 
eries, &c. ... ... ... ...60 ,, 

Linoleum, value not over 25c. persq. yd.... 40 „ 

— over 25c. 15c. per sq. yd. and ...30 ,, 
Linseed, (bushel of 56 lbs.) ... ...30c. per bus. 

Liqueurs, all kinds, bottles extra 3c. each $2.50 per gal. 
Lithographed plates of any material ... 2 5 per cent. 
Logwood, not crude ... ... ...10 ,, 

— extracts of ... ... ... ...^c. per lb. 

Lumber, sawed boards, plank, deal, &c. $1 per 1,000 

Macaroni and Vermicelli... ... ...2c. per lb. 

Magnesia, Acetate, Bromide, Chloride Ci- 
trate of ... ... ... ...25 per cent. 

Malt, barley, bushel of 34 lbs.... --^sc. per bs. 

— extracts in casks 20c. : in bottles, ...40c. per gal. 
Marble, all kinds in block, rough, 

squared ... ... ...65c. per cub. ft. 

Veined, sawed, dressed, paving 

tiles and slabs, minimum thick- 
ness 1 in. ... ... $1.10 percub. ft. 

Manufactures ... ... •••5° per cent. 

Marbles, toy, of any composition ...35 ,, 

Marmalade ... ... ... ...35 „ 

Matches, Friction, all kinds, not over 100 

in a box ... ... 10c. per gross boxes. 

over 100 in a box ...ic. per 1,000 matches. 
Mats, bass, '20 percent, grass ... ...30 per cent. 

Cocoa fibre, rattan ... ...8c. per sq. ft. 

Matting, napier, 6c. Cocoa fibre, rattan 

i2C. per. sq. yd. 
Mattresses, according to chief value of 

material composed. 
Meal, (corn, bushel 48 lbs.) ... ...20c. per bus. 

— Oat, ic. per lb. : rice... ... ...ijc. per lb. 

Meat, extract of, 35c. per lb. : fluid ...15c. per lb. 
Meats, all kinds, prepared, preserved, ...25 per cent. 
Medicinal preparations .... ... •••25 per cent. 

Alcoholic, 50c. per lb. : with 

opium... ... ... ...40 per cent. 

(Duty extra on all bottles.) 
Meerschaum, pipes ... ... ...70 per cent. 

Mercury or quicksilver, crude, ... ...10c. per lb. 

Metallic mineral substances, crude, ...20 per cent. 
Metals of all kinds, unwrought, ... ..20 „ 

— all manufactures of ... ... --AS » 

Mica 35 „ 

Microscopes, optical ... ... ...60 „ 

Milk, fresh, 5c. per gal. ; preserved, con- 
densed, gross weight ... •••3c. per lb. 

— sugar of ... ... 8c. per lb. 

Minerals advanced in condition ... ...20 per cent. 

Mineral waters all, and all artificial, in plain. 

green or coloured glass bottles, 16c. per doz. 

bottles. 



Mineral waters over 1 pint and not over 1 qt., 25c. 

per doz. bottles, 
otherwise than in plain green or 
coloured bottles, or over 1 qt. ...20c. per gal. 
(bottles not dutiable). 

Mirrors, Glass. See Glass. 

Hand, Pocket, or Table, not over 

144 sq. in. with or without frames 

of any material ... ... ...45 per cent. 

Morphia, Morphine, and all salts of ...50. per oz. 

Moss, not crude ... ... ... ...10c per cent. 

— dyed for manufacture of flowers ...50 percent. 
Mother of Pearl manufactures of ...40 per cent. 
Mucilages... ... ... ... ...25 „ 

Muffs, fur 35 „ 

Mushroom spawn, 20 per cent. ; Catsup 45 „ 
Mushrooms, dried, 25 per cent. ; pre- 
served ... ... ... ...40 „ 

Music boxes ... ... ... ...45 „ 

Strings, metal ... ... ...45 „ 

Toys 35 

Mustard, ground, preserved ... ..ioc. per lb. 

French ... ... ... ...45 per cent. 

Seed, Expressed oil ... ...25 „ 

Mutton, in carcass, dressed ... ...2c. per lb 

Nails, cut, iron, steel ... ... ...ic. per lb 

wrought, horseshoe ... ...4c. per lb. 

Needles, knitting,...' ... ... ...25 percent 

Crochet, knitting and sewing ma- 
chine, tape ... ... ■■■35 ,, 

Nets, webs and seines, flax gill netting of 

yarn not higher than No. 20. i5c. 

per lb. and... ... ... ---sS „ 

finer than No. 20, 20c. per lb. and 45 ,, 
Nickel in crude form, containing more 

than 2 per cent of copper y^c. per 

lb. on copper ; 

Alloys of . . . ... ... ...ioc. per lb 

Manufactures of n. o. sp.... ...45 per. cent 

Nuts, chestnuts, edible, shelled or un- 

shelled ... ...i^c. peilb 

Pea ground, unshelled, ic. ; shel- 
led i^c.perlb 

Filberts, walnuts, hazel, unshelled, 3c. per lb 

... shelled, 6c. per lb 

Almonds, unshelled, 5c. shelled, *]hc. per lb 
Oatmeal, oats, coarsely ground, groats ...ic. per lb 
Oats, (bushel of 32 lbs.) ... .. 15c. per bush 
Ochre and Ochrey earths, dry ... ...y^c. per lb 

— ground inoil ^c. per lb. 

Oil, crude, ... ... ... ...25 per cent. 

Oil cloth, value not over 25c. per sq. yd. 40 per. cent. 

— value over 25c per sq. yd., 15c. per 

sq- yd. & 30 „ 

Oil seed, flaxseed, linseed, poppy seed and 

others, bushel of 56 lbs ... ... 30c. pr bush. 

Oils, castor, peppermint, 80c. cod liver ...15c. pr. gal. 

Cottonseed ... ...20c. per gal. of 7^ lbs. 

Croton, 30c. pe* lb ; fusel ...10 percent. 

Flaxseed, linseed, poppy seed, 

30c. per gal. of 7^ lbs. 

Hemp, rape seed ...ioc. per gal. 

Olive (edible) ... ... ...35c. per gal. 

distilled, essential, expressed, ren- 
dered ... ... ... ...25 per cent. 



46 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[May i, 1891. 



Oleomargarine, and substitutes for butter, 6c. per lb. 
Onions ... ... ... ... ...40c. pr. bush. 

Opera glasses, glass, 60 per cent ; metal 45 per cent. 
— Shell ... ... ... 40 ,, 

Opium, less than 9 per cent, morphia ...$12. per lb. 
prepared for smoking ... ...$12. per lb. 

liquid preparations of ... ...40 per cent. 

Orange peel, preserved, candied... ...ic. per lb. 

Ores, all containing more than 2 per cent. 

of copper, in addition on copper, Jc. per lb. 
All others containing metal ...20 percent. 
Osier, willow for basketmakers.-. ---Z »> 

manufactures of ... ... ...40 ,, 

Palm leaf, manufactures of ... •■■io per cent. 

Paper stock, unsized 15 : sized, glued ...20 „ 
albumenised, sensitized, surface- 
coated ; lithograph, photograph, 
and scrap albums ... ---ZS >> 

filtering, silver, tissue-copying, 

...8c. per lb. and 15 „ 
Envelopes, 25c. per 1,000 ; ciga- 
rette ... ... ... ...70 „ 

Plain and manufactures of •••25 ,, 

Papier mâché, all manufactures ... ...35 „ 

Parasols, silk or alpaca, 55, all other ...45 ,, 
Pea nuts. See nuts. Peanut oil ... ...25 „ 

Peas, green in bulk, bbls or sacks, (bush. 

of 60 lbs) ... ... ...40c. pr. bush. 

prepared, preserved ... ...40 per cent. 

split, 50c. per bush. ; dried .. 20c. pr. bush. 

in paper or other small packages, ic. per lb. 

Peat, ... ... ... ... ...10 per cent. 

Pebbles, glass, not rough... ... ...60 percent. 

Cut and polished... 45 „ 

Pencils lead 50c. per gross and3o „ 

Slate, 4c. per gross ; hair... ...40 „ 

Pens, gold, 30 per cent. ; other metallic, 12c. pergro. 
Pepper, black, white, ground ... ...4c. per lb. 

Cayenne, unground 2-£c. : ground,4c. per lb. 
Perfumery, toilet, not alcoholic ... ...50 per cent. 

alcoholic, $2.50 per gal. and ...50 „ 
Pewter, all manufactures of ... ...45 per cent. 

Phosphorus ...20c. per lb. 

Pianofortes 45 per cent. 

Pickles and sauces, bottles additional ...45 „ 
Pine-apples, preserved ... ... ...35 ,, 

Pins, metallic solid head or other, hair, 

safety, hat, bonnet, shawl andbelt,3o ,, 
Pipes, tobacco, common clay ... ...10c. per gr. 

All others, and smokers' articles, 70 percent. 
Plants, all kinds nursery stock, ... ...20 „ 

Plaster of Paris ; ground, $1.00 per ton ; 

Calcined ... ... ...$1.75 pr. ton.. 

Platinum, all manufactures of, ... ...45 percent. 

Plumbago, free; stove polish ... ...20 per cent. 

Plums, dried, green 2c. per lb. 

Preserved in their own juice .-.30 per cent 
Preserved in sugar or spirits ...35 „ 
(Extra duty on bottles). 

Plum pudding 20 per cent. 

Pomades, pomatum. See toilet prépara. 50. per cent. 

Pork and lard ... 2c. per lb. 

Potash, refined carbon, hydrate, nitra ...ic. 'per lb. 
Potassium, and all acetates of • ... ...20 per cent. 

Potatoes, (bushel of 60 lbs.) 25c. per bus. 



45 per cent. 
5c. per lb. 
25 per cent. 
10 



...50 
...25 
...10 
...25 

•••35 
...20 

...20 

...ic. 






?> 
per 



lb, 



Potatoes Dessicated 
Poultry, live, 3c. dressed ... 

prepared ... 
Precious stones, ; cut not set 

Set as Jewelry 

Set not as Jewelry 

Imitations of, not set 
Printed matter 
Pulp, all manufactures of. . . 

— for paper makers, except wood 
Pumice, pumice stone, artificial . . . 

Putty 

Quicksilver or mereury (bottles additi'al,io per cent 
Quills, toothpicks... ... ... ...20 „ 

Rags, woolen 10c. per lb. 

Raisins ... 2^c. per lb. 

Rape seed, free : oil, gal. of 7^ lbs. ...10c. per gal. 
Rattans and reeds, manufactured for chair 

canes ... ... ... ...10 per cent. 

Resins, gum, not crude ... ... ...10 ,, 

Rice, ground, granulated, flour, meal No. 

12 wire sieve ... ... ...^c. per lb. 

uncleaned, pulled and not cleanedij^c ,, 
cleaned ... ... ... ...2c. „ 

Powder, toilet preparation ...50 per cent. 

Rope, hemp bale. 50 per cent. ; cotton. ..40 ,, 

— cocoanut, grass, coir, bark ... ...ic-|. per lb. 

Rye, bushel of 56 lbs. 10c. per bush. 

flour ... ... ... ... ^c. per lb. 

Sad irons 

Sage ... 

Salmon, dried, smoked, pickled... 

prepared and preserved ... 
Salt, in bulk 

in bags, sacks, barrels, &c. 
Saltpetre, refined or partly 
Sardines and anchovies. 

Boxes 5 x 4 x 3^ in. 

-| boxes 5 x 4 \S/s in. 

% boxes 4f x 3 A x 1% in. 

in any other form... 
Sauces (addit'l duty on bottles), 
Sausages excepting Bologna and Ger. 



...I 2-IOC ,, 

...3c. per lb. 

...ic. 

...30 per cent. 

8c. per 100 lbs. 

...I2C. „ 

...ic. per lb. 



each. 



ioc. 

5c- „ 

2 2 c - j) 

40 per cent. 
45 >, 



25 per cent. 

45 
20 „ 

35 „ 
20 

50c per bus. 



Frankfurter 
Scissors and shears 
Sealing wax 
Sealskin sacques ... 
Sealskins, raw, free ; dressed, finished 
Seeds, castor, (bushel of 56 lbs.) 

Flax, linseed, poppy and all oil 

seeds (bushel of 56 lbs.) ...30c ,, 

All agricultural, garden and other 

seeds, except flower and grass... 20 per cent. 

Celery, suitable for garden ...20 ,, 

Sewing machines... ... ... ...40 ,, 

Shell and shells, manufactures of ...40 ,, 

Shoddy, woolen ... ... ... ...30c per lb. 

Shoes, leather, 25 per cent. ; silk ...60 per cent. 

Felt, wholly or partly wool 49^ c 

per lb and 60 „ 

India rubber ... ... ••■30 „ 

Horse, mule, ox, of iron or steel, 1 4-50. per lb. 
Shot ... ... ... ... ...2-|c „ 

Show cards, printed, 25 ; metal ... .--45 per cent. 

Shrubs, nursery stock ... ... ...20 „ 



May i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



4* 



Silk, partially manufd from cocoons or 

waste, carded or combed... ...50c. per lb. 

Thrown, viz : singles, tram, organ- 
zine, sewing, twist, floss, threads 
or yarns of every description ex- 
cept spun ... ... ... ...30 per cent. 

Silk, Spun, skeins, cops, or beams ...35 „ 

Velvets, plushes, or other pile fabrics 
exclusive of selvedge (minimum of 
duty, 50 per cent), less than 75 per 
cent, weight of silk. $ 1.50 per lb. and 15 percent. 
75 per cent, or more weight of silk 

$3.50 per lb. and 15 „ 

Webbings, elastic or non-elastic, gor- 
ings, suspenders, braces, belt- 
ings, bindings, braids, galloons 
fringes, cords, tassels, buttons, 
ornaments... ... ... ...50 per cent. 

Laces, embroideries, handkerchiefs, 



rufnings, ruchings 



.60 



Ready-made clothing, knit goods, 
articles of wearing apparel, of 
every description, not containing 
india rubber ... ... ...60 „ 

if containing india rubber, (except 
gloves or elastic articles 

8c. per oz. and 60 ,, 

All manufacturers of silk or partly 
silk, chief value (except those con- 
taining wool or hair, which shall 
be classified as manufactures of 

wool 50 „ 

Silver laces, epaulets, tassels, galloons ...30 „ 

— all manufactures ot ... ... ---45 ,, 

Skins, morocco, tanned but unfinished... 10 ,, 

— all other, tanned, dressed and fin- 

ished ... ... ... ...20 ,, 

— Waste ... ... ... ...10 ,, 

Slate, manufactures of ... ... -..30 „ 

Slates, roofing ... ... ... ■••25 ,, 

Smokers' articles of any material ...70 ,, 

Snuff, of tobacco (int. revenue 6c. lb.) ...50 per lb. 
Soap, perfumed, all descriptions of toilet, 15 ,, 

— castile, ijc. lb. ; all other, ... ...20 per cent. 

Soda ash, crystals, salt. ... ... ...\c. per lb. 

— sulphate, ... ... ... ...\c. „ 

— bicarbonate, caustic, hydrate, ...ic. „ 

— chromate, bichromate, Rochelle salts, 3c. „ 

— yellow prussiate, 5c. lb. ; sulphate,$i.2 5 per ton. 
Sodium, sulphide of ... ... .-.25 per cent. 

Spar, all manufactures of. . . ... •••25 ,, 

Spectacles or eyeglasses and frames or 

lenses for ... ... ... ...60 „ 

Spelter, blocks, pigs, if c. per lb. ; sheets, 2jc. per lb. 

— manufactures of ... ... ...45 per cent. 

Spices, all ground or powdered, ... ...4c. per lb. 

Spirits, liquors and liqueurs of all kinds, 

absinthe, bitters, brandies, cor- 
dials, &c. (bottles extra 3c. each) 

$2.50 per proof gallon. 
Note. — Minimum for importation, 
12 bottles in a case, casks 14 gal- 
lons. 

— Bay rum, of first proof, and in pro- 

portion for greater strength ...$1.50 per gal. 



Sponges ... ... ..." ... ...20 per cent. 

Starch, all kinds of, ... ... ...2c. per lb. 

Statuary, marble, stone, alabaster, metal, 

the work of the sculptor only, ...15 per cent. 

Stéarine ... ... ... ... ...20 „ 

Steel plates engraved, stereotype, electro- 
type, &c. except Fashion, for print- 
ing -"25 „ 

— all manufactures of ... ... --45 „ 

Stone, freestone, granite, sandstone, lime- 
stone, and all building stone 

except marble, undressed, ...nc. per cub. ft. 

— dressed or polished, ... ... ...40 per cent. 

Stove polish ... ... ... ...20 ,, 

Stoves and plates, iron ... ...1 2-ioc. per lb. 

Straw, unmanufd or manufd, ... ---30 ,, 



Sugar glucose or grape sugar, 



per lb. 



Sugars, all not above No. 16 Dutch 
standard in colour, on and after 
April 1, 1891, free; above...5-ioc. ,, 

See special provisos in official Tariff. 

Sulphur, refined, $8. ; Flowers of ...$10. per ton. 

Sulphuric acid, not otherwise specified... \c. per lb. 

Sumac, crude, free; ground, 4-ioc. ; ex- 
tract, 7-8C per lb. 

Sweetmeats, all kinds, .. ... ...35 per cent. 

Talc, prepared ... 20 per cent. 

Tallow, 1 c. per lb. ; candles ... ...20 „ 

Tannin or tannic acid ... ... --^Sc. per lb. 

Tarter, cream of ... ... ... ...6c. ,, 

Tartaric acid ... ... ... ...10c. ,, 

Thread, flax, linen, value not over 13c. 

per lb., 6c. per lb. ; over 13c. ...45 per cent. 

Timber, hewn, sawed ... ... ...10 ,, 

— squared, &c |c. per cub. ft. 

Tin, ore, bars, blocks, pigs, grain, until 

July 1, 1893; Free; after July 1, 

1893 ... 4c. per lb. 

— manufactures of, ... ... -"45 per cent. 

Tobacco, leaf, suitable for cigar wrappers, 

unstemm'd, $2. ; stemmed, ...$2.75 per lb. 

— all other unmanufactured, 

unstemmed, 35c. ; stemmed, ...50c. ,, 

— manufd, all descriptions, 

(Int. Rev. Tax 6c. per lb). ...40c. „ 

— cigars, cheroots and Cigarettes of 

all kinds, including paper cigar- 
ettes ... ...$4.50 per lb. and 25 per cent. 

— Internal Revenue Tax : 

on cigars, $3. per 1000 ; on Cigar- 
ettes weighing not over 3 lbs. per 
1000, 50c. per 1000 ; over 3 lbs. 
$3. per 1000. 

Note. — Cigars, cheroots and cigar- 
ettes cannot be imported in quan- 
tities of less than 3000. Single 
boxes must contain either 25, 50, 
100, 200, 250 or 500 each, but 
not more than 500. Each pack- 
age of cigarettes must contain 
10, 20, 50 or 100. 

— Scrap, cuttings, clippings ... ...40c. per lb. 

Toilet preparations, all kinds, ... ---So per cent. 

— soaps... ... ... ... ...15c. per lb. 



42 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[May i, ÏÉ91 



...30 per cent. 

•••35 » 

••■45 

...i£c. per lb. 

7-ioc. 
île ■ 



Toys, india rubber .j. 

— all other 

Truffles, prepared, preserved 
Twine, flax or linen 

— istle, fibre, manilla, sisal grass 
Type metal, on lead contained 
Types, new ... ... ... ...25 per cent. 

Ultramarine blue... ... ... ...4^0. per lb. 

Umber, earths, dry, Jc. ; ground in oil ...jc. „ 
Umbrellas, parasols and sunshades, 

covered with silk or alpaca ■••55 per cent. 

any other material ... --^S „ 

Vanilla beans, not crude... ... ...10 „ 

Varnishes, alcoholic, $1.32 per gal. and 35 „ 

— not alcoholic... ... ... ---SS „ 

Vegetables for medicine, dyeing not crude 

10 „ 

— cabbages ... ... ... 3c. each. 

— onions, 40c; potatoes... ... 25c. per bush. 

— edible, natural, ... ... ...25 per cent. 

prep'd, presv'd ... ... ...45 „ 

Vellum, vellum cloth ... ... ...40 „ 

Veneers ... ... ... ... ...20 „ 

Vermicelli... ... ... ... ...2c. per lb. 

Vinegar, as per standard... ... •■•7jc. per gal. 

Vines and cuttings, all kinds, ... ...20 per cent. 

Violins and parts of .... ... ...35 ,, 

Vitriol, blue, 2c. ; green, 3-ioc. p. lb. 

white, 25 

Wall papers, paper hangings ... ...25 „ 

Walnuts, natural and in the brine •••3c. per lb. 

Watches and parts of ... ... ••25 per cent. 

Water colours ... ... ... ...30 „ 

Wax, fish, sealing, shoemakers ... ...20 ,, 

— all manufactures of ... ... ...25 ,, 

Whalebone, all manufactures of... ..^o „ 

Wheat, (bushel of 60 lbs). ... ...25c. per bush. 

Wheels, or parts of, iron or steel ...2|c. per lb. 

Willow, for basket makers' use ... ...30 per cent. 

— manufactures of ... ... ...40 „ 

Wines, champagne, and all sparkling : 

(bottles extra, 3c. each), \ pts, $2. ; 

pints, $4. ; quarts... ... ...$8. per doz. 

in bottles over 1 qt. in excess of 

$8. per doz. ... ... ...$2.50 per gal. 

• — still wines, viz : clarets, burgundies, &c. 
&c. and ginger wine, cordial and 
vermouth in casks ... ...50c. per gal. 

in cases of 1 doz. qts. or 2 doz. 
pints (no duty on bottles) ...$1.60 per case. 
■ — No allowance for leakage or breakage. 

Wire, iron or steel covered with cotton, 
silk or other material, crinoline, 
corset and hat wire ... .--50. per lb. 

Wood ; all manufactures of, ... •■•7 i ^ per cent. 

Wool, unmanufactured. 

CLASS I. Clothing wools, viz : mer- 
ino, mestiza, metz, metis. Down 
from Buenos Ayres, New Zealand, 
Australia, Cape of Good Hope, 
Russia, Great Britain, Canada, 
and elsewhere, unwashed ...11c. per lb. 

washed 22c. pr. lb.; scoured ...33c. per lb. 
Class II. Combing Wools, viz: 
Leicester, Cotswold, Lincolnshire, 



per lb. 



Down, Canada; and also camel, 
goat, alpaca and like hair. Un- 
washed or washed 12c. ; scoured 36c. 
CLASS III. Carpet wools, viz : Dan- 
skoi, native South American, Cor- 
dova,' Valparaiso, native Smyrna, 
Russian camel's hair, and simi- 
lar wools from Turkey, Greece, 
Egypt, Syria and elsewhere (ex- 
cept improved wools) value not 
over 13 cents per lb., including 
charges ... ... ... ...32 per cent. 

over 13c. including charges ...50 ,, 

— wools on the skin, same duty as 

other wools. 
Woolen waste, nails, shobby and top, slub- 
bing, roving, ring, yarn, garnet- 
ted and all other wastes ... ...30c. per lb. 

— rags, mungo and flocks ... ...10c. per lb. 

— yarns, value not over 30c. per lb. 

2 7|c. per lb and 35 per cent, 
over 30c. and not over 40c. pr. lb. 

33c. per lb. and 35 „ 
over 40c. per' lb. 38JC. per lb. and 40 „ 

— cloth, shawls and knit goods and 

all manufactures of every descrip- 
tion value not over 30c. 
pr. lb.... ..-330. pr. lb. and ...40 ,, 

over 30c. and not over 40c. per lb. 

38^ c. pr. lb. and ...40 „ 
over 40c. pr. lb.... 44c. pr. lb. and 50 ,, 

— ■ blankets, hats, and flannels, value 
not over 30c. pr. lb, i6|-c. pr. lb. 

and ... 30 „ 

over 30c. and not over 40c. pr. lb. 

22c. pr. lb. and 35 ,, 
over 40c. and not over 50c. pr. lb. 

33c. pr. lb. and 35 „ 

— blankets and hats, value over 50c. 

pr. lb. ... ...38^0. per lb. and 40 „ 

— flannels value over 50c. pr. lb. 

— women's & children's dress goods. 

— coat linings, Italian cloths, &c. 

value not over 15c. per sq. yd. 

7c. per sq. yd. and 40 ,, 
value over 15c. per sq. yard, 

8c. per sq. yd. and 50 „ 
on all such goods weighing over 
4 oz. per sq. yd. 44c. per lb. and 50 „ 

— clothing ready-made, wearing ap- 

parel of every description, felts 
not woven, plushes, cloaks, dol- 
mans, jackets, talamas, ulsters, &c. 

49^c. per lb. and 60 „ 

— beltings, bindings, braces, braids, 

buttons, cords, embroideries, 
fringes, galloons, gimps, gorings, 
laces, nets, ornaments, suspen- 
ders, tassels, trimmings, webbings 
(elastic or non-elastic), 60c. per lb. 

and 60 „ 
Zinc,, in blocks or pigs ... 
in sheets ... 
manufactures of ... 

THE END. 



. ..ifc. per lb. 

..2|C. „ 

...45 per cent. 



May i, 1 891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



111 



List of stuffed Birds 


for 


Nyctiardea europea, S. 


s. 

10 




s. 


Sale. 




— ardeola 


10 


Chaulelasmus strepera, L. ... 


10 


s. 


Nyctherodius violaceus, L. 


10 


— marmoratus, T. 


10 


Tinamus major, G. 


. 3° 


Pilherodius pileatus, B. 


12 


Marmonetta angustirostris, M. 


12 


Crypturus variegatus, G. 


• 15 


Scopus umbretta, G. ... 


12 


Spatula clypeata, L. ... 


10 


Otis tarda, L. [cited in Vieilli 


it 


Canchroma cocklearia, L. . 


20 


Fuligula rufina, V. 


16 


works) 


100 


Ciconia alba, B. 


.. 40 


Fulix rufitorques, B. ... 


16 


— Tetrax, L. ... 


10 


— maguari,G.... 


.. 50 


— marila, L. 


10 


Eupodotis denhami, C... 


200 


Menanopelargus nigra, L. 


.. 50 


— affinis, E. (Labrador?) ... 


5o 


Sypheotis bengalensis, M. 


. 5° 


Xenorhynchus indica, L. 


... 3° 


Aythya ferina, L. 


10 


Afrotis afra, G 


. 5° 


Leptoptilos crumeniferus, C. 


.. 80 


— nyroca, G. 


8 


Sypheotides macqueeni, G. . 


. 40 


Cranopelargusjavanicus, H. 


.. 80 


Bucephala barowi, D. 


5° 


Cariama Cristata L. ... 


.. 100 


Platalea leucorodia, L. 


20 


— clangula, L. 


10 


Psophia crepitans, L. ... 


. 3° 


— ajaja, L. 


12 


— albeola, L. • ... 


10 


Chauna chavaria, L. ... 


.. 80 


Grus cinerea, B. 


40 


— histrionica, L. 


5° 


Opisthocomus cristatus, L. . 


.. 30 


— antigone, male ... 


.. 60 


Harelda glacialis, L. ... 


12 


Penelope obscura, V. . . . 


• • 3° 


— leucogeranus, P. 


.. 80 


Stelleria dispar, S. 


5o 


Ortalida motmot, L. .. 


20 


Anthropoides virgo, L. 


.. 60 


Somateria mollissima L, 


5° 


Oreophasis derbiana, G. R. C 


T. I OO 


Balearica pavonina, L. 


.. 80 


— spectabilis, L. 


60 


Crax alector, L. 


• 50 


Phœnicopterus antiquorum, 


T. 50 


Oidemia nigra, L. 


10 


Polyplectron chincquis 


■• 4° 


Phoenicorodias ruber, L. 


... 40 


Pelionetta perspicillata, L. ... 


40 


Phasianus colchicus, L. 


.. 20 


Sarkidiornis melanonotus, P. 


. 40 


Melanitta fusca, L. 


3° 


— torquatus T. 


20 


Plectropterus gambensis, L. 


• • 5° 


Erismatura leucocephala, S. ... 


10 


Chrysolophus pictus, male . 


20 


Anser segetum, G. 


20 


Mergus serrator, L. ... 


15 


— — female . 


• 15 


— brachyrynchus, B. 


... 25 


— merganser, L, 


16 


— amherstise, male . 


• 5° 


— albifrons, G. 


... 50 


Lophodytes cucullata, L. 


20 


— — female . 


20 


Manlochen erythropus L. 


... 20 


Mergellus albicollis, L. 


20 


Acomus erythropthalmus, R. . 


. 16 


— minutus ... 


20 


Colymbus glacialis, L. 


20 


Gallus sonnerati, T. ... 


20 


Chen hyperboreus, Pall. 


.. 80 


— articus, L. 


40 


Creagrius varius, S. ... 


20 


Branta bernicla, L. ... 


20 


— septentrionalis, L.... 


20 


Ceriornis satyra, E. male . 


20 


Chlamidochen jubata, L. 


20 


Podiceps cristatus, L. ... 


10 


Meleagris americana, B. 


.. 80 


Leucopareia leucopsis, B. 


20 


rubricollis, L. 


8 


— ocellata, C. 


. 100 


Rufibrenta ruficollis, P. 


.. 100 


Dytes auritus, L. 


8 


Tantalus ibis, L. 


• 2 5 


Chloephaga magellanica, G. 


.. 40 


— cornutus, G. 


10 


— religiosus, L. 


• 25 


Bernicla leucoptera, G. 


• • 5° 


Proctopus nigricollis, S. 


12 


Ibis rubra, L. ... 


12 


Nettapus madasgariensis G. 


12 


Rollandia leucotis, C. 


12 


— falcinellus, L. 


10 


— coromandelicus, L. 


10 


Sylbeocyclus minor, L. 


5 


Carphibis spinicollis. J. 


• 5° 


Cygnus olor, G. 


- 5° 


Podiceps carolinensis, L. 


8 


Hagedashia bishagedash, L. . 


• 25 


— nigricollis, G. 


.. 50 


Mormon fratercula, C. 


16 


— chalcoptera, Vieill, typical. 


• 5o 


— musicus, B. ... 


• • 5° 


— grabse, B, 


12 


Theristicus albicollis „ 


• 5o 


— minor, P. 


.. 50 


— glacialis, L. ... 


20 


Dromas ardeola, P. ... % 


20 


Chenopis atratus, L. ... 


60 


Utamania torda, L. ... 


12 


Ardea cinerea L. 


. 12 


Dendrocygna arcuata, C. 


10 


Cheniscus cirrhatus, G. 


25 


— melanocephala, V. 


12 


— major J. 


10 


Simorhynchus cristatellus, P. 


12 


— major, L. 


12 


— viduata, L. 


10 


Phaleris nodirostris, P. 


20 


— purpurea, L. ... 


12 


— autumnalis, L. 


10 


Spheniscus ckrysocoruus, T. 


50 


Herodias egretta, G. ... 


12 


— mexicana, L. 


10 


Apienodytes patagonica, P. 


100 


— garzetta, L. ... 


12 


Tadorna cornuta, G. ... 


•• i5 


Brachyramphus antiquus, L. ... 


16 


— pealei, B. 


12 


Casarca rutila, G. 


10 


Uria grylle, L. 


6 


Florida cœrulea, L. . . . 


13 


Aix sponsa, L. 


12 


— troile, L. ... 


10 


— tricolor, M. ... 


20 


— galericulata, L. ... 


12 


— brunicki, L. 


20 


Agamia agami, G. 


20 


Mareca penelope, L. ... 


12 


— lachrymans, L. ... 


16 


Bubulcus ibis, H. 


IO 


— Jamericana, G. 


12 


Artica aile, L 


6 


— speciosus, India 


. 8 


— chiloensis, K.... 


20 


Puffinus major, F. 


10 


Ardeola comata, P. ... 


10 


Dafila acuta, L. 


12 


— fuliginosus, S. 


8 


Ardetta minuta, L. 


6 


Poeciloneta bahamensis, L. 


16 


— anglorum, C. 


10 


— exilis, L. 


6 


Anas boschas, L. 


10 


— obscurus, G. 


20 


— scapularis 


8 


— cristata, G. 


.. 16 


— cinereus, S. ... 


12 


Zebrilus undulatus, G. 


.. 8 


— gloscitans, P. 


•• 5° 


— yelcuanus, A. 


30 


— philippensis ... 


.. 8 


Querquedula cceruleata, L. . 


.. 6 


Procellaria pelasgica, L. 


10 


Butorides virescens, L. 


10 


— discors, L. 


•• 5 


— leucorhoa G. 


IS 


Botaurus stellaris, L. . . . 


12 


— falcata, G. (type 


) 100 


Pelagodroma fregata, L. 


5° 


— lentiginosus ... 


12 


Nethon crecca, L. 


.. 8 


Fulmarus glacialis, L 


3° 


Tigrisoma brasiliense, L. 


.. 12 


torquata, V. (type.) 


- 50 


Cookilaria cooki, G.R.Gr. ... 


30 


— - tigrinum, G. 


12 


formosa, G.... 


.. 50 


Daption capensis, L. 


12 



IV 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[May i, 1891 



List of Stuffed Birds for 



Sale. — ( Continued.) 
Prion magnirostris, G. 
Diomedea exulans, L. 
Thalassarche chlororhynchas, 

G 

Stercorarius parasiticus, L. .. 
Coprotheres pomarinus, T. .. 
Megalesthris catarractes, L. .. 
Larus maximus, L. 

— peyreaudi Vieill, 

— tenuirostris, C. ... 

— cirrhocephalus, V. 
(typic"al sp.) 



emus, V. 



— flavipes, M. 

— Richardsoni, W. 

— bonapartei, S. ... 
Gabianus pacificus, L. 

— marinus, L. 
Clupeilarus fuscus, L. 
Leucus glaucus, B. ... 

— leucopterus, F. 
Laroides michaelis, B. 
Adelarus leucopthalmus, L. .. 

— icthyaetus, P. 
Chroicocephalus ridibundus, J. 

— capistratus, T. 
Atricilla atricilla, L. 
Melagavia melanocephala, N 
Hydrocoloeus minutus, P. .. 
Pagophda eburnea, G. 
Rissa tridactyla, L. 
Sterna hirundo, L. ... 

— lac te a, alba V. 

— leucopareia, N. 

— nigra, S. 

— dougalli, M. ... 
Gelichelidon anglica, Mont. .. 
Actochelidon cantiaca, G. 

— affinis, R. ... 

— arctica, A. ... 
Thalasseus caspiae, P 

— bergi, L. 
Sternula minuta, L. ... 
Hydrochelidon fissipes, L. .. 

— fuliginosa, G. 
Anous stolidus, L. 
Naenia inca, L. 
Rhyncops nigra, L. ... 
Phaeton aethereus, L. 

— phasnicurus, G. 

— candidus, G. 
Plotus anhinga, L. 

— levaillanti, L. 
Carbo cormoranus, M. 

— sp. N. Zealand .. 

— Desmaresti, P. 
albicollis, 

— gay mardi, L. 

— cristatus, F. (Island) 
Pelecanus onocrotalus, L. 

— crispus, B. ... 
Atagen aquila, L 
Polyborides radiatus, S. 



• J. 
200 
100 

80 
20 

35 
10 

20 
20 

iS 

20 
12 
12 
16 

20 

3° 
20 

20 

3° 
25 
16 

25 

5° 
8 

10 

8 

20 

20 

5o 
8 

8 

100 

10 

3° 
16 

12 

10 

12 

20 

20 

20 

6 

6 

16 

10 

40 

12 

25 

3° 

25 
10 

16 

16 

16 

20 

16 

40 

20 

80 

100 

50 
20 



Circus cyaneus, L. 

— Swainsoni, S. ... 

— cinerascens, S. ... 

— — S. (black variety) 

— aeruginosus, L. 
Melierax polyzonus, R. 
Astur palumbarius, L. 

— badius, G 

— soloensis, L. 

— novae hollandiae, G. 
Accipiter nisus, L. 

— virgatus, B. 

— cooperi, B. 

— tinus, L. 
— *- badius, Alleon, Smyrna 

Tachytriorchis pterocles, V, 
Buteo jakal, D. 

— jerox, G. ( Volga). 

— desertorum, D. 

— lineatus, V. Canada. 

— vulgaris, L. 
■ — tachardus, martini, Hard 

Volga. 
Archi buteo lagopus, G. 
Busarellus nigricollis, L. 
Urubitinga niger, V. ... 
Gypaetus barbatus, S. (very fine 

specimen) ... 
Aquila fulva, L. 

— heliaca S. 
■ — planga, V. 

— rapax, C. 

— naevia, G. 
Nisaetus bonnelli, C. ... 

pennatus, G. Turkey 
Circaetus, gallicus, G. (from 

Duchess de Berry Coll.) 
Spilornis, bâcha D. ... 
Helotarsus ecaudatus, D. 
Haliaetus albicillus, L. 

— leucocephalus, L. 

— leucoryphus G. 
Monts Altai 

Gypohierax angolensis, G. 
Haliastur ponticerianus, G. 
Elanoides furcatus, L. 
Nauclerus riocouri, V, typical 
Milvus regalis, B. 

— govinda, S. 

— aegyptus, G. ... 
— ■ aetolius, V. 

Rostramus liamatus, V. 
Elanus coeruleus, D — 

— melanopterus, B. Volga 
Gampsonyx swainsoni, V. 
Pernis apivorus, L. 

Harpagus diodon, T 

Ictinia plumbea, G. ... 
Microhierax coerulescens, L. 
Falco communis, G. ... 

— pealei, R. 

— barbarus, L. 

— lanarius graecus, S. 

— subbuteo, L. ... 



s. 

8 

16 

8 

<3o 
10 

20 

16 

6 
12 
20 

6 

16 
16 

8 

16 

40 

5o 

5° 
20 

3° 
16 

3° 

25 
20 

3° 

100 

60 

100 

5° 
5° 

3° 

80 

30 

5° 
20 

60 

80 

80 

100 

100 

12 

25 
60 

3° 

3° 
12 

3° 

3° 

8 

16 

20 
16 
20 
8 
12 
12 
20 
16 
3° 



s. 

Falco aesalon, L. ... ... 8 

— aurantius, G. ... ... 10 

— chicquera, D. ... ... 20 

— concolor, C. (leg. imper.) 30 

— eleonorae, M. ... ... 30 

Hierofalco candicans, G. (Tern. 

Collection) ... ... ... 80 

Hierofalco gyr/alco, L., Norway 50 

— — Lapponia 60 

— saker, G. ... ... 20 

Cerchneis tinnuncula, L. ... 6 

— punctata, T. ... 12 

— sparveria, L. ... 5 

— tinnunculoides, V. 12 

— vespertina, L. ... 12 
Pandion halisetus, L. ... 30 
Gyps fulvus, occidentalis 

G. Sardinia ... ... 100 

Otogvps auricularis, D. ... 100 

Neophron percnopterus, L. ... 30 

Sarcoramphus gryphus, L. 

very old male. ... ... 200 

Cathartes papa, L. ... ... 50 

Catharistes atrata, B. ... ... 20 

Oenops aura. L. ... ... 20 

Polyborus brasiliensis, G. ... 20 

Ibycter americanus, B. ... 20 

— chimango. V. ... ... 10 

Bubo turcomanus, E. ... 60 

— ascalaphus, S. ... ... 40 

— atheniensis A. ... ... 50 

— magellanicus, G. ... 25 
Scops aldrovandi, B. ... ... 8 

— leucotis, T. ... ... 12 

Nyctea scandiaca. L. ... ... 40 

Surnia ulula, L. Arkangel ... 40 

— — N. America. ... 20 
Carine noctua, S. ... ... 6 

— brama, C. ... ... 8 

— persica, V. ... ... 10 

Speotypo cunicularia, M. ... 10 

Glaucidium passerinum, L. ... 5 

— perlatum V. (type). 

{ occipitalis, T. ... 40 

— { ferruginea,-B. ... 10 
Asio otus, L. . ... ... 10 

— brachyotus, L. ... ... 10 

Syrnium aluco, L. ... ... 12 

— lapponicum, R. ... 60 

■ — uralense, P. ... ... 50 

. — nebulosum, T. ... 40 

Nyctala tengmalmi, G. ... 10 

— acadica, G. ... ... 6 

Strix flammea, L. ... ... 12 

— javanica, T. ... ... 12 

All these birds are in fine condition 
and mounted by experienced hands. 

FOR SALE, 
Several hundred species of Reptiles, 
Fishes and Crustaceae, in alcohol, 
from Mexico, Central America, 
Cuba, New Guinea etc. 



May i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD» 



MONTHLY LIST OF STAMPS. 



FOE SALE. 



s. a. 



Brazil, 1843, large figure 60. R fine copy 

British Bechuanaland, 1881, Id. without surcharge ... 

2d. do. do. 

Id. with surcharge 

2d. do. „ 

6d. do. „ 

set of 5 for 

British Columbia, 1868, 2 cents, on 3d. brown, unused 
,, ,, ,, 25 cents, yellow and violet ... 

British Guiana, 1863, 24 cents, green 

,, 1889, 1 cent, black and purple 

,, „ 2 cents do. do. 

,, „ do. with red 2 

„ ,, 8 cents black and purple 

set of 4 for 

,, ,, 1 cent on 1 dollar 

,j ,, 1 do. 2 dollars 

„ „ 1 do. 3 do. 

„ „ 1 do. 4 do. 

set of 4 for ... • ;.. 

British Honduras, Id. no wmk. 

,, Is. no wmk 

,, Is. wmk. CC, and crown 

Canada, 3d. oblong, fine copy 

Cape of Good Hope, 4d. blue triangular, fine copy ... 

Ceylon, 1857, 2d. green unused 4s., used 

,, 1861, 5d. brown ,, 

„ 1864, id. lilac, 
„ ,, Id. blue, 

,, 5d. green, 
6d. brown, 
lOd. orange-red, 
lOd. deep mauve 
,, ,, 4d. rose, 

„ „ 8d. brown, 

„ „ 2s. blue, 

„ One Rupee Twelve Cents in words on (2 R, 50 cents) 

„ Service Postage, Id. black and blue 

Costa Rica, set of 5 for 

Faridhot, set of 37, different 

France. 1852, 10 centimes, buff, fine copy 

Gibraltar, 10 centimes on Id. unused 

„ 25 do. on 2d. ,, or used ... 

„ 25 do. on 2Jd. used 

,, 75 do. on Is. unused 



1 > 

r 



aus( 


!d9d. 


used 


?» 




IJ 


M 


3s. 


>l 


»» 


2s. 


ij 


J» 


3s. 


ÏÏ 


)» 


3s., 


n 


3) 


4s.. 
6s. 


»» 



2 


6 




4 




4 




4 




4 


1 





2 







9 


2 


3 




6 




9 


1 


4 




6 


1 


6 


3 


10 




9 




9 




9 


1 


3 


4 





1 


9 


2 


6 


1 


6 


1 







6 


1 


3 


2 







9 




4 


1 


3 


1 


3 


1 


3 


1 





1 


9 


2 


6 


2 





1 


6 


2 


6 




8 


12 


6 


3 


6 




6 


2 







4 


2 






STAMPS (continued). s. d. 

Great Britain (1840), Id. black, fine copy 

„ (1840), Id red on bluish paper unused 

,, 1840, lOd. brown, uncut fine copy 

„ do. do. do. unused 

„ 1863, pink, unused 

,, ,, lilac, do. 

,, 1867, 3d. rose, wmk. spray plate 6 unused 

1884, £1, oblong 

„ set of 8 Gov. Parcels 

Grenada, 1881, £d. black and purple 

,, ,, 3J black and lake 

,, ,, |d. on 2s. orange, black and green ... 

India, 1854, 4 Annas, blue and red, uncut 

„ 1866, 6, a, Provisional lilac and green 1st type 
,, do. do. do. do. do 2nd type 

,, 1882, 12 annas, brown on red 

New South Wales, 1851, 3d. on blue paper fine copy 

,, 1854, 3d. on white paper 

,, 1856, 6d. square, grey brown imperf. 

grand copy 

,, 1860, 3d. green, wmk., 3 

,, ,, _ 3d. green, wmk., 6 ... 

,, 1864', 2d. blue wmk. single line 2 

,, ,, do. double line 2 

,, ,, do. double line 5 

New Zealand, 1863, Is. green fine copy 

Norway, 1870, 1 Krone, green 

„ ,, 2 do. carmine 

Oldenburg, 1859, 1 Gr. black on blue 

Queensland, 1882, .£1 green 

,, 6d. yellow, Registered unused 

Russia, 1864, 3 Kopecs, error 

Sierra Leone, 1876, 6d. mauve ... 

Siam, 1883, Att, 2 Atts, 4 Atts and 16 Atts and set of 

4 used ... 

South Australia, 1859, 1 yellow, roul 

Tasmania, 1870, Id. wmk. 10 

,, •„ 2d. wmk. 2 

,, 1882, Fiscal Postals 3d. brown 

Turk's Islands, Id. dull rose, wmk. star 

Urugay, set of 4, surcharged Official ... 

Victoria, 1873, lOd. slate 

WANTED. 

Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwards, to 
which none have been added since the last 20 years. 

Old stamps on their original letter sheet or envelope, especi- 
ally Colonials and old German states. 

Mulready Wrappers and Envelopes. 

Old unused English and Colonials. 

Old works on stamps. 

Proofs of stamps, etc. etc. 





2 




9 


2 


6 


15 





3 


6 


3 





5 





3 


6 


4 







6 


1 


6 


1 


6 


2. 




3. 




6' 




5 





3 


6 


3 







6 


2 







4 


1 





3 


& 




9 




6 




6 


1 


S 


3 





10 





1 


3 




6 


1 


6 


3 


6 


2 


6 


1 





1 





1 





2 





4 






TO ETHNOLOGISTS. 



FOE SALE. 

Twenty finely carved An ows and 1 Bow from New Guinea 

Price 20s. 

African Rhinoceros War Club Price 30s. 

Three distinct Zulu War Clubs, made of iron wood and very 
nicely carved Price 30s. each. 

Pagaie from New Guinea, made of palm tree Price 30s. 

Magnificent Gold Antiquity from Panama, representing what 
appears to be Musicians, two large figures in the centre and 
six small ones round. It weighs 6 oz. 187 grammes. It is 
quite unique, and no Museum in the world possesses anything 
like it Price £50. 

A great variety of American Antiquities, chiefly from Central 
America, in hardstone, agathe, Idols, Vases, etc. from 5s. 



TO MUSEUMS, ETHNOLOGISTS, etc 



Modern pottery from Mexico and Central America 

from 6d. 
Statuettes representing the Indians of Mexico and Guatemala 

from 3s. 
Hats, Baskets, Mats and various Objects made with palm 
leaves and various textile plants, from Central America, Mada- 
gascar, New Guinea, etc. from 6d. 

Samples of Textile Fibres, Seeds, Gums, Resins, Medicinal 
Plants, etc. from Mexico and Central America from 6d. 

Old and Modern Coins from Mexico from Is. 

Etc., etc., etc. 



TO BE LET 
OR SOLD. 



Several Splendid VILLAS, with Beautiful Gardens, 

at SAN REMO, the well known Winter Resort, 
40 minutes from MONTE CARLO. 

Apply at the Office of the Journal, 



VI 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[May i, 1891 



BOUCARD, POTTIER & CO., 

NATURALISTS AND FEATHER MERCHANTS, 

22S5, High. Holborn, JLiOx&dLon, W.C, England.. 



COMMISSION. 



EXPORTATION. 



Messrs. BOUCARD, POTTIER & CO. offer to sell on commission all kinds of Objects of Natural 
History, Collections of Mammal and Bird Skins, Skeletons, Human and Animal Skulls, Insects of all 
orders pinned and set, or in papers ; Marine, Fresh "Water, and Land Shells ; Reptiles and Fishes in spirit ; 
Crustacea? and Arachnidae in spirit ; Ethnological collections from all parts ; Showy Bird Skins and 
Feathers for Plumassiers and Naturalists ; Mammal Skins for Furriers ; Bright species of Insects for 
Artificial Florists • Rare old Stamps, used and unused; Curios of all sorts, Pictures and Works of Art, etc., 
etc., etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting Messrs. Boucard, Pottier 
& Co., who having a large connection with Amateurs in all parts of the world, are able to get the very best 
prices for them. 

Messrs. Boucard, Pottier & Co. beg to advise Directors of Museums and private Amateurs that they 
undertake to stuff from a Humming Bird to a Whale at very reasonable prices. Only experienced and 
scientific Taxidermists are employed by the hour for that work, which will always be of the best class. 

An inspection of their Galleries, where a large number of specimens are always on show, is solicited. 

Special fabrication of Mammals and Birds Eyes at wholesale prices which defy all competition, either 
as quality or price. See special Advertisement. 

New Stands for Birds, suitable for Museums and Scientific Institutions. No one should be without 
them. The appearance of the Birds on these stands is unequalled, and everyone should adopt them and 
renovate the old ones. See Advertisement. 



TO BOOKSELLERS AND OTHERS. 



Boucard. Catologus Avium, English or French preface, Syste- 
matic Classification of Birds, 8s. instead of 12s. 

Catalogue of Birds, published by the British Museum. 

Vol. 1 to 6 inclusive. The first three Volumes are out of 
print. Price £10. 

Hand List of Birds, Gray, published by the British Museum. 
3 vol. 8vo. Price 25s. 

Guide pour collecter, préparer et expédier des Collections 
d'histoire naturelle. ls. 

Guia para colectar, conservar y despachar Colecciones de 
historia natural. Is. 

Petit Atlas d'Ornithologie ou Collection choisie d'Oiseaux 
les plus connus, dessinés d'après nature par Martinet, 
Paris, 1784. 
1 Vol. grand in folio, in magnificent condition. Contents : 

Epître à Buffon, Tableau général du classement des Oiseaux 

iivisés d'après Buffon en neuf Ordres et cent un Genres ou 

Familles. 150 splendid coloured plates par Martinet. Exceed- 
ingly rare. £50. 

America, by John Ogilby Esq., London, 1671. Grand in folio, 
675 pages, 121 splendid Engravings and Maps. £30. 

Historia de la Conquista de Mexico, etc., by Don Antonio Solis, 
Brusselas, 1741. 

1 Vol. in folio, 276 pages, 13 Engravings and Maps. Pages 
1 to 9 slightly stained. £20. 

Historia General de las Cosas de Nueva Espana, by Bev. 
Bernardino de Sahagun, con notas y suplementos, por 
Carlos Maria de Bustamante, Mexico, 1829. 4 vols, in 
4to., uncut. £5. 

Historia de las Conquistas de Hernando Cortez, por Francisco 
Lopez de Gomara, con varias notas y addiciones, por Carlos 
Maria de Bustamante, Mexico, 1826. 1 vol. in 4to, 315 pp. 

£2. 

Tezcoco en los ultimos tiempos de sus antiguos Reyes. 
Tomada de los manuscritos ineditos de Boturini y redac- 
tados por el Lie. Mariano Veytia, Mexico, 1826. 1 vol- 
16mo, 276 pages. £2. 

3ateeismo y Declaracion de la Doctrina Christiana en lengua 
OTOMI, con un Vocabulario del mismo idioma, por el 
R. P. Joaquin Lopez Yepes, Mexico, 1826. 1 Vol. in 4to, 
254 pages. £4. 



D. R. Kampuysens Stichtelyke Rymen, by M. Mathieu, Rot- 
terdam, 1688. 1 Vol. in 8vo., 680 pages. £2. 

Clara y Suciuta Exposicion del pequeno Catecisino impreso 
en el idioma MEXICANO, por un Sacerdote devoto de la 
Madré santissima de la Luz, etc. 

Puebla, 1819. 1 Vol., 67 double pages, one side in Mexican, 
the other in Spanish. £2 10 

Various Calendarios Mexicanos, 1830 to 1860. 2s. each. 

STANDS, SHEW STYLE. 

Wholesale Prie*. 
No. 1 for Humming birds and Small birds at 20s. per hundred 
„ 2 ,, Small birds up to Tanagers at 24s. ,, 

,, 3 ,, Tanagers up to Magpies at 28s. ,, 

,, 4 ,, Magpies up to Crows or Small 

Hawks at 32s. „ 

„ 5 „ Small Hawks to Large Hawks 

and Owls at 40s. ,, 

ARTIFICIAL KÏES. 

Wholesale Price. 



Black Coloured 



No. 1 to 4 



per gross 



8 
10 



11 
12 
13 

14 
15 
16 
17 
18 



6d, 

8d. 

ls.Od. 
2s. Od. 
2s. 3d. 
2s. 6d. 



ls. 6d. 
2s. 6d. 
4s. Od. 
5s. 6d. 
7s. Od. 
10s. Od. 



Cornered 

per doz. pairs 
No. 4 to 6 3s. 6d. 
») 7 ,, 8 
„ 9 



doz. of pairs 



3s. Od. 
3s. 6d. 
4s. Od. 
8s. Od. 
12s. Od. 



ls. 6d. 

2s. 6d. 
2s. 6d. 
3s. Od*. 
4s. Od. 



10 
11 
12 

13 
14 
15 



5s. 0d. 
6s. Od. 
7s. Od. 
8s. Od. 
9s. Od. 

10s. Od. 
lis. Od. 
13s- Od. 



Cornered 

& Veined 

per doz. pairs 

4s. 6d. 

6s. Od. 

8s- Od. 

9s. Od. 
10s. Od. 
lis. Od. 

12s. Od. 
13s. Od. 
15s. Od. 



Larger sizes can be made 
to order. 



Nr. 1 to 4 are good for humming birds and others up to 
the size of Tanagers. 

No. 5 to 8 Tanagers to Magpies. 

No. 9 to 10 Magpies to Gulls. 

No. 11 to 12 Pheasants, etc. 

No. 13 to 18 Hawks, Owls, Herons, etc. 



LONDON : Published by A. BOUCA.RD,at 225, High Holborn, W.C. ; and Printed at J. S. LEVIN'S Steam Printing Works, 75, Leadcnhall Street, E.G. 

May 1, 1891. 




Zhc 




umm 





A MONTHLY SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC, AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW. 



GUARANTEED CIRCULATION, 5000. 



VOL. I., NO, 6. 



June 1, 1891. 



PRICE SIXPENCE. 



Annual Subscription: United Kingdom, Post free, 4 shillings ; all countries included in the Postal Union, 5 shillings. 

All other countries, 6 shillings. 




(XaA/ÏXAAXs JàjMA&OLSuK' 



EDITED UNDER THE DIRECTION 

OF 

MR. ADOLPHE BOUCARD, 

NATURALIST, 

Officier d'Académie, 1878; Knight of the Royal Military Order of the Conception, 1881 ; 
Knight Officer of the Royal Order of Cambodje, 1889; Knight Commander of the Royal Order of Isabelle la Catholique, 1882; 

Corresponding Member of the Zoological Society, London, 1865; 

de la Mission scientifique française au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale, 1866; of the Royal Museum of Madrid, 1881; 

Commissioner for the Republic of Guatemala in the Paris International Exhibitions of 1878 and 1889; 

Member of the international Jury, Paris, 188g ; Member of many scientific societies; 

etc. etc. etc. etc. 



CONTENTS OF No. 6.— JUNE 1, 1891. 



Boucard's Private Collections of Coleoptera and 

Shells for sale. 
Notes on Rare Species of Humming Birds and 

Descriptions of several supposed New Species 

in Boucard's Museum. 
Description of a supposed New Species of Paradise 

Bird in Boucard's Museum. 



Poor Rate and General Rate Taxes in the Parishes 
of St. Giles in the Fields and St. George, 
Bloomsbury. 

The Panama Canal, Rapport de Monsieur Bonaparte 
Wyse sur le Canal de Panama. 

Books and Journals Received. 

List of Birds for Sale, &c, &c. 



&. 



éi 



[Entered at Stationers' Hall.] 



11 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[rune i, 1891. 



FOR SALE.-Shells. 

Private Collection of Mr. Boucard. 
Land, Fluviatile and Marine Shells. 

Glandinidse, is. each. Helicidae, 6d. each. Bulimidse 
is. each. Achatinidse, is. each. Chlindrellidse, is. 6d. 
each. Clausilidae, id. each. Ampularidae, 6d. each. 
Lymmea, Physa, and Planorbis, 3d. each. Cyclosto- 
nidae, 6d. each. Helicinidse, 3d. each. Unio, 
'Anodonta, and Ostrea, 6d. each. 

Marine Shells — All the Collection including 
Argonyuta, Murex, Fusus, Triton, Ranella, Nassa, 
Oliva, Marginella, Harpa, Terebra, Conus, Slrombus, 
Cypraea, Neritina, Patella, Chiton, HaHotis, Turbo, 
Venus, Cardium, &c, 6d. each. 

Can be divided if required. 

All applications to be made at the Journal's Office. 

Insects Coleoptera. 

Private Collection of Mr. Boucard. 

Cicindelidas, including types of Oxygonia, 
Boucardi Chev, Cincindela costaricensis and others, 
2j.each. Carabidae, including many types, is. each. 
Dytiscidae, 6d. each. Staphylinidae, 3d. each. 

Pselaphidae, Gnostidae, Paussidae, Scydmaenidse, 
Silphidae, Scaphididse, Histeridae, Nitidulidae, Trog- 
ositidse, Rhyssodidœ, Cucujidae, Cryptophagidae, 
Derodontidas, Latrididae, Mycetophagidae, Dermestidae 
Byrrhidae, Parnidae, and Heteroceridae, 3d. each. 
Lucanidae and Passalidae, including many types, is. 
each. Copridae, 6d. each. Melolonthidae, 6d. each. 
Rutelidse, including all the types of Plusiotis, 
Chrysina, Heterosternus, 2s. each. Scarabaeidae, is. 
each. Cetonidaa, is. each. Buprestidae, is. each. 
Trixagidae, Monommidae, Eucnemidaa, and Elateridae, 
6d. each. Cebrionidae. Rhipidoceridse, Dascillidse, 
and Malacodermidse, 3d. each. Cleridae, 6d. each. 
Lymexilonidas, Cupesidae, Ptinidas, Bostrychidae, and 
Cioidae, 3d. each. Tenebrionidae, 3d. each. Nilion- 
idae, Pythidae, Melandryidae, Lagriidae, Pedilidse. 
Anthicinae, Pyrochroidae, Mordellidae, and Rhipidoph- 
oridae, 3d. each. Cantharidae, 6d. each. Cephaloidae, 
Oedemeridae, and Mycteridae, 3d. each. Curculionidae 
and Scolytidae, 3d. each. Brenthidae and Anthotribidse, 
6d. each. Cerambycidae, is. each : Bruchidae, 3d. each. 
Chrysomelidae, 3d. each. Cassididae, 6d. each. 
Languridse and Erotylidae, 6d. each. Tritomidae and 
Coccinellidse, 3d. each. 

TO ORNITHOLOGISTS. 



FOR SALE. 

Fine mounted specimen of Aha impennis, the Great Aule, 
(extinct species). Pedigree from date of capture, 1836, will 
be given to buyer. 

Fine male specimen of the exceedingly rare new genus of 
bird Heinhardtiob oeellata Bp., the greatest discovery of the 
century. Price £50 

LIST OF DESIDERATA OF PHAN2EI. 

Achilles Bohem, Guayaquil. Bitias Har., Mexico. 
Charon Har., Guayaquil. Columbi, Me L, female, 
Hastifer Germ., male, Brazil. Foveolatus Har., 
Guayaquil. Horus Waterh. Reiche, Brazil. Melibceus 
Blanch, Chiquitos. Mirabilis Har., Brazil. Nocti3 



Bates, Colombia and Nicaragua, etc. Perseus Har. 
Colombia. Pteroderus Reiche in litt, Uruguay 
Rhadamanthus E ar., Brazil. Rosalia Fabr.? America, 
Tepanensis B ates > Tepan. Thalassinus Perty, Brazil. 
Steinheili Han, male and female. Guatemalensis, 
Har., male. Beltianus, male - Scutifer, Bates, male 
and female. Lunaris, Tasch, male. Actaeon, Erichs, 
male and female. Bispinus, Bates. Cadmus, Har. 
Dejeani, Har., female. Lautus, Macleay, male. 
Silenus, Cast, male and female. Spinifer, Cast, male 
and female. 

List of Pittidae for Sale. 

Pitta strepitans, Australia, 5^. ; — maxima, N. Guinea 
los. ; — brachyura Malacca, 8^. ; — bengalensis, 
India, 8^. ; — elegans, Malacca, iox. ; — cyanurus, 
Java, 16s. ; — arcuata, Borneo, 30s. ; — granatina, 
Borneo, 8^. ; — erythrogaster, Philippines, 10s. ; 

— mackloti, N. Guinea, 10^. ; — rosenbergi, N. 
Guinea, 30^. ; — ■ novoe guineas, N. Guinea, 10s. ; 

— mulleri, Borneo, ioi-, ; — cucullata, India, 8s. ; 

— — Var, Malacca, 8^. ; — coerulea, Malacca 16s. ; 
Philepitta castanea, Madagascar, 12s. 

FOR SALE.— from Kina Balu {Borneo). 
Calyptomena whitehead^ male, 100s. A magnifi- 
cent bird, discovered lately by Mr. Whitehead in the 
interior of Borneo. Many other species from the 
same collector (magnificent skins). 

FOR SALE. 

A magnificent bound copy of T. A. Naumann's 
Naturgeschichte der Vogel Deutschlands, 13 vols, in 
4to and 391 coloured plates. Apply at the office of 
the Journal. 

FOR SALE. 

Collection of Woods from all parts of the world. 
2,000 blocks nicely cut. Manuscript catalogue over 
2 vols. Awarded gold medal at International Exhi- 
bition. For price and particulars apply at the office 
of the Journal. 

Fine group of Harpyornis feeding on a Dendrolagus. 
Two rare species of mammal and bird, from New 
Guinea. Price ^12. Fourteen species of Carabus 
from Chili. In the most perfect condition. 23 
specimens, at 5s. each. 



Postage Stamps 
FOR SALE. 

A large variety of rare Stamps and New Issues from all parts 
of the World. For prices &c. apply to Naturalists Agency, 

225, High Holborn, W.C. 

WANTED. 

Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwards, to 
which none have been added since the last 20 years. 

Old stamps on their original letter sheet or envelope, especi- 
ally Colonials and old German states. 

Mulready Wrappers and Envelopes. 

Old unused English and Colonials. 

Old works on stamps. 

Proofs of stamps, etc etc. 



June i, 1891, 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



111 



9 

N ATU RALIST, 

DEALEE IN 

MAMMAL AND BIRD SKINS, REPTILES, FISHES, INSECTS, SHELLS, EGGS, 

SEEDS, etc., etc, etc., etc., etc. 

PURCHASE -SALE-EXCHANGE. 

Collections and Libraries bought and sold on Commission. 

225, HIGH ZEiOLZBOJE^IfcT, LO^TIDOÎsT, "W-O. 



A. BOUCABD undertakes the sale of Collections 
and Books of natural history ; and offers his services 
to Scientific Institutions and Authors, for the sale 
of their Works. 

The situation of his establishment in the centre 
of Loudon, and his relations with the principal 
Museums of Natural History in all parts of the 
world, offer great opportunities for the sale of the 
Collections and Books which may be intrusted to his 
care. 

He can procure for his clients zoological collec- 
tions from all parts of the world; as well as scientific 
Books and Apparatus for collecting and preserving 
collections. All offers of purchase or sale submitted 
to him will be carefully examined and answered 
immediately. 

A. B. wishing to increase the number of his Corre- 
spondents in all parts, begs all persons who have 
collections, to communicate with him, for the pur- 
chase or exchange of their duplicates on advantageous 
terms. 

Museums and Scientific Institutions are invited to 
send him a list of their desiderata, which he will 
undertake to suppy in reasonable time, even in the 
case of the rarest animals wanted. 

Professors who require specimens of natural history 
for study preserved in alcohol or otherwise, can send 
their instructions, which will be well attended to. 

A. B. reminds his Friends and Naturalists in 
general, that he has now in store 30,000 species of 
Insects, 6,500 species of Birds, Mammals, Beptiles 
and Fishes, Eggs, Shells, Seeds, many bright Insects 
for Jewellers, Florists and Modists, etc., etc., etc., etc. 

Every month he receives new Collections from his 
Travellers and Correspondents. 

A. B. is very much interested with Coleoptera from 
Vancouver, Oregon, California, Sonora, Texas, New 
England, Mexico, Guatemala, Salvador, Honduras, 
Costa Bica, Veragua, Nicaragua, and Panama. He 
wishes to acquire collections from these countries, 
either by exchange or by purchase. 

He thanks sincerely all his Friends and Corre- 
spondents who have honoured him with their 



patronage to the present time, and hopes they will 
help him in the work he has undertaken ; which is 
to facilitate to all the study of Natural History. 



FOR SALE 

CHEAP COLLECTIONS FOR STUDY AS ODER : 

Typical Collection of Birds classified and named 
after the celebrated works of Professors Bonaparte, 
Gray, Gould, Sclater, etc. 100 specimens £8 

Typical Collections of Insects (specimens 
of all the orders) £10 

Typical Collection of Insects Coleoptera, 
classified and named after the celebrated 
Genera of Professor Lacordaire 

100 specimens £1 

Collection of Insects of all orders 

100 specimens £10 

Typical Collection of Insects Coleoptera, 
by family, genus, or country 100 specimens £10 

Collection of Bright Insects Coleoptera, 
classified and named 100 specimens £10 

Typical Collection of Marine, Land and 
Fresh Water Shells, classified and named 
after the celebrated works of Prof. Pfeifers, 
Chenu, B,eeves, Deshayes, etc. 100 specimens £ I 

These collections are proper for Museums, Scien- 
tific Institutions and Schools, as well as for all 
persons who desire to study Natural History. 

They contain many rare species, and my purpose 
in disposing of them at such a low price is to make 
them accessible to every one. 

This Study will procure infinite enjoyment to all 
those who will dedicate themselves to it. 

With the love of Collections, there are no more 
useless walks, all is interesting, each day you dis- 
cover new marvels of Nature. 

They are very good for acquiring order and know- 
ledge, and you become useful to your couutry by 
your discoveries. 



IV 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



\Tune i, 1891 



"Who can deny that the greatest part of the revenues 
of all Governments is due to those learned men who 
have dedicated themselves to this science ? 

Cotton, Tobacco, Potatoes, Coffee, Tea, Indigo, 
Cochineal, Silk are all products of nature, and some 
travellers (mostly naturalists) are those who have 
been to search for them, sometimes at very remote 
countries at the cost of their lives, to try their ac- 
climatation in their own country or to make known 
their value and their goodness. 

Much has been done ; but the field of explorations 
is still very large, and many Centuries will pass 
before it is drained. 

Therefore, every one must work boldly and 
encourage every where these studies which are un- 
happily too much neglected at the present time. 

For that it is necessary that all those, who have 
zoological richfs accumulated, give their duplicates 
to scientific Institutions or to young and poor 
amateurs, or dispose of them at very low prices acces- 
sible to every one. 

It is also necessary that all the Governments 
should cive important prizes and rewards to all those 
who make new discoveries useful to their country, 
and encourage by all means the study of this science 
which is sure to produce fruitful results to the benefit 
of Humanity. 



AGEMGE DES NATURALISTES, 
225, HIGH HOLBORN, 

LONDON, W.C. 

OISEAUX A VENDRE. 



1 Pigeon sauvage 

2 Perruches diverses ... 

3 Canard Mandarin ... 

4 Perdrix rouge 

5 Petites chouettes (Scops) ... 

6 Chouettes moyennes 

7 Grandes chouettes diverses . . . 

8 Martin pécheur, (peaux plates) 

9 Rollier 
Sui manga du Sénégal 
Têtes de faisans et de tétras 
Merle métallique de la Nile. Guinée 
Merle bleu du Gabon 

14 Merle bleu à longue queue... 

15 Merle à longue queue d'Amérique.. 

16 Petits trogons divers 

17 Couroucou à longue queue... 

18 Tangara orange du Mexique 
Tangara orange du Brésil ... 
Chouette effraie .... 
Grand martin pêcheur gris ... 
Colin de la Californie 
Etourneau gris à tête noire... 
Grande brève de la Nile. Guinée .. 



10 
11 
12 

13 



19 
20 
21 
22 

23 



24 Etourneau d'Europe 



francs 


douz 


■ 15 


n 


12 


n 


• 36 


)> 


. 24 


11 


• 36 


)> 


. l8 


11 


■ 36 


11 


■ iS 


11 


12 


11 


12 


') 


1.5c 


» „ 


; 12 


11 


• 3° 


11 


. 24 


11 


• 38 


11 


12 


11 


• 250 


11 


• 3° 


11 


12 


11 


. 60 


11 


• 36 


11 


12 


11 


6 


11 


• 36 


)) 


2 


)> 



francs douz. 

25 Poitrine de héron gris ... ... 30 ,, 

26 Ptarmigan ... ... ... ... 24 ,, 

27 Pigeon deNicobar... ... ... 125 ,, 

28 Momot à' longue queue (nouvelle 

espèce pour la mode) .... ... 60 „ 

29 Perdrix de l'Inde ... ... ... 12 ,. 

30 Petite outarde ... ... ... 48 ,, 

31 Huppe d'Afrique ... ... ... 15 „ 

32 Queues de gelinottes ... ... 0.60 ,, 

33 Paradis rouge ... ... ... 180 ,, 

34 Paradis jaune ... ... ... 250 ,, 

35 Epimaque d'Australie ... ... 300 ,, 

36 Epimaque de la Nile. Guinée ... 250 ,, 

37 Pic à baguettes ... ... ... 30 „ 

38 Ara rouge (peaux plates) ... ... 36 ,, 

39 Geai d'Amérique ... ... ... 30 ,, 

40 Coq de roche ... ... ... 60 ,, 

4T Pie sanglante ... ... ... 48 ,, 

42 Mouette 18 „ 

43 Goéland ... ... ... ... 18 „ 

44 Hirondelle de mer ... ... ... 18 ,, 

45 Hirondelle minuta ... ... ... 36 „ 

46 Faisan à dos de feu .. . ... ... 36 „ 

47 Tangara à cinq couleurs ... ... 24 ,, 

48 Jaseur ... ... ... ... 12 ,, 

49 Tangaras divers brillants ... ... 12 ,, 

50 Guit guit à tète bleue ... ... 12 „ 

51 Guit guit vert chatoyant ... ... 12 ,, 

52 Hirondelle à longue queue... ... 12 „ 

53 Tourterelles ... ... ... ... 9 „ 

54 Hirondelle à queue courte ... ... 6 ,, 

55 Etourneau blanc à ailes bronzées ... 6 ,, 

56 Régent 80 „ 

57 Perroquet strigops ... ... ... 300 „ 

58 Méléagre doré ... ... ... 900 „ 

59 Grèbe (peaux plates) ... ... 24 ,, 

60 Corbeau des Alpes ... ... ... 18 ,, 

61 Faisan argus... ... ... ... 100 ,, 

62 Lophophore . . . ... ... ... 120 ,, 

6$ Aigrette jaune (peaux plates) ... 36 ,, 

64 Couroucou de la Colombie .. ... 75 ,, 

65 Bécassines et pluviers ... ... 15 „ 

66 Oiseaux de proie assortis ... ... 30 ,, 

67 Orioles assortis ..'. ... ... 18 „ 

68 Pie grièches assortis... ... ... 12 „ 

69 Tangara rouge ... ... ... 15 ,, 

70 Etourneau à épaulette rouge ... 24 „ 

71 Etourneau du Mexique .' 24 „ 

72 Gobe mouche royal... ... ... 120 „ 

73 Gobe mouches assorties ... ... 12 „ 

74 Manakin à tête rouge ... ... 12 ,, 

75 à tête jaune ... ... 6 ,, 

76 — assortis ... ... ... 6 ,, 

77 Oiseaux divers assortis ... ... 6 „ 

78 Oiseau mouche vert-brillant (petit) ... 6 „ 

79 — — améthyste ... ... 12 ,, 

80 bleu (grand) ... 36 „ 

81 — vert (grand) ... 6 „ 

82 Rubis topaze... ... ••• ••• 12 „ 

83 Oiseau mouche à longue queue ... 24 ,, 

84 Oiseaux mouches mâles assortis 6 à 12 ,, 

85 — — femelles — 3 à 6 ., 
Nota. — Un escompte important sera fait aux acheteurs 

eu ;~iros. 



June i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



43 



iwnmtng 



Notes on Rare Species of Humming Birds 
and Descriptions of Several Supposed 
New Species in Boucard's Museum. 

By A. Boucard. 
Continued from page . 18 and 26. 



Hemistephania Johannae Bourc 
Doryphora Johannae Gould. 

Male. — Forehead, metallic blue, with violet reflec- 
tions ; upper surface, bronze green, golden on neck ; 
upper tail coverts, grayish blue ; tail, black with bluish 
hue ; under surface, glossy bluish black, greenish on 
the flanks ; undertail coverts, violet blue ; tail, bluish- 
black with grey tips ; bill, black. 

Length, 4^ ; wing, a| ; tail, i| ; bill, if. 

Habitat, Columbia, Guiana. 

Female. — Forehead, metallic green ; upper surface, 
bronze green, coppery on head and neck ; upper tail 
coverts, grayish blue ; tail, black, largely tipped with 
grey underneath ; under surface greenish grey ; bill, 
black. 

It is this bird which has been described under the 
name of D. euphrosinae by Messrs. Mulsant and 
Verreaux ; but having received a certain number of 
males and females from Columbia and Guiana I am 
perfectly satisfied that the name of H. euphrosinae 
must be considered as a synonym of H. Johannae. 

I have a pair of this species collected in British 
Guiana by Mr. H. Whitely ; the female has a golden 
grey under surface instead of greenish gray. It may 
be a question of age. 

Hemistephania Ludoviciae, Bourc and Muls. 

Male. — Forehead, metallic green ; crown and nape, 
coppery green ; back, golden green ; upper-tail coverts, 
bluish green ; tail, black ; under surface golden gray ; 
under-tail coverts, gray with bluish reflections ; tail, 
black, tipped with grey ; bill, black ; wings, purple. 
Total length, 4 J ; wing, 2\ ; tail, 1^ ; bill, i-|. 
Habitat, Columbia, Bolivia. 

Female. — Forehead, metallic gold ; upper surface 
exactly as the male ; under surface, more golden gray 
than in the male. 

A new species could be made with this bird in 
consequence of the colour of the forehead ; but I 
believe that they are only sexes, and the specimens 
which have no metallic frontal spot are only young 
individuals. It would be very interesting that com- 
petent naturalists should collect large series of both 
sexes of this species to elucidate the question of 
knowing if the two sexes have frontal spots. 

Among my specimens of this species, I have one 
from Merida (Venezuela), and another from Bolivia, 
collected by the late Buckley. They are exactly the 
same as the specimens from Columbia. Some have 
much longer bills than others, and are also larger in 



size 



Bellona Superba, n.sp. 
Male. — Forehead crest golden green, with the 
elongated feathers of crest bluish ; upper surface, dark 
grass green, darker on the back ; tail, purplish black ; 
throat, dark grey ; under surface, purplish black ; 
wings, steel black. 

Total length 3! ; wing if ; tail 1 ; bill \. 

Female. — Forehead, dark green ; upper surface, dark 
golden green, appearing black on neck ; chin, grey ; 
rest of under surface, dark grey, nearly black ; wing, 
purplish brown ; tail, purplish black ; bill and feet, 
black. 

Habitat, St. Vincent. 

I have a fine series of this new species, which 
differs considerably from Bellona cristata by the form 
of the crest, which is pointed as in B. exilis, and has 
not the deep blue colour of B. cristata. 
Lesbia, boliviana, n.sp. 

Male. — Upper surface, breast and flanks, golden 
green ; throat, metallic golden green ; wings, purplish 
brown ; vent, deep buff ; under tail coverts, buff, with 
a very narrow central band golden green ; tail, purple 
black ; the six central rectrices black at base, with half 
their apical metallic golden green ; the black is 
scarcely conspicuous, the two next purple black, with 
metallic golden tips, and the two outermost ones, 
purple black, with a scarcely visible golden tip, and 
the basal third of outer web rufous grey ; bill, black. 

Total length, 7f ; wing, 2^ ;tail, 5I ; bill, \. 

I have only one specimen of this fine species, 
collected in Bolivia by the late well-known collector, 
Buckley. 

The principal difference between this species and 
Lesbia nuna consists in its golden colour of the throat, 
and the general colour of the bird, which is golden 
instead of grass green. 



Description of a supposed New Species of 
Paradise Bird in Boucard's Museum. 

By A. Boucard. 



but none so large as H. rectirostris from 
Ecuador. If, contrary to my expectations, it should 
prove a different species, I propose the name of 
H. aurifrons for it. 



I have bought lately several specimens of Paradise 
Birds, which I took for Semioptera Wallacei ; but 
having compared these birds with the specimens 
which I have in my collection, specimens collected by 
Mr. Alfred Wallace in Batchian, I was agreeably 
surprised to see that they were quite different, and 
now I propose for that new species the name of 
Semioptera Gouldi, as a feeble homage to the memory 
of him, which I think will rank among the greatest 
Naturalists of the nineteenth centUiy. I have not the 
least doubt that if so many eminent Ornithologists 
exist actually in England, it is in great part due to 
the great impulse given by the late John Gould to the 
study of that special branch of Natural History, by 
the publication of so many splendid works, edited by 
him during his life. John Gould was not only an 
eminent naturalist, but also an incomparable artist, 
and his works will always rank among the best. Ht 
was such an enthusiastic ornithologist, that even at 
death's door he was hard at work at his favourite 
study, and we may say of him that he died of a noble 
death as a warrior in the field of battle. 
Semioptera Gouldi, n.sp. 
Male. — Forehead, glossy dark purple, with rosy 



44 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[June i, 1 89 1 



reflections, a dark, straight, rufous brown tuft over the 
bill ; lobes and cheeks of same colour, forming in part 
like a mosaic coronet round the forehead, all the rest 
of upper part dark brown ; wings and tail, pale brown, 
especially on external edges ; chin, rufous ; throat and 
breast, dark metallic green ; the ornamental feathers 
of breast reaching the legs, two ornamental feathers 
starting from the primaries, of nearly the same length 
as wing, very pale brown, nearly white ; lower part of 
breast and vent, dark brown at base, remainder 
metallic green ; flanks, abdomen and under-tail coverts, 
dark rufous ; legs and bill, fleshy colour. 
: Total length, n inches ; wing, 5f ; tail, 4 ; bill, i|. 

Female. — Forehead, dark brown, with glossy purple 
reflections, all the rest of upper and under part red- 
dish brown ; primaries and rectrices yellowish brown. 

Length, same as male. 

Habitat, one of the islands close to New Guinea ; 
but I have not been able to ascertain which. 

The principal difference between this species and 
S. Wallace's, lies in the colour of the forehead, in its 
general colour, which is of much darker brown, and 
in its smaller size. 



Poor Rate and General Rate Taxes in the 
Parishes of St. Giles in the Fields and 
St. George, Bloomsbury. 



I have just received Demand Note of Rates due 
and payable April 27th, 1891. 

From 109 my assessment has been increased to 
^134. I was so surprised at such increase that I 
went immediately to the Vestry Offices and inquired 
from Mr. Henry Hulford, the Collector of Rates for 
the said Parishes, the reason of such increase in my 
assessment. With his usual urbanity Mr. Henry 
Hulford told me that this was the result of the last 
assessment made for the parish. He asked me what 
was my rent, and after I told him he said it was quite 
right, as the assessment was based on the rent paid 
by leaseholders, that it was the law of the country, 
and that nothing could be done. 

I have to thank Mr. Henry Hulford for the infor- 
mation he gave me, but I must say that I am at a 
loss to know why the assessment is fixed on the rent 
paid, and not on the real value of the ground and 
premises. Everyone knows that some districts of 
London are increasing in value and others are 
decreasing. 

Well, I think the Parishes of St. Giles in the Fields 
and St. George is in the latter case for business 
purposes at least. It is not enough west for the 
custom of the rich and aristocratic families, and it is 
not enough east for the wholesale trade as carried in 
the City. All the rich families have emigrated far 
West, and South and West Kensington with Piccadilly 
and Regent Street are the London districts patronized 
by aristocracy. 

In these circumstances it seems than instead of 
increasing the assessments on properties situated in 
the Parishes of St. Giles in the Fields and St. George, 
it should have been the reverse. 

Now as to the manner of assessing. It is valued 
according to the rent actually paid by the leaseholder. 



The defects of this procedure can immediately 
be seen. 

If you have contracted a lease at a high rent, be- 
cause you have been made to believe that such part 
of London was capital for business, proportionally 
you have to pay very heavy taxes, meanwhile your 
neighbour, who has an old lease or has been more 
acute than yourself when letting will pay less than 
half the taxes than yourself. Is it just ? 

If on the contrary you have had the good luck to 
rent some premises at a nominal value, you will 
scarcely pay any taxes at all. I ask again : Is it just ? 

Undoubtedly there is something wrong here, and 
I say that assessments of rates ought to be made 
uniform for all, taking as basis the medium value of 
all the properties situated in the Parish, and not the 
actual rent paid by each householder, which is 
excessive for some and quite the reverse for others. 

I can guarantee that the reason of so many failures 
in business are due to the exhorbitant prices paid for 
rent and the excessive taxes following suit. 

If you start business with money of your own, after 
a few years struggle all is gone. On the other hand, 
if you work on credit, you get soon into debts, and 
the result is failure. Excepting the very few trades 
which deal in objects of first necessity, all the others 
earn scarcely enough to pay their rent, taxes and 
living, and after many years' struggles they are just in 
the same position as when they began, when not worse. 

I think it is quite time that the London County 
Council should exert itself in procuring the 
passage of a short Act regarding an equitable and 

UNIFORM BASIS OF ASSESSMENT. 

To be continued. 



THE PANAMA CANAL. 

Continued from pages 5, 12, 22, 30. 

Considering the Interoceanic Canal as one of the 
greatest industrial and scientific work of tbis Century 
and the completion of same as of the utmost interest 
to all Countries, I give below, as published by the 
well-known Petit Journal of Paris, M. Bonaparte 
Wyse's report on the success of his négociations 
with the Government of Columbia, for the proroga- 
tion of ten years, granted to the Liquidation of the 
Panama Co., to complete the Canal. 

Rapport de M. Bonaparte Wvse sur le 
Canal de Panama. 



Lettre à M. Monchicourt. 

Au mois de mars de l'année dernière, à peine 
nommé au poste qui vous a été confié par la justice, 
vous avez spontanément fait appel à mon concours 
dans le but d'essayer de relever l'affaire du Canal 
Interocéanique dont j'avais été l'initiateur et qui se 
trouvait fort gravement compromise par des fautes 
auxquelles j'étais resté étranger. 

La première phase du rôle que vous me proposâtes 
consistait à me charger de négociations d'ordre diplo- 
matique avec la Puissance Souveraine de l'Isthme de 
Panama et de recherches techniques supplémentaires 
sur le terrain traversé par le Bosphore artificiel Amé- 



June i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



45 



ricain dont l'exécution se trouvait si malheureuse- 
ment suspendue. 



Ayant eu assez de bonheur pour mener à très bon 
port, à Bogota et dans l'Isthme, les unes et les autres, 
il faut espérer que le même succès couronnera les 
démarches à tentei en Europe et aux Etats-Unis pour 
grouper les immenses intérêts en jeu. En substi- 
tuant des habitudes d'activité à celles qui semblent 
vouloir endormir pour quelques mois encore les 
bonnes volontés latentes, on peut arriver au sauvetage 
des capitaux engloutis à la légère et empêcher de 
péricliter définitivement, au grand dommage de 
l'amour-propre national, un des plus vastes projets de 
notre époque enfiévrée de progrès. Bien qu'il ne 
soit pas dans les attributions me concernant ici de 
m'occuper des mesures à prendre pour que ma réussite 
presque inattendue en Colombie ne demeure pas 
stérile, j'estime devoir déclarer que l'heure des résolu- 
tions viriles est venue, car je suis fermement convaincu 
que si des manœuvres souterraines, contre lesquelles 
il est temps de se prémunir, ne font pas échouer les 
combinaisons financières entrevues, l'infortuné public, 
en grande majorité fiançais, si éprouvé par l'ancienne 
affaire de Panama, pourra retrouver bientôt, par 
l'achèvement du canal américain, une notable partie 
de son épargne si étourdi ment dissipée. 

Paris, le 2 mars 1891. 

Lucien N. B. Wyse. 

NÉGOCIATIONS POUR OBTENIR LA PROROGATION DU 
CONTRAT SALGAR-WYSE DE 1878. 

Le contrat que j'avais signé à Bogota, en 1878, 
prévoyait bien dans certains cas une prorogation de 
six ans, et l'ancienne Compagnie du Canal Inter- 
océanique, qui avait succédé conditionnellement aux 
droits que je représentais alors, avait manœuvré 
si maladroitement que, bien qu'ayant fait constater 
d'une manière officielle l'exécution de plus du tiers 
du Canal, il n'y avait guère à compter sur la bonne 
volonté du Gouvernement Colombien. Il fallait 
par suite retourner l'opinion du pays en commençant 
par celle de son plus influent citoyen, S. E. M. le Dr. 
Rafael Nunez, président titulaire retiré depuis quelque 
temps à Carthagène, sa ville natale, pour des raisons 
de santé et de tactique politique. Je me rendis donc 
dans cette ancienne métropole des Indes Occiden- 
tales, accompagné de mon jeune fils et d'un autre 
secrétaire, M. Subitte. 

L'accueil que je reçus par ordre de M. Nunez fut 
du meilleur augure. Une canonnière de l'Etat, la 
Popa, vint me chercher à bord du paquebot la Moselle, 
qui avait fait escale spécialement pour moi devant les 
beaux remparts de la ville. Les voitures du Prési- 
dent en villégiature me conduisirent à une maison 
préparée à mon intention. Les entrevues que j'eus 
avec cet homme d'Etat furent très cordiales et je pus 
l'amener à diminuer les prétentions excessives pour 
concéder la prorogation qu'il avait fait exprimer à 
diverses reprises dans son journal El Porvenir, en 
lui prouvant que les Etats-Unis ne cherchaient pas à 
reprendre pour leur compte l'achèvement du Canal 
de Panama, en lui démontrant que les immeubles de la 
Compagnie en liquidation, revenant à la Colombie en 



cas de caducité, n'avaient de valeur que s'il y avait 
reprise des travaux et qu'enfin le matériel, comme 
tous les objets meubles, resteraient la propriété des 
créanciers-obligataires. 

Cédant malheureusement à des habitudes invé- 
térées dont il est difficile à son âme ondoyante de se 
départir, M. Nunez fit publier dans son journal des 
articles fort élogieux pour moi, assez modérés au 
point de vue des exigences gouvermentales, en même 
temps que d'autres où il éblouissait ses compatriotes 
en faisant miroiter à leurs yeux des centaines de 
millions devant revenir à la Colombie comme héritage 
de la Compagnie du Canal. Il donna des ordres 
personnels pour que toute la presse officieuse repro- 
duisit ses derniers articles et fit danser la même sara- 
bande alléchante, surtout devant ses concitoyens de 
l'intérieur de la République. 

Malgré la rapidité de mon voyage (dix jours), en 
remontant le Magdalena et en franchissant la Cordi- 
llère abrupte qui sépare ce large fleuve de la vaste 
savane élevée de 2,600 mètres où se trouve Bogota, 
malgré la bonne volonté et l'esprit éclairé de mon 
ami de vieille date, le président en exercice. S. E. M. 
le docteur Carlos Holguin, je ne tardai pas à ressentir 
l'influence du double courant qui avait fini par 
remonter des rivages de Carthagène aux hauts pla- 
teaux de Cundinamarca. Je dus perdre l'espoir, un 
instant caressé, d'obtenir par décret présidentiel, 
comme cela était à la rigueur possible, la prorogation 
de six années prévue au contrat. Il fallut me résigner 
à passer sous les fourches caudines du congrès, qui 
allait s'installer (20 juillet). 

Obéissant au mot d'ordre, la presse faisait assaut de 
prétentions exorbitantes. Je fus obligé dès lors et 
bien à contre-cœur, de faire abstraction de mes vives 
sympathies pour un pays où je compte de nombreux 
amis, qui m'a donné de grandes marques d'estime et 
que depuis longtemps je suis habitué à regarder 
comme ma seconde patrie. Je publiai un exposé 
aussi ferme et méthodique que possible de la situation, 
après quoi je répondis à l'avalanche de millions qu'on 
demandait en repoussant toute intention d'acheter la 
prorogation et en réclamant à mon tour environ six 
millions de piastres pour diverses indemnités aux- 
quelles je prétendais avoir droit ; une partie de cette 
réclamation, quoique inconnue du public et presque 
oubliée par le gouvernement, était d'ailleurs liquide 
et exigible immédiatement. 

Il est certain que M. Nunez, auquel on ne saurait 
nier un esprit fertile en ressources, une adresse con- 
sommée dans le maniement des partis et une connais- 
sance approfondie de son pays, fut d'abord favorable- 
ment impressionné par les conditions dont on lui 
faisait part, mais il eut le tort de ne pas vouloir 
paraître prendre la responsabilité d'en conseiller 
l'adoption. Cependant il doutait si peu du résultat 
qu'il prit la peine de vous faire télégraphier (1" sep- 
tembre), par l'entremise du général Aycardi, gouver- 
neur de Panama, et de M. Ordonez, consul général 
de Colombie à Paris, que l'affaire de la prorogation 
était réglée d'une façon équitable. Bien que ce fait 
ait été nié plus tard, il est néanmoins patent ; du reste, 
personne ne le mit sérieusement en doute. 



46 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[June i, 1 89 1 



Ne recevant d'autres réponses que de courtes 
phrases sybillines à double entente, les sénateurs, qui 
étaient moins avancés dans le vote de mon contrat 
que ne le croyait M. Nunez, n'osaient pas prendre une 
décision. Le président Holguin, qui seul connaissait 
bien la question, avait beau leur donner en privé 
toutes les explications imaginables, ils ne pouvaient 
se décider à sortir de l'atmosphère d'exagérations 
bizarres créés surtout par les articles de M. Nunez 
dans Le Porvenir et acceptées comme des oracles par 
tout le Parlement avec une déférente docilité vraiment 
surprenante. 

• •••■•••••a 

Cet étrange imbroglio menaçait de se prolonger 
indéfiniment et je pris dès lors la résolution hardie de 
le faire cesser en provoquant au besoin une crise qui 
n'était pas sans présenter quelque danger. Je me mis 
à agiter l'Isthme de Panama au moyen de dépêches 
un peu alarmantes destinées à secouer la léthargie du 
pays, d'ailleurs évidemment favorable à la reprise des 
travaux. Sans aucun doute, il faut attribuer mon 
succès définitif à ce que, me rendant compte rapide- 
ment de la situation exacte, je manœuvrai, en consé- 
quence, avec une décision frisant la témérité. 

Peu de jours après, et pour activer surtout le zèle 
très refroidi du ministre, je lui renouvelai sur papier 
timbré la demande de paiement des sommes exigibles 
dues sans conteste, et le chargé d'affaires de France, 
auquel j'avais écrit officiellement à ce sujet, voulut 
bien lui parler ensuite de ma réclamation. Je n'ai 
jamais cru qu'il soit bon de dissimuler son but ou sa 
personnalité derrière un écran, et j'ai pour principe 
que l'attaque est le meilleur des systèmes défensifs. 

Je réussis en effet à vaincre de la sorte l'inertie 
habituelle aux hommes des hauts plateaux, quitte à 
passer momentanément à leurs yeux pour un diplomate 
rude et anguleux. J'ai lieu de croire du reste, par les 
lettres officielles reçues depuis, que les procédés un 
peu cavaliers dont il m'a fallu user par nécessité me 
sont déjà pardonnes ; la grandeur du but poursuivi, 
l'ardeur de mon prosélytisme, qui contraste tellement 
avec la mollesse reprochée à d'autres individualités, 
leur a servi sans doute de justification et d'excuse. 
On paraît faire état en Colombie sur mon concours 
ultérieur à l'œuvre du canal, comme de mon côté je 
pense pouvoir compter sur l'estime des habitants de 
ce beau pays. 

Le 10 décembre au matin j'avais écarté tous dangers 
pour l'avoir des anciens intéressés de la Compagnie 
de Panama; le président Holguin lui-même, nonobstant 
sa bienveillance personnelle accoutumée, commençait 
à trouver ma résistance excessive et me menaça de 
dissoudre le Congrès le lendemain si je ne terminais 
pas promptement mon entente avec son gouvernement. 
J'avais tenu compte à l'avance de toutes les observa- 
tions que vous m'aviez fait parvenir antérieurement, 
et malgré la désinvolture avec laquelle je bataillais, je 
ne pouvais plus risquer de tout perdre pour une ques- 
tion de forme; aussi, bien que n'ayant pas de câble- 
gramme explicite de vous, je pris sur moi, selon l'avis 
pressant du chargé d'affaires de France et comme m'y 
autorisait d'ailleurs le. texte même de mes pouvoirs 
notariés, de signer enfin le traité débattu sans pro- 



longer davantage une situation très tendue et d'autant 
plus épineuse que le Congrès comptait à peine le 
nombre de membres exigé par la Constitution pour la 
validité des décisions. Je me trouvais par suite à la 
merci du moindre incident venant empêcher la pré- 
sence d'un député quelconque et du même coup 
rendre impossible le vote à émettre avant la réunion 
du nouveau Parlement qui n'a lieu que tous les deux 
ans. J'apposai donc ma griffe ledit jour à trois heures 
sur cet important document et le contrat Roldan- 
Wyse, heureux et indispensable complément de celui 
Salgar-Wyse, de 1878, fut envoyé séance tenante au 
Sénat. 

Les débats à la Chambre Haute furent prestement 
enlevés et, dès le 16 décembre, le contrat de proroga- 
tion passait sans modification à la Chambre des repré- 
sentants où le ministre Roldan, M. le docteur Amador, 
etc., eurent à le défendre contre les attaques inopinées 
et téméraires de certains députés froissés dans leur 
amour-propre de clocher, mais que leur origine et la 
volonté de leurs mandants devaient faire croire favora- 
bles au percement de l'Isthme colombien 

Le 20 décembre, la loi n° 107 était finalement votée 
en troisième débat à la Chambre sans changements 
d'aucune sorte. Je reçus d'universelles félicitations, 
même de la part de ceux qui, directement ou non, 
avaient été hostiles àTaffaire que je poursuivais. Les 
ministres étrangers, quelque peu étonnés du succès 
final, télégraphièrent chacun à leur gouvernement 
respectif les conditions excellentes que j'avais obtenues 
pour la prorogation. Ce ne fut pourtant que le 26 dé- 
cembre qu'elle put être soumise à l'approbation défini- 
tive du chef de l'Etat. L'exemplaire original de ladite 
loi (revêtue des sceaux de la nation, portant les signa- 
tures authentiques des présidents et secrétaires du 
Sénat et de la Chambre, approuvée par S. E. le prési- 
dent de la République et contresignée par le ministre 
des affaires étrangères), fut dûment légalisé par les 
chefs des diverses légations accréditées auprès du 
cabinet de Bogota. Il peut faire foi dans tous les pays. 

Certaines personnes, peu habituées aux choses 
hispano-américaines, s'étonneront peut-être que la 
Colombie ait manifesté des exigences pécuniaires pour 
permettre l'excavation, à travers son territoire, d'un 
Canal devant augmenter considérablement son 
influence parmi les Nations du monde ; mais il y a 
lieu de rappeler que le percement de l'Isthme de 
Panama lui imposera certaines charges nouvelles aux- 
quelles les finances assez obérées de cette jeune 
République ne sauraient faire face utilement sans 
compensations. D'ailleurs, au point de vue légal 
pur, il n'est pas douteux que le retard dans l'exécution 
des engagements de l'ancienne Compagnie donnait à 
la Nation le droit strict de stipuler certains dédom- 
magements peu soutenables, il est vrai, au point de 
vue chevaleresque des sentiments moraux. Il est 
fort probable que les choses ne se seraient pas passées 
ainsi si l'on avait eu la précaution de demander, en 
temps opportun, la prorogation prévue au contrat de 
1878. Alors que l'ancienne Compagnie était encore 
debout, l'obtention du second délai de six années eût 
été plus facile et moins onéreuse. On ne peut donc 
regretter que le manque de prévision de l'Adminis- 
tration si incohérente qui s'est effrondréeen décembre 



June i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



47 



1888 et se féliciter de n'avoir pas eu à promettre de 
payer plus cher pour essayer dé réparer ses déplo- 
rables erreurs. 



Les suffrages si exceptionnellement chaleureux 
qu'on a déjà prodigués dans l'isthme tout entier, 
depuis son arrivée à Colon et à Panama, à l'homme 
s'obstinant encore à vouloir marier les eaux de 
l'Atlantique à celles du Pacifique et qui aux yeux des 
populations de cette partie de l'Amérique après avoir 
été le chercheur opiniâtre du secret du d'étroit, appa- 
raît comme*un des derniers champions de cette idée 
grandiose, lui ont presque fait oublier toutes ses 
fatigues. L'accueil vraiment royal, le sympathique et 
cordial enthousiasme des personnes placées aux pre- 
mières loges pour se rendre bien compte des difficultés 
innombrables dont il a fallu triompher afin de per- 
mettre la terminaison de la colossale entreprise à 
laquelle j'ai dévoué tant d'années, est en effet, pour 
moi une des plus enviables récompenses. 

Je me déclarerai entièrement satisfait si mes efforts, 
secondés par l'opinion publique, servent à préparer la 
revanche si nécessaire à la bonne renommée française 
en secouant l'apathie préméditée de personnages que 
la lumière semble effrayer. Je n'ai pas qualité 
actuellement pour d'autre rôle, mais je suis persuadé 
que cela contribuera à hâter l'aurore du jour, à jamais 
mémorable, où les navires de toutes les nations mari- 
times pourront franchir l'étroite, mais rude barrière, 
que la nature interpose encore entre les deux vastes 
Océans baignant à la fois les côtes de très riches 
régions, imparfaitement développées, et celles des 
pays les plus avancés et les plus prospères du globe - 

Panama, le 21 janvier 1891. 

Études complémentaires techniques. 

Pendant que M. Wyse poursuivait les négociations 
avec le président et les ministres de Colombie, deux 
ingénieurs qu'il avait emmenés avec lui, MM. 
Jacquemin et Sosa, s'étaient mis à l'œuvre, sur place, 
aidés de tout le personnel de la liquidation dans 
l'isthme, pour procéder à des études complémentaires 
techniques. Les deux ingénieurs à qui M. Wyse avait 
confié ces études sont d'ailleurs deux personnalités 
d'un mérite éprouvé, possédant une expérience con- 
sommée du problème à résoudre ainsi que des diffi- 
cultés provenant des pays chauds et connaissant à 
fond l'isthme de Panama où ils avaient exécuté de 
grands travaux. 

• '•••■«••••g 

L'un d'eux, M. l'ingénieur P. J. Sosa, chevalier de 
la Légion d'honneur, avait été, avec M. le lieutenant 
de vaisseau Armand Reclus, notre infatigable com- 
pagnon d'exploration au milieu des dangers de la 
forêt vierge et le plus précieux des collaborateurs 
dans les expéditions que j'avais commandées pendant 
plusieurs années au Darien, à San Bias et à Panama ; 
il avait été ensuite chef du bureau technique de la 
Compagnie d'exécution du canal dans la période 
d'études, puis chargé de diverses entreprises locales. 

L'autre, M. l'ingénieur E. Jacquemin, sorti le 
premier de sa promotion de l'École centrale, avait 
complété sa brillante instruction professionnelle par 
la pratique acquise en Egypte, en Russie, etc., puis il 



avait installé avec un coup d'ceil magistral les vastes 
chantiers d'Emperador, de beaucoup les mieux 
organisés de l'isthme. 

Les observations de mes collaborateurs sont 
appuyées sur un volumineux dossier technique qui 
contient des documents absolument nouveaux. Cer- 
tains détails manquaient encore à la commission 
d'études lorsqu'elle publia, au mois de mai dernier, 
ses remarquables conclusions. Elle insistait d'ailleurs 
sur la nécessité de les obtenir pour fixer divers points. 
Les récentes recherches effectuées ont conduit à de 
légères modifications dans l'ensemble du projet et ont 
amené à constater des diminutions de cube qui ont 
eu pour résultat de concourir avec diverses simplifica- 
tions et le rabais de quelques prix unitaires d'applica- 
tion, à des économies assez notables sur le devis 
général. 

Les expériences sur le transport des déblais par 
l'eau courante, dues surtout à M. l'ingénieur Jac- 
quemin, permettent en outre d'espérer que le massif 
central pourra être enlevé en cinq ans, y compris la 
période d'installation. En comptant même six, il 
résulterait néanmoins de ce chef une nouvelle épargne 
sur les charges financières calculées pour une durée 
de huit ans, par suite de la réduction des intérêts 
intercalaires. 

Les appréciations de MM. les ingénieurs Jacquemin 
et Sosa au sujet du prix de revient pour l'achèvement 
du Canal de Panama dans des conditions très satis- 
faisantes se trouvent établies théoriquement dans le 
rapport ci-dessus, mais il faut remarquer en outre 
qu'elles s'appuient d'une manière indiscutable sur une 
longue pratique personnelle locale. Ils ont pu, en 
effet, en des circonstances cependant fort difficiles et 
qui vraisemblablement ne se reproduiront plus, 
réaliser des bénéfices en effectuant plusieurs millions 
de mètres cubes aux prix indiqués. Ils seraient prêts 
au besoin à soumissionner aux mêmes conditions. 
Aucun raisonnement, aucune autorité ne sauraient 
démontrer d'une façon plus péremptoire la justesse de 
leurs estimations. 

Les prévisions de la commission d'études dictées 
par une prudence excessive bien naturelle chez des 
hommes ne connaissant que superficiellement l'isthme 
américain, ont atteint, pour les terrains à exproprier, 
six fois la valeur du forfait que j'ai pu obtenir récem- 
ment d'un syndicat d'habitants de Panama et de 
Colon offrant toute garantie. La disproportion ne 
pouvait être aussi forte pour le prix des terrassements, 
elle diminue encore pour celui des ouvrages d'art ; à 
mesure que la compétence générale prend plus d'im- 
portance que l'expérience locale, l'écart est moins 
grand. Du reste, en conservant la marge si forte 
fixée par la commission pour les frais généraux, 
dépenses imprévues, intérêts, etc., (plus des deux tiers 
en sus du prix initial), on doit se considérer comme à 
l'abri de toute déception et foi entière peut être 
ajoutée au devis présentés pour les deux variantes 
proposées, dont une surtout qui offre des conditions, à 
mon sens, exceptionnellement avantageuses va 
m'occuper ci-après d'une manière plus spéciale. 

En effet, à la suite de mon nouveau séjour dans 
l'isthme, de l'étude et de la discussion du rapport 
précité, des résultats obtenus par les derniers sondages 



4 8 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[June i, 1 89 1 



et les recherches prescrites, des observations person- 
nelles faites derechef sur le terrain, je suis amené à 
recommander en première ligne la variante la plus 
brillante à la fois, avec un seul bief surélevé d'alimen- 
tation constitué au moyen d'un lac central artificiel 
unique d'environ 9,000 hectares d'étendue, à une 
altitude ne dépassant jamais la cote + 30, auquel 



on aurait accès par une échelle de trois écluses 
accolées, à double sas, réunies en un seul groupe sur 
chaque versant, l'un à Bohio-Soldado, l'autre à Pedro- 
Miguel. Les dispositions générales de ce projet de 
canal, qui se rapproche autant que possible du 
Bosphore à niveau, c'est-à-dire de l'idéal rêvé, sont 
résumées dans le tableau ci-après : 







Altitude des 




SE 










biefs par 




B 
œ> 


Hauteur 




Situation 


Numéros d'ordre 


Limite rapport au 


Lon- 





de 


OBSERVA- 


des 
biefs. 


des 
biefs. 


des 
biefs. 


niveau moyen 
der mers. 


gueur 

des 

biefs. 


CD 
SB 


chute 

des 

écluses géminées.' 

■ 


TIONS. 

• 


Minima. 


Maxima. 


ÇA 
CD 

en 




Versant 


1. Partie maritime 


Du k. 0,000 












Atlantique .. 




au 23,590 o m oo 


o m oo 


23 k. 590 




















i" 


8 m ] Echelle 
n m J- Altan- 
n m J tique. 


Quand le niveau 


Bief de par- 


2. Lac (bief supé- 


Duk. 24,350 








2 e 


du lac sera à 


tage 


rieur d'alimenta- 


au 59,100 


28,50 


30,00 


34k-7S° 


3 e 


la cote d'étiage 




tion servant à 














(28 111 50) les 




emmagasiner et 














écluses 3 et 4 




régulariser les 










4 e 


n ra ] Echelle 


fonctioneront 




crues). 










5 e 
6 e 


n m V Paci- 
De5àn m J fique. 


avec des chutes 
de 9 œ 5o seule- 


Versant Pa- 


3. Partie maritime 


Duk. 59,860 












ment. 


cifique ... 




au 75,000 


- 3>°° 


+ 3,°°' iS^A° 









La solution préconisée présente donc toute garantie 
au point de vue de la sécurité. Elle ressemble 
beaucoup à celle que M. l'Ingénieur en chef des ponts 
et chaussées de Lépinay appuya de son savoir profes- 
sionnel, dès 1879, en prenant pourbase nos travaux, à 
laquelle je m'associai dès lors comme au plus 
économique et au meilleur dénouement subsidiaire, 
que je défendis dans mes livres à diverses reprises et 
que j'envisageai, il y a déjà près de six ans, comme 
devant s'imposer fatalement au lieu du canal à niveau, 
d'ailleurs si désirable, par suite des dépenses exagérées 
faites par l'ancienne Compagnie, du temps inutilement 
perdu et des difficultés financières qui en étaient la 
conséquence. Quelques personnes, dont l'une surtout, 
sans même connaître le terrain, compensait son 
manque absolu d'autorité par une agitation tapageuse 
et une publicité de mauvais aloi, ont bien essayé 
d'accaparer la priorité de ces propositions et de s'en 
attribuer le mérite, mais il y a lieu de croire que bonne 
justice sera faite à cet égard par l'opinion publique 
et que l'antériorité de nos travaux sera reconnue, pro- 
clammée et reviendra à qui de droit. 

La réponse au problème est aujourd'hui plus com- 
plète, plus précise, les études de la commission et nos 
recherches complémentaires ayant permis d'écarter la 
plupart des inconnues qui subsistaient autrefois, jamais 
le projet de canal interocéanique n'a été étayé sur des 
bases aussi sérieuses. S'il reste encore des détails à 
fixer, rien n'empêchera de le faire en cours d'exécution, 
car si nous pouvons affirmer que la solution est 
possible au moyen des grandes lignes indiquées, 
nous ne saurions trop répéter que nous n'avons pas la 
prétention d'interdire les améliorations, surtout en ce 
qui concerne les barrages et déversoirs. 

Nous espérons même que pendant les deux 



premières années de l'attaque bien plus urgente du 
massif central de la Culebra, on aura tout le temps 
d'en introduire relativement au mode de construction 
et au meilleur emplacement de ces ouvrages d'art. 
Nous pensons avoir mis les choses au pis et nous 
sommes convaincus que l'avenir fera plutôt éprouver 
des surprises agréables que des déceptions. En 
d'autres termes, nous prétendons avoir résolu la 
question d'une manière très acceptable ; mais il peut 
y en avoir d'autres, encore plus satisfaisantes, que 
nous n'avons fait qu'entrevoir et dont la réalisation 
nous sourirait beaucoup, car elles se traduiraient par 
des économies sensibles et des progrès réels dans les 
détails de la variante que nous proposons. 

De même que nous estimons avoir quelque peu 
amélioré l'ensemble du projet, cependant si bien 
élaboré de la commission, il y a lieu de croire que 
des études poursuivies avec plus de temps et des 
moyens plus considérables que ceux dont nous 
disposions, pourraient amener des diminutions dans 
le devis et d'heureuses innovations dans les procédés 
à suivre et les difficultés à surmonter. 

En ce qui concerne les barrages, qui eux ne se- 
raient jamais couverts par la lame déversante, il est 
bon de rappeler que M. l'inspecteur général des 
ponts et chaussées Krantz est d'avis qu'en atteignant 
30 mètres de retenue, les barrages en remblai sont 
plus avantageux que ceux en maçonnerie. 

En outre, M. Wyse cite à l'appui de son dire 
diverses autorités et un grand nombre d'exemples 
déjà mis en pratique. 
• •• .»•••■ 

Les alluvions des eaux limoneuses du Chagres, 
très suffisantes pour colmater les remblais et assurer 



June i, 189 1] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



49 



leur étanchéité, n'auront qu'une importance minime 
sur la capacité de la réserve formée par les barrages. 
Ce fleuve, d'après diverses autorités, ne charrie pas 
plus de 40 grammes de matières terreuses par mètre 
cube et il n'en dépose guère que 30 environ. Le 
débit annuel étant approximativement de 2 milliards 
de mètres cubes, le dépôt sédimentaire ne dépassera 
pas 60,000 tonnes par an qui, à raison de 1.70 de 
densité moyenne correspondent à 35 ou 36,000 
mètres cubes. En admettant même une proportion 
décuple des troubles charriés, il faudrait donc plusi- 
eurs siècles pour que la diminution de la contenance 
du lac artificiel devint pratiquement appréciable et 
de ce chef encore il n'y a aucune - crainte à conce- 
voir. 

L'emplacement choisi pour grouper les trois écluses 
sur chaque versant présente toutes les facilités dési- 
rables, comme les dernières recherches l'ont surabon- 
damment prouvé. Le sol de fondation, pour les 
écluses extrêmes, y est en moyenne préférable à celui 
de Pena-Blanca et de Miraflores. La suppression de 
deux biefs très courts est un avantage marqué au 
point de vue de la navigation et de la manœuvre. La 
réunion, en un seul chantier, des ouvrages d'art à 
construire ne peut que rendre la surveillance plus 
efficace et moins coûteuse. En outre, du côté Paci- 
fique surtout, cela diminuera assez sensiblement la 
longueur de la déviation du Panama Rail Road. 

Il s'agit, on le voit, d'un canal à six écluses avec 
un lac central artificiel unique, déjà préconisé en 1879 
et 1886 par M. Wyse comme la meilleure des solu- 
tions subsidiaires pouvant donner toutes satisfactions 
tant pour les facilités du trafic que pour l'économie de 
l'ensemble du projet. 

Quant au programme de réorganisation des tra- 
vaux, voici ce que dit M. Wyse : 

Nous pensons que pendant la première année on 
devrait : 1 réparer le matériel à utiliser et les instal- 
lations existantes ; 2 attaquer la partie supérieure de 
la grande tranchée, faire les puits, creuser le tunnel et 
préparer la pose de la conduite pour le transport des 
déblais ; 3 continuer les études définitives détaillées 
pour les ouvrages d'art : 4 enfin et surtout exécuter 
les travaux d'assainissement et d'aménagement néces- 
saires pour empêcher les dommages occasionnées par 
les eaux dans les parties déjà excavées. 

Pendant la seconde année on devrait : 1 approfondir 
les travaux d'excavation de la Culebra ; 2 draguer 
l'extrémité Atlantique du canal et enlever, du côté 
Pacifique, le seuil restant encore vers le kilomètre 
63,500 ; 3 relever de 5 mètres le plan d'eau du 
Chagres dans le cas où l'on croirait utile d'installer, 
pendant la saison sèche, les pompes de refoulement, 
établir les conduites d'alimentation, achever d'in- 
staller celle d'évacuation et commencer à la faire fonc- 
tionner. 

La première année comportera une dépense d'en- 
viron 30 millions de francs ; il faut prévoir le double 
pour la seconde. C'est seulement alors, et une fois 
toutes les inconnues dégagées, qu'on pourra donner 
une organisation efficace et permanente aux travaux. 
Vers cette époque, le crédit de la nouvelle Compa- 
gnie sera sans doute entièrement rétabli, et il sera 



plus facile, par suite, d'obtenir à un taux modéré 
les capitaux indispensables à la terminaison de 
l'œuvre. 

Les années suivantes devront être consacrées à 
l'enlèvement du massif central et à la construction des 
écluses, barrages et déversoirs. Si rien ne vient 
retarder d'une façon malencontreuse la marche des 
travaux, il est probable que cinq ans suffiront au 
percement de l'isthme américain. Quant aux dépenses, 
elles suivraient vraisemblablement, dans ce cas, une 
progression annuelle assez régulière de 30 millions. 

Le métré avec plafond du canal à la cote 20 a été 
calculé de profil en profil avec l'approximation 
accoutumée, mais pour ne pas affecter une rigueur un 
peu exagérée quand il s'agit de pareilles masses à 
remuer, je n'ai voulu tenir compte que des milliers de 
mètres cubes en forçant toujours à l'unité immédiate- 
ment supérieure. Les divisions en trois biefs et les 
subdivisions de ceux-ci suivant la nature des terrains 
ont été ramenées aux profils dressés à Panama et 
vérifiés avec. le plus grand soin à diverses reprises. 

L'ensemble des terrassements (environ 42 millions 
de mètres cubes) correspondent à 210 millions de 
francs, les ouvrages d'art et autres accessoires compor- 
tent une dépense de 132 millions, les sommes à valoir, 
imprévus, divers, etc. (20 0/0 des travaux prévus), 
68,400,000, les frais généraux (10 0/0) 34,200,000, 
enfin les forfaits pour expropriations et pour indemni- 
tés au gouvernement colombien ensemble 20 millions, 
en tout 464,600,000 francs auxquels il convient 
d'ajouter, ainsi que l'indique la commission avec sa 
prudence habituelle, 29 0/0 pour les charges financi- 
ères (frais d'émission, intérêts), c'est-à-dire près de 136 
millions, ce qui forme un total de 599,334,000 francs, 
soit 600 millions en nombres ronds. 

Et alors M. Wyse donne le devis détaillé et général 
des ouvrages et des dépenses établi après quatre véri- 
fications minutieuses, que nous pouvons résumer 
ainsi : 

Total des terrassements : 42 millions de mètres 
cubes au prix moyen de 5 francs le 
mètre, soit Fr. 210.000.000 

Dépenses des ouvrages d'art 119.000.000 

Déviation du chemin de fer 1 2.000.000 

Eclairage électrique 1 .000.000 

Prévisions de la commission 
d'études pour imprévus et frais géné- 
raux (30 0/0 du total des travaux) ... 102.000.000 

Expropriations d'après forfait con- 
venu etarrêté 6.000.000 

Contrat du gouvernement colom- 
bien et subsides militaires 14.000.000 

(Frais d'émission] 
5 °/° ( I 34-734-ôoo 

Intérêts 24 0/0 J 

Soit en arrondissant Fr. 600.000.000 

600 millions : tel est le capital maximum reconnu 
aujourd'hui nécessaire pour l'achèvement si désirable 
du Canal interocéanique afin de créer à travers 
l'isthme de Panama, par la submersion partielle des 
vallées du Chagres et du Rio-Grande, une voie 



-5° 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[fune i, 1891. 



offrant pleine sécurité aux navires et capable de 
desservir un trafic très rémunérateur. 

Et M. Wyse conclut ainsi son rapport : 

La durée du transit sera de seize heures environ, 
dont moitié pour franchir les deux échelles d'écluses. 
Le lac artificiel formera, dans d'admirables conditions 
à tous les points de vue, un port intérieur où l'on 
pourra naviguer à grande vitesse, ce qui fera regagner 
en partie le temps nécessaire au passage des deux 
escaliers hydrauliques. Ce sera un véritable bassin à 
flot de vaste dimension dont l'accès, par une échelle 
de Neptune monumentale, ne sera guère plus difficile 
que celui de la plupart des ports à marée fréquentés 
par le commerce universel. 

Les navires auront près de douze heures à rester 
immergés dans l'eau parfaitement douce des écluses 
et du lac au grand profit de la propreté de leur 
carène et par suite de leur marche ultérieure ; ceux à 
vapeur trouveront des facilités spéciales pour le 
nettoyage des tubes de chaudières incrustés de dépôts 
salins à la suite d'une navigation maritime prolongée 
ainsi que pour le remplissage de leurs appareils géné- 
rateurs, de tous leurs réservoirs, etc., avec l'eau 
d'excellente qualité provenant du lac créé. Ce 
seraient là des avantages sérieux, fort appréciés de 
tous les marins et de nature à compenser le retard de 
quelques heures imposé par l'ascension du bâtiment 
à une côte d'altitude d'ailleurs très modérée. 

Plus tard, on complétera, au fur et à mesure des 
besoins, certaines améliorations susceptibles d'ajourne- 
ment au premier rang desquelles il faut compter 
l'outillage des ports de Colon et de Panama et de 
quelques autres ouvrages d'importance secondaire 
dont l'exploitation révélera sans doute l'utilité et qui 
d'ailleurs constitueraient alors une source de profits 
non négligeables. Par les considérations sommaires 
qui précèdent, on peut donc espérer qu'on aura, 
avant la fin de ce siècle, un revenu suffisant pour 
assuser des bénéfices raisonnables à la nouvelle 
Société d'achèvement, tout en prélevant une part 
proportionnelle progressive pour être distribuée aux 
anciens intéressés afin de les indemniser, dans la 
mesure du possible, des sacrifices qu'ils ont faits et de 
leur apport constitutif si utile. 

Si la primitive affaire de Panama a donné des 
déboires, il ne peut être douteux, pour les esprits 
réfléchis, que la seconde, profitant des écoles 
commises, sera des plus brillantes pour les capitaux 
qui oseront s'y engager. C'est du reste généralement 
le cas dans les entreprises de très grande envergure : 
là où les pionniers subissent des déceptions, les 
ouvriers de la douzième heure récoltent avec aisance 
des fruits abondants, justifiant ainsi cette parole de 
l'Evangile : Les derniers seront les premiers. 

La situation de l'isthme a notablement changé. 
Panama, les villages de la ligne et Christophe-Colomb 
ont fait de grands progrès. La région, beaucoup 
plus cultivée qu'autrefois, s'est assainie ; les déboise- 
ments nombreux, les constructions nouvelles, 
l'assèchement des marais exercent une heureuse 
influence sur le climat et ces faits ont une importance 
incontestable. 



A peine l'eau potable sera-t-elle répandue avec 
moins de parcimonie que la ville de Panama gagnera 
encore énormément au point de vue hygiénique, et ■ 
deviendra, entre toutes les localités avoisinantes, une 
des plus agréables à habiter. Quant à celle de 
Colon- Aspinwal, elle se relèvera bientôt de l'incendie 
qui l'a dévorée en partie en septembre 1890. Les 
personnes bien informées ne contestent plus que la 
santé publique n'y soit notablement améliorée, surtout 
depuis la catastrophe de 1885, qui a forcé ses édiles 
à de si indispensables et heureux perfectionnements. 

Je m'associe entièrement aux conclusions émises 
dans le remarquable rapport technique de la com- 
mission d'études, en ce qui concerne la nécessité 
d'une direction unique et le danger que présentent les 
grandes entreprises. La future administration doit 
être soucieuse d'esquiver le retour des fautes anté- 
rieures, elle doit, elle peut : i° profiter de l'expérience 
du passé ; 2" éviter l'imprévoyance fatale qui, au point 
de vue financier surtout, a amené tant de gaspillages 
de tous genres ; 3" se débarrasser des influences 
néfastes qui ont si lourdement pesé sur l'ancienne 
Compagnie ; 4 se servir par contre du petit nombre 
d'hommes éprouvés moralement et physiquement qui 
ont résisté avec énergie au climat de l'isthme et qui 
ont su se montrer à la hauteur de leur tâche ; 5 suivre 
systématiquement l'ordre d'exécution des travaux 
imposés par la nature des lieux, en écartant toutes les 
mauvaises chances pour ceux moins urgents et plus 
délicats, au moyen d'études de détails bien menées ; 
6° enfin avoir toujours présent à l'esprit qu'un effort 
aussi gigantesque doit être constamment conduit avec 
une vigilante sagesse n'excluant pas cependant l'audace 
des conceptions ou l'adoption des méthodes pro- 



gressistes. 



Or, malgré l'expérience si chèrement payée, c'est là 
que gît la véritable difficulté, car pour faire marcher 
une pareille entreprise, il faut surtout savoir diriger, 
c'est-à-dire prévoir, et ils sont peu nombreux ceux qui 
auront les connaissances spéciales voulues, la pratique 
suffisante des hommes, des localités et des choses 
ainsi que la vigueur de corps et d'esprit permettant 
d'embrasser d'un coup d'œil clair l'ensemble de cette 
œuvre prodigieuse, honneur de notre époque, et que 
le dix-neuvième siècle expirant jettera avec orgueil 
aux générations futures comme le plus bel exemple 
de vitalité que garde encore notre vieille race lors- 
qu'elle est soutenue par une pensée humanitaire 
généreuse, basée sur une idée juste, féconde, utile et 
destinée à coup sûr aujourd'hui à devenir éminem- 
ment productive. 

En mer, le 18 février 1891. 

Lucien N. B. Wyse. 



I heartily congratulate Mr. Lucien N. B. Wyse, for 
the success of his Negotiations with the Colombian 
Government and I hope that Mr. A. Monchicourt 
will be as successful in coming to terms with a new 
Company, willing to undertake the termination of the 
Canal, and will do his utmost in favour of the 
hundreds of thousands of the original Share and 
Bond Holders. 

The Editor. 



June i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



Books received. 

Annual Reports of the Fruit Growers' Association 
and Entomological Society of Ontario, 1890. The first 
part of this very interesting Volume contains reports 
on all the fruits grown in Canada and how to make 
money with them. The second part contains a 
quantity of woodcuts representing many Insects 
injurious to Agriculture and how to get rid of them. 

The Antigua Observer, two copies of No. 15, 1891. 

The Canadian Entomologist, April 1891. 

The Kansas City Scientist, April 1891. 

Les O donates du Japon par Mr. de Selys Longchamps. 
Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania regioni vicine, 
Odonates, par M. de Selys Longchamps. Two very 
interesting pamphlets on Dragon Flies. 

Aotice bibliographique de M. Earn, de Selys Long- 
champs, Membre de F Académie royale des Sciences de 
Belgique. 

Extrait de la Bibliographie académique. In this 
extract we can see that the venerable zoologist, Baron 
de Selys Longchamps, during the space of 56 years, 
1831 — 1886, has published 214 pamphlets on Birds, 
Mammals, and Insect:-, containing a very large 
quantity of descriptions of new species and very 
interesting notes on many. Baron de Selys Long- 
champs, now in his 78th year, is still working like a 
young man, and I hope that he will be able to do so 
yet for a long time. 

With thanks, 

The Editor. 



TO ETHNOLOGISTS AND OTHERS 



FOR SALE. 

Twenty finely carved Ar ows and 1 Bow from New Guinea 

Price 20s. 

African Ehinoceros War Club Price 30s. 

Three distinct Zulu War Clubs, made of iron wood and very 
nicely carved Price 30s. each. 

Pagaie from New Guinea, made of palm tree Price 30s. 

Magnificent Gold Antiquity from Panama, representing what 
appears to be Musicians, two large figures in the centre and 
six small ones round. It weighs 6 oz. 187 grammes. It is 
quite unique, and no Museum in the world possesses anything 
like it Price £50. 

A great -variety of American Antiquities, chiefly from Central 
America, in hardstone, agathe, Idols, Vases, etc. from 5s. 

Modern pottery from Mexico and Central America 

from 6d. 
Statuettes representing the Indians of Mexico and Guatemala 

from 3s. 
Hats, Baskets, Mats and vaiious Objects made with palm 
leaves and various textile plants, from Central America, Mada- 
gascar, New Guinea, etc. from 6d. 

Samples of Textile Fibres, Seeds, Gums, Resins, Medicinal 
Plan's, Ac. from Mexico and Central America from 6d. 

Old and Modern Coins from Mexico from Is. 

Etc., etc., etc. 

STANDS, SEW STYLE. 

Wholesale Price. 
No. 1 for Humming birds and Small birds at 20s. per hundred 
,, 2 ,, Small birds up to Tanagers at 24s. ,, 

,, 3 ,, Tanagers up to Magpies at 28s. ,, 

,, 4 ,, Magpies up to Cross or Small 

Hawks at 32s. „ 

„ 5 ,, Small Hawks to Large Hawks 

and Owls at 40s. „ 



TO BOOKSELLERS AND OTHERS. 



Boucttrd. Catologus Avium, English or French preface, Syste- 
matic Classification of Birds, 8s. instead of 12s. 

Catalogue of Birds, published by the British Museum. 

Vol. 1 to 6 inclusive. The first three Volumes are out of 
print. Price £10. 

Hand List of Birds, Gray, published by the British Museum. 
3 vol. Svo. Price 25s. 

Guide pour collecter, préparer et expédier des Collections 
d'histoire naturelle. ls. 

Guia para colectar, conservai' y despaehar Coleeciones de 
hist or ia natural. Is. 

Petit Atlas d'Ornithologie ou Collection choisie d'Oiseaux 
les plus co:mus, dessinés d'après nature par Martinet, 
Paris, 1784. 
1 Vol. grand in folio, in magnificent condition. Contents : 

■Çpître à Burton, Tableau général du classement des Oiseaux 

livisés d'après Buiïon en neuf Ordres et cent un Genres ou 

familles. 150 splendid coloured plates par Martinet. Exceed- 
ingly rare. £50. 

America, by John Ogilby Esq., London, 1671. Grand in folio, 
675 pages. 12 L soleniid Engravings and Maps. £30. 

Siistoria de in Conqnista de Mexico, etc., by Don Antonio Solis/ 
P-ruise'aP, 1741. 

1 Vol. in folio, 276 pages, 13 Engravings and Mars. Pages 
1 to 9 slightly stained. £20. 

Historia General de las Cosas de Nueva Es aua, by Rev. 
Bernardino de Sahaguc, con notas y suplemento-', por 
Carlos Maria de Bust tmante, Mexico, 1829. 4 vols, in 
4to., uncut. £5. 

Htstoria de las Conquistas de Hernando Cortez, por Francisco 
Lopez de Gomara, con varias notas y addiciones, por Carlos 
Maria de Bustamante, Mexico, 1820. 1 vol. in 4to, 315 pp. 

£2. 

ïezcoco en los nltinios tiempos de sus antiguos Rêves. 
Tornada de los manuscrites ineditos de Boturini y redac- 
tados por el Lie. Mariano Veytia, Mexico, 1826. 1 vol- 
16mo, 276 pages. £2. 

^atecismo y Deelaracion de la Doctrina Christiana en lengua 
OTOMI, con un Vocabulario del mismo idioma, por el 
B P. Joaquin Lopez Yepes, Mexico, 1826. 1 Vol. in 4to, 
254 pages. £4. 

D. R. Kampuysens Stichtelyke Rymen, by M. Mathieu, Rot- 
terdam, 1688. 1 Vol. in 8vo., 680 pages. £2. 

Clara y Sucinta Exposicion del pequeno Catecismo impreso 
en el idiouia MÊXICANO, por un Sacerdote devoto de la 
Madré santissiœa de la Luz, etc. 

Puebla, 1819- 1 Vol., 67 double pages, one side in Mexican, 
the other in Spanish. - £2 10 

Various Calendarios Mexicanos, 1830 to 1860. 2i. each. 



ARTIFICIAL EYES. 



Wholesale Price. 



Black Coloured 



Cornered 



Cornered 



& Veined 

per gross per aoz. pairs per doz. pairs 

No. 1 to 4 6d. ls. 6d. No. 4 to 6 3s. 6d. 4s. 6d. 

,, 5 ,, 8 8d. 2s. 6d. ,, 7 ,, 8 5s. 0d. 6s. Od. 

,, 9„101s.0d. 4s. Od. ,, 9 6s. Od. 8s- Od. 

„ 11 2s. Od. 5s. 6d. ,, 10 7s. Od. 9s. Od. 

„ 12 2s. 3d. 7s. Od. „ 11 8s. Od. 10s. Od. 

„ 13 2s. 6d. 10s. Od. „ 12 9s. Od. lis. Od. 

doz. of pairs 
„ 14 3s. Od. ls. 6d. „ 13 10s. Od. 12s. Od. 

„ 15 3s. 6d. 2s. 6d. „ 14 lis. Od. los. Od. 

„ 16 4s. Od. 2s. 6d. ,, 15 13s- Od. 15s. Od. 

,, 17 8s. Od. 3s. Od. Larger sizes can be made 

„ 18 12s. Od. 4s. Od. to ordrr. 

Nr. 1 to 4 are good for humming birds and others up to 
the size of Tanagers. 

No. 5 to 8 Tanagers to Magpies. 

No. 9 to 10 Magpies to Gulls, 

No. 11 to 12 Pheasants, etc. 

No. 13 to 18 Hawks, Owls, Herons, etc. 



VI 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



June i, 1891] 



List of 



stuffed 
Sale. 



Birds for 



Tinamus major, G. 

Crypturus variegatus, G. 

Otis tarda, L. [cited in Vieillot 

works) 
— Tetrax, L. ... 
Eupodoiis denhami , C. ... 
Sypheotis bengalensis, M. 

Afrotis afra, G 

Sypheotides macqueeni, G. ... 
Cariama Cristata L. ... 
Psophia crepitans, L. ... 
Chauna chavaria, L. . . . 
Opisthocomus cristatus, L. ... 
Penelope obscura, V. . . . 
Ortalida motmot, L. 
Oreophasis derbiana, G. R. G. 
Crax alector, L. 
Pqlypleefron chincquis 
Phasianus colchicus, L. 

— torquatus T. 
Chrysolophus pictus, male ... 

— — female . . . 

— amherstiae, male ... 

— — female ... 
Acomus erythropthalmus, R. . . 
Gallus sonnerati, T. ... 
Creagrius varius, S. ... 
Ceriornis satyra, E. male 
Meleagris americana, B. 

ocellata, C. .... 
Tantalus ibis, L. 

— religiosus, L. 
Ibis rubra, L. ... 

— falcinellus, L. 
Carphibis spinicollis. J. 
Hagedashia bishagedash, L. . . . 

— chalcoptera, Vieill, typical. . . 
Theristicus albicollis „ 
Dromas ardeola, P. ... 
Ardea cinerea L. 

— melanocephala, V. 

— major, L. 

— purpurea, L. ... 
Herodias egretta, G. ... 

— garzetta, L. ... 

— pealei, B. ... 
Florida ccerulea, L. ... 

— tricolor, M. ... 
Agamia agami, G. 
Bubulcus ibis, H. 

— speciosus, India 
Ardeola comata, P. ... 
Ardetta minuta, L. 

— exilis, L. 

— scapularis 
Zebrilus undulatus, G. 

— philippensis ... 
Butorides virescens, L. 
Botaurus stellaris, L. ... 

— lentiginosus ... 
Tigrisoma brasiliense, L. 

— tigrinum, G. 



s. 

3° 
15 

100 
10 

200 

5° 

5° 
40 

1 00 

3° 
80 

30 

3° 
20 

1 00 

50 
40 
20 
20 
20 

50 

20 

16 

20 
20 
20 

80 

IOO 

2 5 
2 

12 

10 

5° 
25 
5° 
5° 
20 

12 

12 
12 
12 

12 
12 
12 
12 
20 
20 
10 

8 
10 

6 



8 

10 
12 
12 
12 
12 



Nyctiardea europea, S. 

— ardeola 
Nyctherodius violaceus* L. ... 
Pilherodius pileatus, B. 
Scopus umbretta, G. ... 
Canchroma cocklearia, L. 
Ciconia alba, B. 

— maguari, G. . . . 
Menanopelargus nigra, L. 
Xenorhynchus indica, L. 
Leptoptilos crumeniferus, C. ... 
Cranopelargus javanicus, H. ... 
Platalea leucorodia, L. 

— ajaja, L. 
Grus cinerea, B. 

— antigone, male 

— leucogeranus, P. 
Anthropoides virgo, L. 
Balearica pavonina, L. 
Phœnicopterus antiquorum, T. 
Phoenicorodias ruber, L. 
Sarkidiornis melanonotus, P. . 
Plectropterus gambensis, L. ... 
Anser segetum, G. 

— brachyrynchus, B. 

— albifrons, G. 
Manlochen erythropus L. 

— minutus 
Chen hyperboreus, Pall. 
Branta bemicla, L. 
Chlamidochen jubata, L. 
Leucopareia leucopsis, B. 
Rufibrenta ntficollis, P. 
Chloephaga magellanica, G. ... 
Bemicla leucoptera, G. 
Nettapus madasgariensis G. ... 

— coromandelicus, L. ... 
Cygnus olor, G. 

— nigricollis, G. 

— musicus, B. ... 

— minor, P. 
Chenopis atratus, L. ... 
Dendrocygna arcuata, C. 

major J. 

viduata, L. 

autumnalis, L. 
— mexicana, L. 
Tadorna cornuta, G. ... 
Casarca rutila, G. 
Aix sponsa, L. 

— galericulata, L. 
Mareca penelope, L. ... 

— ! americana, G. 

— chiloensis, K.... 
Dafila acuta, L. 
Poeciloneta bahamensis, L. ... 
Anas boschas, L. 

— cristata, G. 

— gloscitans, P. 
Querquedula cœruleata, L. ... 

■ — discors, L. 

fa leaf a, G. {type.) 
Nethon crecca, L. 
torquata, V. {type.) 
formosa, G.... 



s. 
IO 




s. 


IO 


Chaulelasmus strepera, L. ... 


1 


IO 


— marmoratus, T. 


10 


12 


Marmonetta angustirostris, M. 


12 


12 


Spatula clypeata, L. ... 


10 


20 


Fuligula rufina, V. 


16 


40 


Fulix rufitorques, B. ... 


16 


5° 


— marila, L. 


10 


5° 


— affinis, E. {Labrador?) ... 


5° 


3° 


Aythya ferina, L. 


10 


80 


— nyroca, G. 


8 


80 


Bucephala barowi, D. 


5° 


20 


— clangula, L. 


10 


12 


— albeola, L. 


10 


40 


— histrionica, L. 


5° 


60 


Harelda glacialis, L. ... 


12 


80 


Stelleria dispar, S. 


5° 


60 


Somateria inollissima L, 


5° 


80 


— spectabilis, L. 


60 


5° 


Oidemia nigra, L. 


IO 


40 


Pelionetta perspicillata, L. 


40 


40 


Melanitta fusca, L. 


3° 


5° 


Erismatura leucocephala, S. . . . 


10 


20 


Mergus serrator, L. ... 


15 


25 


— merganser, L, 


16 


5° 


Lophodytes cucullata, L. 


20 


20 


Mergellus albicollis, L. 


20 


20 


Colymbus glacialis, L. 


20 


80 


— articus, L. 


40 


20 


— septentrionalis, L. .. 


20 


20 


Podiceps cristatus, L. . . . 


10 


20 


rubricollis, L. 


8 


IOO 


Dytes auritus, L. 


8 


40 


— cornutus, G. 


10 


5o 


Proctopus nigricollis, S. 


12 


12 


Rollandia leucotis, C. 


12 


10 


Sylbeocyclus minor, L. 


5 


5° 


Podiceps carolinensis, L. 


8 


5° 


Mormon fratercula, C. 


16 


5° 


— grabae, B, 


12 


5o 


— glacialis, L. ... 


20 


60 


Utamania torda, L. 


12 


10 


Cheniscus cirrhatus, G. 


25 


10 


Simorhynchus cristatellus, P. 


12 


10 


Phaleris nodirostris, P 


20 


10 


Spheniscus chrysocomus, T. 


50 


IO 


Aptenodytes patagonica, P. 


IOO 


15 


Brachyramphus antiquus, L. ... 


16 


10 


Uria grylle, L. 


6 


12 


— troile, L. ... 


10 


12 


— brunicki, L. 


20 


12 


— lachrymans, L. ... 


16 


12 


Artica aile, L 


6 


20 


Puffinus major, F. 


10 


12 


— fuliginosus, S. 


8 


l6 


— anglorum, C. 


10 


IO 


obscurus, G. 


20 


l6 


— cinereus, S. ... 


12 


5° 


— yelcuanus, A. 


30 


6 


Procellaria pelasgica, L. 


10 


S 


— leucorhoa G. 


IS 


100 


Pelagodroma fregata, L. 


5° 


8 


Fulmarus glacialis, L 


3° 


5o 


Cookilaria cooki, G.R. Gr. ... 


3° 


50 


Daption capensis, L. 


12 



June i, 1 891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



vu 



List of Stuffed Birds for 



Sale. — ( Continued.) 
Prion magnirostris, G. 
Diomedea exulans, L. 
Thalassarche chlororhynchas, 

G 

Stercorarius parasiticus, L. ... 
Coprotheres pomarinus, T. . ., 
Megalesthris catarractes, L. ... 
Larus maximus, L. 

— peyreaudi Vieill, 

— tenuirostris, C. ... 

— cirrhocephalus, V. 
(typical sp.) 

— canus, V. 

— flavipes, M. 

— Richardsoni, \V. 

— bonapartei, S. ... 
Gabianus pacificus, L. . ... 



Mi.'i.nnus, L. 



Clupeilarus fuscus, L. 
Leucus glaucus, B. ... 

— leucopterus, F. 
Laroides michaelis, B, 
Adelarus leucopthalm "\. -. , 

— icthyaetus, F. 
Chroicocephalus ridibundus, L. 

— capistratus, T. 
Atricilla atricilla, L. 
Melagavia melanocephala, N. 
Hydrocoloeus minutus, P. ... 
Pagophla eburnea, G. 
Rissa tridactyla, L. 
Sterna hirundo, L. ... 

— lactea, alba V. 

— leucopareia, N. 

— nigra, S. 

— dougalli, M. ... 
Gelichelidon anglica, Mont. ... 
Actochelidon cantiaca, G. 

— affinis, R. ... 

— arctica, A. ... 
Thalasseus caspiae, P 
'■'-,'., — bergi, L. 
Sternula minuta, L. ... 
Hydrochelidon fissipes, L. ... 

— fuliginosa, G. 
Anous stolidus, L. 
Naenia inca, L. 
Rhyncops nigra, L. ... 
Phaeton aethereus, L. 

— phœnicurus, G. 

— candidus, G. 
Plotus anhinga, L. 

— levaillanti, L. 
Carbo cormoranus, M. 

— sp. N. Zealand ... 

— Desmaresti, P. 

— albicollis, 

— gaymardi, L. 

— cristatus, F. (Island) 
Pelecanusonocrotalus, L. 

— crispus, B. ... 
Atagen aquila, L 
Polyborides radiatus, S. 



s. 
200 
100 

80 
20 

25 
10 

20 

20 

15 

20 
12 
1 2 
16 
20 

3° 

20 

20 

3° 
25 
16 

25 

5° 
8 

10 

8 

20 

20 

5° 



100 
10 

30 
16 
12 
10 
12 
20 
20 
20 
6 
6 
16 
10 
40 
12 

25 
30 

25 
10 

16 

16 

16 

20 

16 

40 

20 

80 

100 

5° 
20 



Circus cyaneus, L. 

— Swainsoni, S. ... 

— cinerascens, S. ... 

— - — S. (black variety) 

— aeruginosus, L. 
Melierax polyzonus, R. 
Astur palumbarius, L. 

— badius, G 

— soloensis, L. 

— novae hollandiae, G. ... 
Accipiter nisus, L. ... . . 

— virgatus, B. 

— cooperi, B. 

— tinus, L. .... 

■ — badius, Alleon, Smyrna 
Tachytriorchis pterocles, V. ... 
Buteo jakal, D. 

— fer ox, G. (Volga). 

— desertorum, D. 
lineatus, V. Canada. ... 

— vulgaris, L. 

— tachardus, martini, Hard 
Volga. 

Archi buteo lagopus, G. 
Busarellus nigricollis, L. 
Urubitinga niger, V. ... 
Gypaetus barbatus, S. (very fine 

specimen) ... 
Aquila fulva, L. 

heliaca S. 

— planga, V. 

— rapax, C. 

— naevia, G. 

Ni s ae tu s bonne Hi, C. ... 

— pennatus, G. Turkey... 
Circaetus, gallicus, G. (from 

Duchess de Berry Coll.) ... 
Spilornis, bâcha D. ... 
Helotarsus ecaudatus, D. 
Haliaetus albicillus, L. 

leucocephalus, L. 
leucoryphus G. 

Monts Altai 

Gypohierax angolensis, G. 
Haliastur ponticerianus, G. ... 
Elanoides furcatus, L. 
Nauclerus riocouri, V., typical 
Milvus regalis, B. 

— govinda, S. 

— aegyptus, G. ... 

— aetolius, V. 
Rostratnus hamatus, V. 
Elanus coeruleus, D 

— melanopterus, B. Volga... 
Gampsonyx swainsoni, V. 
Pernis apivorus, L. 

Harpagus diodon, T 

Ictinia plumbea, G. ... 

Microhierax coerulescens, L 

Falco communis, G. ... 

— pealei, R. 

— barbarus, L. 

— lanarius graecus, S. 

— subbuteo, L. ,.. 



s. 

8 

16 

8 

3° 
10 
20 
16 

6 
12 
20 

6 
16 
16 

8 
16 
40 
5o 
So 
20 

3° 
16 

3° 

25 
20 

3° 

100 

60 

100 

5° 
5o 

3° 
80 

3° 

5° 
20 

60 

80 

80 

100 

100 

12 

25 
60 

3° 
3° 
12 

3° 

3° 
8 

16 

20 
16 
20 
8 
12 
12 
20 
16 

3° 
8 





s. 


Falco aesalon, L. 


8 


— aurantius, G. ... 


10 


: — chicquera, D. ... 


20 


- concolor, C(leg. imper.) 


3° 


— eleonorae, M. ... 


30 


Hiero falco candicans, G. (Tern. 




Collection) ... 


80 


Hierofalco gyrfalco, L., Norway 


5° 


— Lapponia 


60 


— saker, G. ... 


20 


Cerchneis tinnuncula, L. 


6 


— punctata, T. 


12 


sparveria, L. 


5 


— tinnunculoides, V. 


12 


— vespertina, L. 


12 


Pandion halipetus, L. 


3° 


Gyps fulvus, occidentalis 




G. Sardinia 


100 


Otogvps auricularis, D. 


100 


Neophron percnopterus, L. ... 


3° 


Sarcorainphits gryphus, L. 




very old male. 


200 


Cathartes papa, L. 


5° 


Catharistes atrata, B. ... 


20 


Oenops aura. L. 


20 


Polyborus brasiliensis, G. 


20 


Ibycter americanus, B. 


20 


— chimango. V. ... 


10 


Bubo turcomanus, E. 


60 


— ascalaphus, S. ... 


40 


— atheniensis A. 


5° 


— magellanicus, G. 


25 


Scops aldrovandi, B. ... 


8 


— leucotis, T. 


12 


Nyctea scandiaca. L. ... 


40 


Surnia ulula, L. Arkangel 


40 


— — N. America. 


20 


Carine noctua, S. 


6 


— brama, C. 


8 


— persica, V. 


10 


Speotypo cunicularia, M. 


10 


Glaucidium passerinum, L. ... 


5 


— perlatum V. {type). 




j occipitalis, T. 
— ( ferruginea, B. 


40 


10 


Asio otus, L. . 


10 


— brachyotus, L. ... 


10 


Syrnium aluco, L. 


12 


— lapponicum, R. 


60 


uralense, P. ... 


5° 


— nebulosum, T. 


40 


Nyctala tengmalmi, G. 


10 


— acadica, G. ... 


6 


Strix flammea, L. 


12 


— javanica, T. 


12 


All these birds are in fine condition 


and mounted by experienced hands. 



FOR SALE, 
Several hundred species of Reptiles, 
Fishes and Crustaceae, in alcohol, 
from Mexico, Central America, 
Cuba, New Guinea etc 



vin 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



{June i, 1 89 1 



BOUCARD, P0TTIER 

NATURALISTS AND FEATHER MERCHANTS, 
COMMISSION. 



EXPORTATION. 



Messrs. BOUCARD, POTTIER & CO. offer to sell on commission all kinds of Objects of Natural 
History, Collections of Mammal and Bird Skins, Skeletons, Human and Animal Skulls, Insects of all 
orders pinned and set, or in papers ; Marine, Fresh Water, and Land Shells ; Reptiles and Fishes in spirit ; 
Crustacea? and Arachnidœ in spirit ; Ethnological collections from all parts ; Showy Bird Skins and 
Feathers for Plumassiers and Naturalists; Mammal Skins for Furriers; Bright species of Insects for 
Artificial Florists ; Rare old Stamps, used and unused ; Curios of all sorts, Pictures and Works of Art, etc., 
etc., etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting Messrs. Boucard, Pottiei 
& Co., who having a large connection with Amateurs in all parts of the world, are able to get the very best 
prices for them. 

Messrs. Boucard, Pettier & Co. beg to advise Directors of Museums and private Amateurs that they 
undertake to stuff from a Humming Bird to a Whale at very reasonable prices. Only experienced and 
scientific Taxidermists are employed by the hour for that work, which will always be of the best class. 

An inspection of their Galleries, where a large number of specimens are always on show, is solicited. 

Special fabrication of Mammals and Birds Eyes at wholesale prices which defy all competition, either 
as quality or price. See special Advertisement. 

New Stands for Birds, suitable for Museums and Scientific Institutions. No one should be without 
them. The appearance of the Birds on these stands is unequalled, and everyone should adopt them and 
renovate the old ones. See Advertisement. 



TO BE LET OR SOLD 

SEVERAL PROPERTIES 

The celebrated Winter Resort on the Riviera, 
&Q minutes from Monte Oa-rio. 



1° VILLA MARIA LUIGIA. 

A charming residence, standing in its own ground, situated 
Coeso Levante on one side and the Beach on the other, at 
about 15 minutes' walk from the centre of the town and 20 
from the station. Splendid view in all directions, beautiful 
garden of about 2,000 mètres, in which a large space has been 
laid purposely for lawn tennis and other games. 

Carriage and private entrances. 

Gymnastic, Summer Houses, Aviary, Bathing Cabin, Sçc. 

Excellent water. 

Ground Floor. — Three fine rooms, full south, with 7 bay 
windows opening on the Garden, Kitchen, Offices, Cellar, &c. 

First Floor. — Three large and line rooms, full south, two on 
the north side, all of them communicating. Magnificent for 
Eeceptions, Soirées, &o. Cloak Boom. 

Second Floor. — Four large ryoms, full south, one of them 
with dressing-room, three fine rooms on the north side Cloak 
Room. Corridor in the middle. 

Size of Villa : length 18 metres, width 10 metres. 
Price francs 60,000 

LETTING. 

Unfurnished francs 3,500 

Furnished, Winter season, 6 months ,, '2,500 

More the letting of the furniture according to the value of 

same required. 

Furnished, Summer season, 3 months. Price to agree. 



2° VILLAS RONDO 25, 27. 

Two semi-detached Villas, full south, standing in their own 
ground of 1,000 mètres, situated on the Corso Gaeabaldi, (the 
most pleasant walk of the town) hardly at 10 minutes walk 
from the central part of the town and 15 of the station. 

No. 25.— Ground Floor.— Three fine rooms, Kitchen, Office, 
and Cellar. 

First Floor. — Six comfortable rooms. 

No. 27 — Exactly the same, more Underground floor with 
kitchen and two large rooms. Front and back gardens. 

Price for the two villas francs 45,000 

Separately. 

No. 25 francs 25,000 

No. 27 francs 30,000 

LETTING. 

No. 25. — Unfurnished franes 1,000 

Furnished, winter season ... — 2,000 

— summer season ... — 1,000 
No. 27 .— Unfurnished francs 1,250 

Furnished, winter season ... — 2,500 

— summer season ... — 1,250 
Separate floors can also be let with or without furniture. 



3" A PIEGE OF LiMD. about 350 metres. 

Full south, on the Corso Mezzogiorno, two minutes from 
the station and the port, in the central part of the town. 

Price francs 15,000 



Letting 



francs 800 



Exchange could be made for property situated in England. 



For further {information, apply to — 

M, A, BOUCARD, 



225, 



High 



Bolborn, London, W.C, 



LONDOiJi: Published by A.BOUOARD,at 225, High Holbom, W.C. ; aud P.iuted at J.S. LEVIN'S Steam Pnuting Works, 76, LeadeuhaU Street, E.C. 

June 1, 1891. 



A MONTHLY SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC, AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW. 



GUARANTEED CIRCULATION, 5000. 



VOL L NO. 7, 



July 1, 1891. 



PRICE SIXPENCE. 



Annual Subscription: United Kingdom, Post free, 4 shillings ; all countries included in the Postal Union, 5 shillings. 

All other countries, 6 shillings. 




QLSUL<VX\AA/ dà^MACOiJvd^ 



EDITED UNDER THE DIRECTION 

OF 

MR. ADOLPHE BOUCARD, 

NATURALIST, 

Officier d'Académie, 1878; Knight of the Royal Military Order of the Conception, 1881 ; 
Knight Officer of the Royal Order of Cambodje, 1889; Knight Commander of the Royal Order of Isabelle la Catholique, 1882; 

Corresponding Member of the Zoological Society, London, 1865; 

de la Mission scientifique française au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale, 1866; of the Royal Museum of Madrid, 1881; 

Commissioner for the Republic of Guatemala in the Paris International Exhibitions of 1878 and 1889 ; 

Member of the International Jury, Paris, 1889 ; Member of many scientific societies; 

etc. etc. etc. etc. 



CONTENTS OF No. 7. -JULY 1, 1891. 



The Pilgrim Locust. 

Notes on Rare Species of Humming Birds and 

Descriptions of several supposed New Species. 
Description of supposed New Species of Tanager. 
oor Rate and General Rate Taxes in the Parishes 

of St. Giles's in the Fields and St. George 

Bloomsbury. 
N Q tes on the Great Bower-Bird. 



&, 



Collections made in Thibet and Central Asia by MM. 
Bonvalot and Henri d'Orléans. 

A Visit to the British Museum — Natural History De- 
partment. 

An easy way of making /ioo a year in collecting 
specimens of Natural History. 

Obituary. 

Reports on June Public Sales of Feathers and Bird 

Skins. Collections received. 

r? À 



[Entered at Stationers' Hall.] 



11 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[July x, 1891. 



FOR SALE.— Shells. 

Priva te Collection of Mr. Bon card. 
Land, Fluviatile and Marine Shells. 

Glandinidae, is. each. Helicidae, 6d. each. Bulimidae 
is. each. Achalinidae, is. each. Clilindrellidae, is. 6d. 
each. Clausilidae, 3d. each. Ampularidae, 6d. each. 
Lymmea, Physa, and Planorbis, 3d. each. Cyclosto- 
nidae, 6d. each. Helicinidae, 3d. each. Unio, 
Anodonta, and Ostrea, 6d. each. 

Marine Shells — All the Collection including 
Argonyuta, Murex, Fusus, Triton, Ranella, Nassa, 
Oliva, Marginella, Harpa, Terebra, Conus, Sirombus, 
Cypraea, Neritina, Patella, Chiton, Haliotis, Turbo, 
Venus, Cardium, &c, 6d. each. 

Can be divided if required. 

All applications to be made at the Journal's Office. 

Insects Coleoptera. 

Private Collection of Air. Boucard. 

Cicindelidae, including types of Ox) 7 gonia, 
Boucardi Chev, Cincindela costaricensis and others, 
2^.each. Carabidae, including many types, 1^. each. 
Dytiscidse, 6d. each. Staphylinidae, 3d. each. 

Pselaphidae, Gnostidae, Paussidae, Scydmaenidae, 
Silphidae, Scaphididae, Histeridae, Nitidulidae, Trog- 
ositida?, Rhyssodidae, Cucujidae, Cryptophagidae, 
Derodontidse, Latrididae, Mycetophagidae, Dermestidae 
Byrrhidae, Pamidae, and Heteroceridae, 3d. each. 
Lucanidae and Passalidae, including many types, is. 
each. Copridae, 6d. each. Melolonthidae, 6d. each, 
Rutelidae, including all the types of Plusiotis, 
Chrysina, Heterosternus, 2s. each. Scarabseidae, is. 
each. Cetonidae, is. each. Buprestidae, is. each. 
Trixagidae, Monommidae, Eucnemidse, and Elateridae, 
6d. each. Cebrionidae. Rhipidoceridae, Dascillidae, 
and Malacodermidae, 3d. each. Cleridae, 6d. each. 
Lymexilonidae, Cupesidae, Ptinidae, Bostrychidae, and 
Cioidae, 3d. each. Tenebrionidae, 3d. each. Nilion- 
idae, Pythidae, Melandryidae, Lagriidae, Pedilidae. 
Anthicinae, Pyrochroidas, Mordellidae, and Rhipidoph- 
oridae, 3d. each. Cantharidae, 6d. each. Cephaloidie, 
Oedemeridae, and Mycteridae, 3d. each. Curculionidae 
and Scolytidae, 3d. each. Brenthidae and Anthotribidae, 
6d. each. Cerambycidae, is. each : Bruchidae, 3d. each. 
Chrysomehdae, 3d. each. Cassididae, 6d. each. 
Languridae and Erotylidae, 6d. each. Tritomidae and 
Coccinellidae, 3d. each. 

TO ORNITHOLOGISTS. 



FOB SALE. 

Fine mounted specimen of Aha impennis, the Gnat Auk, 
(extinct species). Pedigree from date of capture, 1830, will 
be given to buyer. 

Fine male specimen of the exceedingly rare new genus of 
bird Reinhardtia oeeUata Bp., the greatest discovery of the 
century. Price £50 

LIST OF DESIDERATA OF PHANTT 

Achilles Bohem, Guayaquil. Bitias Har., Mexico. 
Charon Har., Guayaquil. Columbi, Me L., female, 
Hastifer Germ., male, Brazil. Foveolatus Har., 
Guayaquil. Horus Waterh. Reiche, Brazil. Melibceus 
Blanch, Chiquitos. Mirabilis Har., Brazil. Noctis 



Bates, Colombia and Nicaragua, etc. Perseus Har. 
Colombia. Pteroderus Reiche in litt, Uruguay 
Rhadamanthus Bar., Brazil. Rosalia Fabr.? America, 
Tepanensis Bates, Tepan. Thalassinus Perty, Brazil. 
Steinheili Har., male and female. Guatemalensis, 
Har., male. Beltianus, male - Scutifer, Bates, male 
and female. Lunaris, Tasch, male. Actaeon, Erichs, 
male and female. Bispinus, Bates. Cadmus, Har. 
Dejeani, Har., female. Lautus, Macleay, male. 
Silenus, Cast, male and female. Spinifer, Cast, male 
and female. 

List of Pittidae for Sale. 

Pitta strepitans, Australia, 55. ; — maxima, N. Guinea 
iOi'. ; — brachyura Malacca, 8.r. ; ■ — bengalensis, 
India, 8s. ; — elegans, Malacca, 10s. ; — cyanurus, 
Java, 16s.; — arcuata, Borneo, 30^.; — granatina, 
Borneo, 8s. ; — erythrogaster, Philippines, \os. ; 
— mackloti, N. Guinea, 10s. ; — rosenbergi, N. 
Guinea, 30^. ; — novas guineas, N. Guinea, 10s ; 
- - mulleri, Borneo, \os.; — cucullata, India,' 8s. ; 
— - — Yar, Malacca, 8.r. ; — coerulea, Malacca 16s. ; 
Philepitta castanea, Madagascar, 12s. 

FOR SALE.— From Kina Balu {Borneo). 
Calyptomena whitehead!, male, 100s. A magnifi- 
cent bird, discovered lately by Mr. Whitehead in the 
interior of Borneo. Many other species from the 
same collector (magnificent skins). 

FOR SALE. 

A magnificent bound copy of T A. Naumann's 
Naturgeschichte der Vogel Deutschlands, 13 vols, in 
4to and 391 coloured plates. Apply at the office of 
the Journal. 

FOR SALE. 

Collection of Woods from all parts of the world. 
2,000 blocks nicely cut. Manuscript catalogue over 
2 vols. Awarded gold medal at International Exhi- 
bition. For price and particulars apply at the office 
of the Journal. 



Fine group of Harpyornis feeding on a Dendrolagus. 
Two rare species of mammal and bird, from New 
Guinea. Price ^12. 

Fourteen species of Carabus from Chili. In the 
most perfect condition. 23 specimens, at 5s. each. 



FOR SALE. 

A large variety of rare Stamps and New Issues from all parts 
of tbe "World. For prices &c. applv to Naturalists Agency, 

225, High Holborn, W.O. 

WANTED. 

Old collections containing fiom 500 varieties upwards, to 
which none have been added since the last 20 years. 

Old stamps on their original letter sheet or envelope, especi- 
ally Colonials and old German states. 

Mulready Wrappers and Envelopes. 

Old unused English and Colonials. 

Old works on stamps. 

Proofs of stamps, etc. etc. 



July i, 1891, 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



m 



N AT U RALIST 5 

DEALER IN 

■auaL AND BIRD SKINS, REPTILES, FISHES, INSECTS, SHELLS, EGGS, 

SEEDS, etc, etc., etc., etc, etc. 

PURCHASE -SALE -EXCHANGE. 

Collections and Libraries bought and sold on Commission. 

225, high: holboe,w, jLOjsrxioisr, w.o. 



A. BOÙCAFiD undertakes the sale of Collections 
and Books of natural history ; and offers his services 
to Scientific Institutions and Authors, for the sale 
of their Works. 

The situation of his establishment in the centre 
of London, and his relations with the principal 
Museums of Natural History in all parts of the 
world, offer great opportunities for the sale of the 
Collections and Books which may be intrusted to his 
care. 

He can procure for his clients zoological collec- 
tions from all parts of the world; as well as scientific 
Books and Apparatus for collecting and preserving 
collections. All offers of purchase or sale submitted 
to him will be carefully examined and answered 
immediately. 

A. B. wishing to increase the number of his Corre- 
sponde nts iu all parts, begs all persons who have 
collections, to communicate with him, for the pur- 
chase or exchange of their duplicates on advantageous 
terms. 

Museums and Scientific Institutions are invited to 
send him a list of their desiderata, which he will 
undertake to suppy in reasonable time, even in the 
case of the rarest animals wanted. 

Professors who require specimens of natural history 
for study preserved in alcohol or otherwise, can sent 
their instructions, which will be well attended to. 

A. B. reminds his Friends and Naturalists iu 
general, that he has now in store 30,000 species of 
Insects, G,500 species of Birds, Mammals, .Reptiles 
and Fishes, Eggs, Shells, Seeds, many bright Insects 
for Jewellers, Florists and Modists, etc., etc., etc., etc. 

Every month he receives new Collections from his 
Travellers and Correspondents. 

A. B. is very much interested with Coleoptera from 
Vancouver, Oregon, California, Sonora, Texas. New 
England, Mexico, Guatemala, Salvador, Honduras. 
Costa Bica, Yeragua, Nicaragua, and Panama. He 
wishes to acquire collections from these countries, 
either by exchange or by purchase. 

He thanks sincerely all his Friends and Corre- 
spondents who have honoured him with then- 



patronage to the present time, and hopes they will 
help him in the work he has undertaken ; which is 
to facilitate to all the study of Natural History. 



' FOR SALE 
CHEAP COLLECTIONS FOR STUDY AS UNDER : 

Typical Collection of Birds classified and named 
after the celebrated works of Professors Bonaparte, 
Gray, Gould, Sclater, etc. 100 specimens £'8 

Typical Collections of Insects (specimens 
of alHhe orders) £10 

Typical Collection of Insects Coleoptera, 
classified and named after the celebrated 
Genera of Professor Lacordaire 

100 specimens £10 

Collection of Insects ol all orders 

100 specimens £10 

Typical Collection of Insects Coleoptera, 
by family, genus, or country 100 specimens £10 

Collection of Bright Insects Coleoptera, 
classified and named 100 specimens £10 

Typical Collection of Marine, Land and 
Fresh Water Shells, classified and named 
after the celebrated works of Prof. Pfeifers, 
Chenu, Pieeves, Deshayes, etc. 100 specimens £10 

These collections are proper for Museums, Scien- 
tific Institutions and Schools, as well as for all 
persons who desire to study Natural History. 

They contain many rare species, and my purpose 
in disposing of them at such a low price is to make 
them accessible to every one. 

This Study will procure infinite enjoyment to all 
those who will dedicate themselves to it. 

With the love of Collections, there are no more 
useless walks, all is interesting, each day you dis- 
cover new marvels of Nature. 

They are very good for acquiring order and know- 
ledge, and you become useful to your country by 
your discoveries. 



IV 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



\Tuly i, 1891 



"Who can deny that the greatest part of the revenues 
of all Governments is due to those learned men who 
have dedicated themselves to this science? 

Cotton, Tobacco, Potatoes, Coffee, Tea, Indigo, 
Cochineal, Silk are all products of nature, and some 
travellers (mostly naturalists) are those who have 
been to search for them, sometimes at very remote 
countries at the cost of their lives, to try their ac- 
climatation in their own country or to make known 
their value and their goodness. 

Much has been done ; but the field of explorations 
is still very large, and many Centuries will 1 ass 
before it is drained. 

Therefore, every one must work boldly and 
encourage every where these studies which are un- 
happily too much neglected at the present time. 

For that it is necessary ihat all those, who have 
zoological riches accumulated, give their duplicates 
to scientific Institutions or to young and poor 
amateurs, or dispose of them at very low prices acces- 
sible to every one. 

It is also necessary that all the Governments 
should give important prizes and rewards to all those 
who make new discoveries useful to their country, 
and encourage by all means the study of this science 
which is sure to produce fruitful results to the benefit 
of Humanitv. 



AGENCE DES NATURALISTES, 

225, HIGH HOLBORN, 

LONDON, W.C. 

OISEAUX A VENDRE. 



3 

4 
5 

6 

7 



10 
11 
12 



1 Pigeon sauvage 

2 Perruches diverses ... 
Canard Mandarin ... 
Perdrix rouge 

Petites chouettes (Scops) ... 
Chouettes moyennes 
Grandes chouettes diverses ... 

8 Martin pécheur, (peaux plates) 

9 Rollier 
Sui manga du Sénégal 
Têtes de faisans et de tétras 
Merle métallique de la Nile. Guinée 

13 Merle bleu du Gabon 

14 Merle bleu à longue queue... 

15 Merle à longue queue d'Amérique... 

16 Petits trogons divers 

17 Couroucou à longue queue... 

18 Tangara orange du Mexique 
Tangara orange du Brésil ... 

19 Chouette effraie ... ... ;.. 

20 Grand martin pêcheur gris ... 

21 Colin de la Californie 

22 Etourneau gris à tête noire... 

23 Grande brève de la Nile. Guinée ... 

24 Etourneau d'Europe . 

25 Guêpier d'Afrique ... 



francs 


douz 


15 


11 


12 


15 


36 


11 


24 


51 


36 


1} 


18 


15 


36 


J) 


15 


11 


12 


51 


12 


1 1 


1.50 




12 


'j 1 


3° 


11 


24 


5' 


36 


11 


12 


11 


250 


1) 


3° 


1) 


12 


53 


60 


5) 


36 


11 


12 




6 


)> 


36 


11 


2 


11 


24 


1) 



27 
28 



Z9 

3° 
3 1 
32 
33 



42 
43 
44 

45 
46 



25 Poitrine de héron gris 

26 Ptarmigan 
Pigeon deNicobar... 
Momot à longue queue (nouv 

espèce pour la mode) . . . 
Perdrix de. l'Inde 
Petite outarde 
Huppe d'Afrique ... 
Queues de gelinottes 
Paradis rouge ... .... 

34 Paradis jaune 

35 Epimaque d'Australie 

36 Epimaque de la Nile. Guinée 

37 Pic à baguettes 

38 Ara rouge (peaux plates) 

39 Geai d'Amérique 

40 Coq de roche 
4T Pie sanglante 

Mouette ... ... 

Goéland 

Hirondelle de mer ... 
Hirondelle minuta ... 
Faisan à dos de feu... 

47 Tangara à cinq couleurs 

48 Jaseur 

49 Tangaras divers brillants 

50 Guit guit à tète bleue 

5 1 Guit guit vert chatoyant 

52 Hirondelle à longue queue... 

53 Tourterelles ... 

54 Hirondelle à queue courte ... 

55 Etourneau blanc à ailes bronzées 

56 Régent 

57 Perroquet strigops ... 
5 S Méléagre doré 

59 Grèbe (peaux plates) 

60 Corbeau des Alpes ... 

61 Faisan argus... 

62 Lophophore . . . 

63 Aigrette jaune (peaux plates) 

64 Couroucou de la Colombie... 

65 Bécassines et pluviers 

66 Oiseaux de proie assortis ... 

67 Orioles assortis 

68 Pie grièches assortis... 

69 Tangara rouge 

70 Etourneau à épaulette rouge 

71 Etourneau du Mexique 

72 Gobe mouche royal... 

73 Gobe mouches assorties 

74 Manakin à tête rouge 

75 — à tête jaune 

76 — assortis 
7 7 Oiseaux divers assortis 

78 Oiseau mouche vert-brillant (petit) 

79 — — améthyste ... 

80 — — bleu (grand) 

81 — — vert (grand) 

82 Rubis topaze... 

83 Oiseau mouche à longue queue 

84 Oiseaux mouches mâles assortis 

85 — — femelles — 
Nota. — Un escompte important sera fait aux acheteurs 

en gros, 



francs 


douz 


... 30 


11 


... 24 


1' 


... 125 


ii 


.41e 




... 60 


n 


12 


)■ 


... 48 


11 


... 15 


ii 


0.60 ., 


... 180 


i> 


... 250 


ii 


... 300 


n 


... 250 


11 


... 30 


n 


.... 36 


11 


... 30 


n 


... 60 


11 


... "48 


11 


... 18 


n 


... 18 


11 


... 18 


11 


... 36 


11 


... 36 


51 


... 24 


11 


12 


11 


12 


11 


12 


11 


12 


11 


12 


11 


... 9 


1) 


6 


!> 


6 


J! 


... 80 


» 


... 300 


51 


... 900 


>' 


... 24 


11 


... 18 


H 


... 100 


1} 


... 120 


)) 


... 36 


5) 


•■• 75 


11 


... 15 


11 


... 30 


11 


... 18 


51 


12 


11 


... 15 


15 


... 24 


1) 


... 24 


51 


... 120 


51 


12 


11 


12 


11 


6 


11 


6 


11 


6 


11 


6 


11 


12 


55 


.. 36 


51 


6 


51 


12 


51 


.. 24 


11 


6 à 12 


11 


3 à 6 


•1 



July i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



5* 



Cjje Humming §irîx 



The Pilgrim Locust. A Remarkable and 
Sensational Tale published by the 
Leading Papers of France and repro- 
duced in London. 



Daily News, May 19th. 

A Scientific Man killed by Locusts. 

(from our correspondent.) 

PARIS, Monday Night. 

Despatches from Algiers announce the death, 
under peculiarly horrible circumstances of a well- 
known savant M. Kunckel d'Herculais, President of 
the Entomological Society. M. Kunckel, who was 
travelling in the district of Teniek el Haad, on a 
Government mission, went on Saturday to the village 
of Sidi Eral to see deposits of locusts' eggs which 
had been reported in the neighbourhood. About 
eleven o'clock, the weather being fiercely hot, M. 
Kunckel, overcome by fatigue, lay down under a 
bush to sleep. He was probably awakened by a 
flight of locusts which are believed to have come 
from Chellala. They settled down on the very 
ground where he was resting, and in such numbers 
that M. Kunckel was buried in their mass. He got 
up and struggled forward desparately, against this 
living flood. He trampled down hundreds, but the 
swarm grew thicker every moment, and the sky was 
completely darkened. M. Kunckel set fire to the 
bushes in order to drive them away, but in vain. 
His cries were not heard, and at length he fainted 
and was stifled. About three o'clock in the afternoon 
the "pilgrims," as the locusts are called, took flight 
again, and a party of natives found the body of M. 
Kunckel buried under a heap of locusts. His hair, 
beard, and necktie were completely devoured. " 

When I read the above narration in the Paris and 
London papers, I thought it was something very 
startling, but I must say truly that I had great doubts 
about its veracity ; as, when residing in Mexico, 1 
have seen many extraordinary passages numbering 
milliards of these migratory Insects, and never 
heard of other damages than the complete devasta- 
tion of all the leaves of trees, plants and grass of the 
countries visited by this terrible insect, and I was 
not surprised to hear two days after, that it was all a 
hoax, and that my friend Kunckel d'Herculais was 
enjoying a perfect health during all the time that 
many sensible persons were condoling on his tragic 
death. 

The pilgrim or Migratory Locust (Acridium inigra- 
torium) is one Insect Orthoptera very similar in 
appearance to the vulgar locust, but of a much 
greater size. It is found in all parts of the World ; 
but the chief countries which are visited periodically 
by myriads of these insects are the United States, 
Mexico, Central and South America, in America, and 
Egypt, Algeria, Morocco, and many other African 
Countries. The head quarters of these Insects in 
America are Humboldt Prairies,fand very likely, in 
Africa, the Deserts of Sahara or the Soudan. 



I remember that in 1877, when travelling from 
San Francisco (California) to Salt Lake City, all the 
plains called Humboldt Prairies, situated between 
Sierra Nevada and Salt Lake, were covered for several 
hundred miles with young locusts. From morning to 
night I did not see anything else, and the soil was 
black with them. In passing, the train crushed im- 
mense numbers standing on the rails. 

Several years before, when living in San Andres 
Tuxtla, State of Vera Cruz, Mexico, I assisted to an 
invasion of these Insects. They alighted near the 
town, and in the space of two days they devoured all 
the plantations tor several miles around, as also all 
the leaves of trees, bushes and grass, leaving the soil 
and the trees quite bare with the same appearance as 
the European Country fields after a severe frost, or in 
the middle of the winter. 

When these formidable invasions take place, the 
inhabitants fear them as much as the most terrible 
equinoxial hurricanes or earthqnakes. 

Generally the same localities are invaded during 
two or three years, then these Insects disappear for a 
certain number of years. I attribute this cause not 
to a diminution of the Insects, but to a change of 
itinerary in their emigration trip. 

These locusts by their voracity and their number is 
the most formidable plague to vegetation. They 
hatch in spring, and the want of food being at once 
necessary, they begin to devour all the grass and 
leaves of bushes. This lasts for several weeks until 
their wings are fully developed. 

At that time they have done with all the vegetation 
of their breeding places, and then take their flight in 
compact rows by millions and millions, intercepting 
entirely the light of the sun during their passage. 
The country where they alight is irrevocably lost. In 
a very short space of time all traces of vegetation has 
disappeared and the trees are totally bare of their 
leaves, while their branches break under the weight of 
the Insects. Many of them, unable to get sufficient 
food, dies and their dead bodies, accumulated on the , 
soil, corrupt the air and are the cause of merciless 
épidémies, such as plague, etc. 

For the countries which are invaded by the locusts, 
they are a cause of ruin, famine and epidemy. 

All sorts of methods have been employed up to the 
present time lor the extermination of these redoubt- 
able Insects ; but they have been only partially 
successful and have cost very large sums of money. 
In Mexico they try to frighten them away by beating 
drums, by firing guns and fireworks, shouting with all 
their might, and sometimes they have succeeded and 
obliged them to alight further away, but at other 
times, they have not taken the least notice of the 
noise and have dropped as an hurricane on the plan- 
tations surrounding the villages, and destroyed 
everything. 

Immediately after the laying of their eggs they die, 
and all is quiet again for a little time ; but after a few 
weeks the young hatches and all the country is in- 
vaded again with what appears like small black specks 
jumping about in all directions and devouring all the 
grass and young leaves which are just coming out 



again. 



The usual thing which the inhabitants generally do 



'52 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



l/ufy i, 1891. 



at that time is to dig some ditches of a great length, 
3 feet deep by 2 feet wide. Then all of them men, 
women and children drive them away in the ditches, 
where they crush them as quickly as they can ; but 
unfortunately it is quite impossible to destroy all. 

These young ones, when fully developed, fly away 
and invade other localities. 

Since the last three years, Algeria has been invaded 
periodically with the locusts, and large sums of money 
have been granted for their extermination. My friend' 
Mr. Kunckel d'Herculais, a celebrated entomo- 
logist, has been sent by the French Government to 
study this delicate question on the spot, and I think 
he has been aiding a great deal the Algerian authori- 
ties in trying to exterminate this unwelcome visitor. 
They have destroyed immense quantities of eggs and 
insects ; but it appears that the actual invasion is of 
such a magnitude that all the cultures of Algeria and 
adjacent countries are in great peril of being com 
pletely destroyed, as in 1867, the year of the famine 
brought on by them. 

Lately Mr. Brongniart, of Paris, has sent to the 
Academy of Sciences a very interesting notice on a 
vegetable parasit (a sort of microscopic mushroom) 
which he thinks could be applied successfully to the 
destruction of the locusts. 

The author of this remarkable discovery thinks that 
it should be easy to produce a large quantity of this 
special parasite, which reduced in powder could be 
spilt on the ground in the countries menaced by the 
invasion of the locusts. 

No doubt the idea is excellent ; but I doubt very 
much of its efficacity, as it should require such an 
immense quantity of this parasite. However, I think 
it would be very interesting to give it a fair trial. 

I believe that something more to the point should 
be to enter in communication with all the countries 
concerned in this matter, such as Egypt, Algeria, 
Tripoli, Morocco, Italy, French, Spain and Portugal, 
and to edict a law protecting efficiently such 
birds as the Bee Eater, Merops apiasler, the 
Metallic Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, and other similar 
species, which are great eaters of locusts. 

Since about 15 years, I don't know how many 
hundred of thousands of these birds have been killed, 
either for feeding or industrial purposes, and conse- 
quently it means in a short time the extinction of the 
said species and consequently a further increase of 
locusts. 

In don't think I can err much if I say that by the 
killing of so many hundred of thousands of these 
birds during the last 15 years, it is as if several 
millions of them had been destroyed, and when we 
remember that a single bird will destroy as many as 
200 insects or more per day, especially in the breeding 
time, what a great auxiliary it should be in such 
calamitous times as the present. It is milliards of 
insects which would have been destroyed by these 
birds if they had been in existence. 

Therefore I think it is of the greatest importance to 
all the countries mentioned above that they should 
concert themselves at once about the making of a 
law, taking immediate effects, protecting the said birds. 

Meanwhile I will suggest also for immediate use a 
trial of powerful electric lights posted in front of the 



places where ditches have been opened and canvass 
stretched. 

If it was possible to attract them by electric light 
as it is done for all sorts of insects, especially moths, 
and also birds, it would be easy to destruct immense 
numbers. 

To be continued. 



Notes on Rare Species of Humming Birds 
and Descriptions of Several Supposed 
New Species in Boucard's Museum. 

By A. Boucard. 

Continued from page 18 26, and 43. 

Calliphlox RORAIM/E, n.sp. 

Male. -- Upper part, dark bron/.y green, throat 
metallic amethystine red as in Selasphorus platycercus, 
beneath which is a very narrow band of white ; breast 
and flanks, green changing to dark grey on the abdo- 
men ; upper and under tail coverts, green ; tail, 
purplish brown ; bill and feet, black. 

Total length, 3± in. : wing, if ; tail, if ; bill, f, 

Female. — Upper part, bronzy green ; throat, white 
with a central spot metallic amethystine red ; beneath 
which is a greyish band ; sides of neck and breast, 
golden green ; flanks abdomen and under tail coverts, 
rufous; tail' purple brown tipped with rufous; bill 
and feet, black. 

Total length, 3 in. ; wing, if; tail, 1 ; bill, f. 

We are indebted lor this fine new species to the ener- 
getic and well known collector Mr. Henry Whitely, 
who discovered it at Roraima (British Guiana) in 1881. 
I have also a young male specimen, differing only of 
the female by the colour of the under part. which is 
green, changing to dark grey on the abdomen, the 
throat is black, mottled with a few amethystine red 
feathers, a whitish band crosses the neck. 

Science is greatly indebted to Mr. Henry Whitely 
for so many new species discovered by him in Peru 
and British Guiana, and I hope that success will 
crown again his efforts in the new voyage which he 
has undertaken in the interior of British Guiana. 
Hylocharis Guianensis, n. sp. 

Mate. —Upper surface, flanks and abdomen very 
dark shining grass green, much darker than in sap- 
phirina; chin, rufous ; throat, dark sapphirine blue 
very bright ; upper-tail coverts, coppery ; wings, 
purple ; under tail coverts, dark rufous ; Central rec- 
trices, coppery, lateral ones, shining rufous, edged 
with black ; bill, fleshy color with black tip. 

Total length, 3I in. ; wing, 2 ; tail, if ; bill %. 

Female. — Upper surface dark metallic grass green ; 
under-tail coverts, coppery ; chin rufous ; breast, grey 
spotted with amethystine blue ; sides of breast and 
flanks, grass green; abdomen gray; under-tail coverts 
gray rufous ; rectrices coppery purplish at tip, 
lateral ones, coppery to the third of their length, then 
black tipped with a large grey spot. 

Total length. — 3s in, ; wing, 2 ; tail, \\ ; bill, %. 

The principal difference between this species and 
H. sapphirina is in the dark color of the upper part 



July i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



53 



are coppery green, and not reddish bronze, as in 
H. sapphirina. 

We are again indebted to Mr. Henry Whitely for 
the discovery of this beautiful species. The speci- 
mens from which I took the above description were 
collected at River Carimang, Camacusa, and Merume 
Mounts, British Guiana. 



Description of a supposed New Species of 
Tanager in Boucard's Museum. 

By A. Boucard. 



Ramphocelus Chrysopterus, n.sp. 

Male. — Upper and underside velvety black ; tail 
and wing, brownish black underside, rump and upper 
tail coverts magnificent topaz orange ; bill, bluish. 

Total length, 6\ inches ; wing, 3^ ; tail, 3 ; bill, f ; 
Habitat, State of Panama, Columbia. 

I have received two males of this magnificent new 
species. They are exactly alike. 



The McKinley Bill and Art. 



My attention has just been called to the following 
paragraph in the New York Herald. 

AN ART CONGRESS FOR AMERICA. 
"New York. May 16. — The proposal to hold a 
National Art Congress and Loan Exibition at Washing- 
ton in December, which was exclusively published in 
the Herald, has aroused great public interest, especial- 
ly as it is believed that as a result of the Congress 
Government Departments of Art and Architecture 
will be established, national saloons be formed, and the 
art duty abolished. The project has been warmly 
endorsed by the Corcoran Art Gallery of Washington 
and various Art Associations throughout the country." 
I am rather happy to learn that there is some prob- 
ability that the Art duty will be abolished before long 
in the United States. In this Journal pages 3 and 20, 
my readers are aware that I have strongly advocated 
this measure as one of the best which could be 'taken 
by the United States Government, and I make again 
a strong appeal to that Government for the abolish- 
ment of all duties not only on Objects of Art, but 
also on all Scientific Collections sent to the United 
States for scientific purposes, either for sale or other- 
wise. No mistake can be made with Objects of Natural 
History for scientific purposes, and Consignments of 
Bird Skins, Feathers etc. and for industrial purposes. 
I will say more. In a country like America, the 
example ought to be given to all the world at large 
how Custom House duties could be abolished 
altogether ; as I hope to be able to prove in a sub- 
sequent notice. 

The Editor. 

Poor Rate and General Rate Taxes in the 
Parishes of St. Giles in the Fields and 
St. George, Bloomsbury. 

Continued from page 44. 

♦ 

In consequence of the raising of my assessment 
from ^109 to ^134, and id. more in the pound for 



both rates as compared with 1890, I have to pay for 
the half year, commencing Lady Day to Michaelmas 
J %9 X > £4 IIS - I( i. in excess of last year, which 
represents a lump sum of ,£4,559 3s. 4d. for the half 
year, taking as an average that 1000 householders 
have had their assessments increased in the same 
proportion as mine ; but it is very likely that the 
number of these greatly exceed 1000, as I can see that 
1,889 of them voted recently on the Free Library 
Question, and surely there were many abstentions. 

It will be rather interesting for the tax-payers to 
know how the Vestry of the Parishes of St. Giles in 
the Fields and St. George will spend the extra respect- 
able sum received by them this year, in consequence 
of the increase of Assessments. 

To be continued. 

Notes on the Great Bower-Bird. 

— » 

Chlamydodera Nuchalis. Jard. 

Our Editor thinking my notes on the above spe- 
cies, which are sprinkled through my diary on the 
different occasions I had the pleasure of meeting with 
this bird in N.W. Australia, would be of interest to 
our readers, I take the opportunity of writing all that 
has come under my observation, regretting that it 
cannot be so exhaustive as I could wish, but every 
opportunity I had I made the best I could of, for 
finding out as much of its habits as possible, the 
birds generally being very shy and in most instances 
extremely difficult to approach. 

The first notice I took of the bird was on hearing 
its call which is something like our Jay [Garrulus 
glandarius), very harsh and strident, eventually 
catching a glimpse of the bird itself flying from some 
low scrubby bushes into a high gum tree. I followed 
the bird some distance, it flying from tree to bush and 
bush to tree, but I failed to procure it ; I retraced 
my steps to where I had first put it up and hunted 
through the undergrowth in hopes of finding the 
bower, but without success. By chance some time 
later, and within 200 yards of our tent, I found a 
beautifully built bower or playground of this bird ; 
we had repeatedly heard its call, but had not seen 
the bird, this particular day I was left in camp 
alone at a place called Yabba-Goody, the others 
having gone away to find another water hole, as the 
one we were camped by was rapidly drying up by 
evaporation under the powerful rays of the sun ; it 
was placed in the centre of a very thick bush or 
clump of overhanging bushes, the twigs of which 
the bower was built were most tightly interwoven, or 
rather packed, at the bottom, the sides overarching 
but not meeting at the top ; the length of the bower 
itself from end to end of the twigs was three feet, 
and eighteen inches high. I was very much aston- 
ished at the singular way in which it was planned, 
for eighteen inches from one of the openings and 
about the width of the bower were strewed pieces of 
broken white shell, bleached white bones, small white 
stones and white sticks, all white, at the other opening 
all was black, pieces of black charcoal and curiously 
enough a black handled pen-knife not rusted at all 
in the male, and in the color of the rectrices which 



54 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



{July i, 1891 



which must have been placed there very recently,' no 
doubt having been lost by someone in the bush, but 
at some distance from where the bower was placed ; 
inside the bower were stones of different colours 
mostly white, among which were two small brass 
cartridge cases quite green with oxidation ; the sticks 
of which the bower was formed were grey in colour : 
the effect was very striking, and this character ran 
through the whole of the bowers which we had the 
good fortune to find. At Mount Anderson I found 
a bower like the one at Yabba-Goody, but not so 
large, in about the same situation ; the bushes in 
which it was placed bearing a small dark purple berry 
which I had found the birds were very fond of, this 
bower was about 14 inches long, very likely not fin- 
ished, with a lot of bleached bones and white stones at 
either end and on either side of these were some pieces 
of black charcoal and in the centre about half-a-dozen 
stones, one nearly round an inch and a half long. 

On another occasion at a lagoon called Monkey- 
Jarra I found another bower and heard the birds 
calling, but they were too shy for me to get within 
gunshot ; this bower, also, had white at one end and 
black at the other, the birds seemed to have pulled 
it to pieces, but after a few days it was again made 
good. In none of the bowers were any feathers seen. 
I found one bower and I suppose disturbed the fo- 
liage too much, for the next day the bird had pulled 
it all to pieces. 

One day, whilst out shooting, I came across a 
bower and two birds a short distance from camp. As 
this was the first occasion on which I had seen two 
birds together near a bower I made up my mind to 
watch them ; the bower was placed, as usual, in the 
midst of thick bushes, and I placed myself at some 
distance not far away in a convenient position to see 
right through the bower. After waiting some few 
minutes I heard the harsh screech of the bird and 
looked round the trees to see if I could see it, but no, 
it was not anywhere there or in the bushes from 
whence the sound came, but whilst looking up into 
the high trees round about where I was standing I 
espied a large nest; this I thought at the time I would 
get when I had done watching the birds. Happening 
to glance down at the bower there I saw one of the 
birds; it had escaped my notice no doubt whilst I was 
looking up into the trees, it hopped about in and out 
of the bower picking up a stone and placing it some- 
where else with drooping wings and elevating its 
spread out tail, sometimes hopping on to the branches 
of the bush, clinging to their sides, very quick in its 
movements, sometimes getting to the top of the bush 
to have a look round ; hearing the call of another 
Bower-bird some distance away I looked in the 
direction and presently saw the bird fly into the gum 
tree in which I had previously noticed the nest. Here, 
thought I, is the Bower-bird's nest, I have found it 
quite easily, what a surprise it will be for them in 
camp ! The bird hopped about in the tree for a time, 
sometimes close to the nest and with a piece of twig 
in its bill, then flew down to the bower flying up again 
into the tree still with the piece of twig. I must have 
moved through being anxious to see what the bird 
was going to do, at all events after giving one call it 
flew away, the other one following from the bower. 



For three days I spent a good deal of time watching 
these birds, one would fly down from the tree with a 
piece of twig in its bill, and after a little manoeuvring 
the other bird would take the twig, hop about a bit 
as if looking for a place which wanted filling up, 
place it in some part of the bower, sometimes 
apparently not to its entire satisfaction, for it would 
take it out again and put it somewhere else, then 
again a good bit of the bower would be pulled to 
pieces and rearranged, and the stones etc. were 
always being moved about with many hops and 
skips and flirting of the tail. I never saw them go 
straight to the nest, but they were often quite close 
to it, so I determined to get the nest and see what 
it contained. I climbed the tree only to find that 
it was a deserted one from which the birds had 
flown and with a feather or two of Graucalus 
melanops, perhaps the builders of the nest. This 
was a' terrible disappointment, but I solaced myself 
with the thought that I had seen a good deal of 
their habits. 

Male. Length, 16 inches; iris, dark brown be- 
coming lighter round pupil ; bill, dark brownish olive, 
inside of bill orange brightest at swallow ; legs and 
feet dark olive brown lighter at the bottom of each 
scale on the tarsi. 

Female, smaller, length 14-4, description same 
as male above. 

Walter Burton. 



Collections made in Thibet and Central Asia 
by Messrs. Bonvalot and Henri d'Orléans. 

» 

On Thursday, the 4th of June, the Collections 
made by Messrs. Bonvalot and Prince Henri d'Or- 
léans in Thibet and Central Asia were exhibited to 
the public in the Zoological Gallery of the Museum 
of Natural History in Paris, and will probably remain 
on view for another month at least. 

They are excessively interesting and well worth a 
visit to Paris for all those who can dispose of several 
days. 

It *contains some fine series of Mammals and Bird 
Skins, a fine Herbarium and a large quantity of Ethno- 
logical specimens, Jewels and Curiosities. A great 
number of photographs taken by Prince Henri 
d'Orléans during the course of the voyage give a very 
good idea of all the countries traversed by the bold 
and successful Explorers. Among the Mammals 
can be seen a fine specimen of Yak, killed by Prince 
Henri d'Orléans, two specimens of horses kiangs, a 
sort of hemione between a horse and a donkey, many 
species of bears, antilopes, leopards, lynx, etc. Among 
the birds a large number of pheasants, partridges, 
hawks, ducks, crows, etc., some quite new to Science. 
These have just been described and dedicated to the 
discoverers. 

In the Herbai ium are also many rare and new 
species of plants proper to Thibet and China. Many 
were new for the Museum. 

Close to the Plerbarium are several dresses of the 
women (North of Yuman) and many other specimens 
of wearing apparels, vases, reliquaries, bells and all 
sorts of curiosities. 



\July i, 1891 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



55 



The collection of Jewels consist of rings, earrings, 
silver clasps, turquoise coronets, pearl necklaces, 
belts, etc. etc. 

I understand that all these Collections have been 
given to the French Government and will be distri- 
buted amongst several Museums. Well done ! ! 

This is a noble example, which wealthy people of 
all countries should imitate. The Editor. 



A Visit to the British Museum. 
Natural History Department. 

By A. Boucard. 

Last week, I went and spent several hours in the 
Galleries of the Natural History Department, British 
Museum, Cromwell Road, South Kensington. My 
first impression in seeing the building was that it look- 
ed rather pretentious in its architecture, for a scienti- 
fic Museum ; but after second thought, I remembered 
that I was in London, the capital of the British Empire 
which is rich enough to build Palaces for the exhibition 
of such scientific treasures as are now in the possession 
of the British Museum. 

That the building erected at South Kensington is a 
Palace, there is no doubt about it. When inside, the 
sight of the principal Gallery at the entrance is really 
grandiose, and it is easy to see how everything has 
been done to please and interest the general public. 
What a wonderful change for the best for those who 
remember how the Collections were crowded in the 
old building of Great Russell Street. Not only the 
local is magnificent and well adapted to its purpose ; 
but a great part of the Collections of Mammals, Birds, 
Insects, Reptiles, Shells etc., have been renovated, so 
that everything look, fresh and young again. There 
are magnificent series of Mammals, from the Elephants, 
Giraffes, Rhinoceros, Chimpanzee, Gorillas and others 
to Rats and Bats. The same with the Birds. Many 
ofthe old and faded specimens been taken away and 
replaced by fresh ones. There are some fine Series 
of all the families, and especially so with the Birds of 
Prey, Parrrots, Trogans &c. 

The great rarity of the century, the Great Auk or 
Alca impenuis, an extinct species, is represented by two 
fine specimens, one in the general collection of Birds, 
and another in the splendid collection of British 
Birds. 

Only 80 specimens of the Great Auk exist and 
several Museums public and private, can boast of sev- 
eral in their collections. 

But it will become rarer every day, and some of the 
new Museums, built recently in several parts of the 
World and which may become famous in due time, will 
be content to possess models, as no money will be 
able to buy original specimens. 

The collections of Fossils, Minerals, Shells, Reptiles, 
Corals, Insects, Sponges, and Plants are also of the 
greatest interest, and it will be a great boon for the 
Londoners of all classes, when the Museum will be 
lighted by electricity and opened in the evenings as 
its elder brother, the South Kensington Museum. 

If this cannot be done, there is no other alternative 
than to open it on Sundays. 



One way or the other, there is no doubt that it 
will occasion some extra work and expense ; but 
England is rich and can very well afford the extra 
expenses, by employing special clerks for that 
purpose, so as not to increase the work of the actual 
staff. 

One of the most interesting innovations to be seen 
in the actual Museum are the Cases of Birds, dis- 
seminated a little everywhere, containing specimens 
mounted with artistic taste and approaching nature 
as near as possible. 

In some of them can be seen birds flying about as 
if alive, in others they are nesting or with their young, 
in others are represented interesting illustrations of 
Mimicry. All these are greatly appreciated by the 
public and shows decidedly that a Museum must not 
be only scientific, but also artistic to be visited by 
thousands, and as a rule, the general public is more 
interested with these exhibitions of Birds and 
Animals in Cases, than with the more scientific col- 
lections. 

Another of the attractions is the celebrated 
Goulds' Collection of Humming Birds, exhibited on the 
first floor, on the right. 

Many other important Collections, purchased or 
offered by generous Donators, such as Hewitson's 
Butterflies, Hume's, Godman Salvin's, Sclater's, and 
Capt. Shelley and Gould's Birds, and many 
other important Collections are stored in the Mu- 
seum, but are not exhibited to the public. 

Many of the visitors who go to the British Museum 
and who admire the fine Collections exhibited in all 
parts of this magnificent building, thinks that they 
have seen all, when they have wandered through the 
Galleries ; but it is not so. The Collections exhibited 
to the public, are nothing when compared with the 
Scientific Series of Mammals and Bird Skins, In- 
sects, Reptiles and Fishes, Shells and Fossils, Dried 
Plants, &c, &c, which are stored in the interior of 
the building and only accessible to Students for 
scientific purposes. 

The Collection of Birds alone consists actually of 
about 350,000 specimens ! ! Is it not wonderful ! and 
I believe it is about as rich in all the other Depart- 
ments. 

Now it is time to remember to the Authorities of 
the British Museum that Noblesse oblige, and it is 
absolutely necessary, if they want to maintain the high 
standard of development and completion which the 
Collections have lately attained, and remain first as a 
Scientific Museum, that they can only do so by being 
very liberal in the prices given for specimens new to 
Science or which they have not got, as every day 
makes it more difficult for travellers and others to 
obtain specimens suitable for the Collections. 

They should never miss the first purchase or pick 
of good collections containing new and rare species, 
from whatever source they come ; even if they must 
pay a high price for them. 

If they don't do so, these Collections will go some- 
where else, and the Natural History Department of 
the British Museum will not be able to maintain 
its actual pre-eminence amongst the leading 
Museums. 

To be continued. 



56 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



\Jidy i, 1 89 1 



An Easy Way of making One Hundred 
Pounds Sterling a Year in Collecting 
Specimens of Natural History at Leisure 
Time. 

Continued from pages 7, 15, 23, 32. 



In large birds above the ske of a thrush it is 
necessary to skin the wings, this is done from the 
outside, the skin is cut along the inside of the wing, 
and all the flesh that can be is removed without 
separating the shafts of the large wing-feathers from 
the bone to which they are attached. In most ducks 
and in birds whose heads are larger than their necks 
a different method is adopted to the foregoing. In 
these cases the neck is skinned close up to the head 
and then cut off, and when turned right side out again 
a cut is made in the skin from just behind the eye 
over the ear and a little down the side of the neck as 
much as will allow the head to be skinned in the 
usual manner, the skull replaced and the cut neatly- 
sewn up ; with long legged birds as flamingoes,, 
herons and such like it is as well to draw the sinews 
of the legs, this is done by cutting across the ball of 
the foot and taking up the sinews with a pointed stick 
or steel point forcibly draw them out, this keeps the 
horny covering from slipping off, through the decom- 
position of the muscles, and the bird mounter can get 
a strong enough wire up to hold the bird firmly upon 
its legs ; thick toed birds such as eagles, vultures, &c, 
should have the feet cut underneath and the toes 
skinned, and any sinews cut away and just brushed 
with arsenical soap and sewn up with a few stitches ; 
birds feathered to their toes should have their legs 
skinned also, and the flesh that is taken out replaced 
by tow or cotton-wool wrapped around t he bone, 
taking care that the most is put where the most was 
taken away. 

All this may seem to be rather difficult at first to the 
beginner in taxidermy, but after a few weeks' practice 
and attention to the above concise description he will 
be surprised at the ease with which he will be able to 
skin and make up the birds, he or she, for amongst 
the fair sex may be numbered some few expert 
taxidermists, may experiment upon. I may conclude 
this article by saying that practice, as in other things, 
is the only way to make good skins. 

In skinning Mammals, the specimen is laid upon 
its back and an incision made along the median line 
of the belly, from just behind the forelegs, reaching 
nearly to the anus ; the skin is separated by cutting 
with the knife between the skin and body ; skin as far 
as possible on either side until the hind legs can be 
cut through where they join the body, then cut 
through the root of the tail, turn the skin inside out, 
and skin down until the fore-legs are reached separat- 
ing these from the body, leaving the blade-bone 
attached to the legs ; skin on until the base of the 
ears are come to, which cut through close to the skull. 
The eyes are now reached, very great care being taken 
not to cut the eyelid ; in specimens of deer the "tear" 
or lachrymal sinus must be skinned out close to the 
bone ; the mouth comes next, which again cut close 
to the skull, likewise at the nose and lips. The 
carcase can now be laid aside. Skin the legs down 



to the toes and cut away all the flesh from the 
bones, leaving the ligaments holding the joints 
together; as each leg-bone is cleaned of flesh, smear 
with arsenical soap, or in large specimens dust on 
alum, and make up with tow or cotton-wool to the 
size of the flesh cut away, and turn right side out ; 
should there be any particles of flesh or Jat adhering 
to the skin these should be cut or scraped away ; 
now with Mammals up to the size of Foxes the 
tail in nearly every instance can be "slipped," this 
is done by tying a piece of string to the root of 
the tail, which hitch on to some convenient tree or 
post and pass the root of the tail between the two 
handles of the largest pair of scissors, or two pieces 
of square wood, with the string on one side and 
the skin on the other ; then with a steady pull the 
tail, bone, muscles and flesh will slip out whole, 
leaving the tail attached to the string and the skin 
a tapered cylinder, down which some alum should 
be pushed with a stick or wire right to the tip. 
In larger Mammals with stronger muscles the tail 
should be slit down from base to tip, all the bones 
and flesh taken out, alumed and a little tow placed 
in and sewn up. We come now to the most 
troublesome and most tedious part of the whole 
process with which too much care cannot be taken; 
the flesh from the roots of the ears should be cut 
off, but not the gristle, and the ears skinned three- 
parts the way to the tip, nothing being cut away and 
alumed, the eyelids " split," that is, the knife passed 
between the inner and outer skin but not right 
through, the inner skin being left on ; the lips and 
nose also split and all superfluous flesh cut away. 
After aluming the skin it can be turned right side 
out, the body partly filled out with tow if small, 
dried grass if large, and the incision sewn up. The 
head should now be cut off the carcase, and the 
skull cleaned of flesh and brains and a label with 
the number of the specimen attached. In the case 
of horned animals, when taking the carcase out the 
skull should be severed from the neck and a Y- 
shaped incision made from the outside of the skin, 
the upper angle of the Y beginning at the base of 
each horn on top of the head and meeting between 
the ears ; the perpendicular line of the Y runs down 
the back of the neck sufficiently far to allow the 
base of the skull to be protruded whilst skinning 
the head ; the skin requires to be skinned right off 
the skull, so that the skull can be cleaned and the 
skin dried. For flat skins, which are eventually 
required to be mounted into rugs and for orna- 
mental purposes, the first incision should commence 
at the one corner of the mouth and continued right 
down to the tip of the tail, a cut from this line at 
right angles down the inside of each leg to the toes 
will allow the whole carcase with head legs and tail 
attached to be removed, the ears skinned, eyes and 
lips split, as above, alumed and stretched out to dry, 
the neatest way being to sew loops of string or hide at 
intervals of a few inches all round the skin and a peg 
stuck in the ground at each loop ; this should be done 
in a dry shady place, not in the sun, some dry grass 
being first placed loosely on the ground to allow the 
air to circulate to facilitate the drying ; the skull should 
also be saved, where practicable, and a label attached 



fitly i, 1891 ] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



57 



with a corresponding number to that on the skin. 
When dry,the skins, which will be stiff and hard, should 
be rolled or folded up without cracking in as small 
a compass as possible to be handy for carrying. 

Large Reptiles, which are too bulky to send in 
spirit, require somewhat similar treatment to Mam- 
mals, except that the skull cannot be removed in most 
instances, but should be cleaned whilst the skin is 
turned inside out and the tongue and eyes removed ; 
the tail cannot be slipped, but must be skinned out. 
Snakes are preserved in the skin by cutting along the 
belly from the anus for a short distance towards the 
head, the body cut right through, taking care not to 
cut the skin, the two pieces skinned out, the skull 
being left in, soaped and put to dry with a little 
stuffing, and when dry the stuffing removed and the 
skin rolled or folded up without breaking. Small 
lizards, frogs, snakes, &c, and in some cases birds, 
can also- be brought or sent in spirit, an incision 
being made in the belly to allow the spirit to pene- 
trate thoroughly ; some are also treated in this 
manner for anatomical research, the viscera in this 
case being left intact, only the skin being cut. 

For carrying the skins of birds on the pack-horse, 
I can recommend the plan I adopted in Australia, 
failing a better ; the two side packs were tin japanned 
" uniform " cases, each twenty-eight inches long, 
eighteen inches wide, and nine inches deep, these 
were packed previously when starting with powder, 
shot, and various articles of use in camp, and as they 
were used so the boxes were filled up with the pre- 
served skins, the heavy portion being placed so as to 
be the lowest when on the horse, the two pack straps 
were strapped round each and placed on the hooks 
of the saddle, a top pack of blankets, tent, or skins 
or other gear across the top, the side straps over the 
ends of this, and the surcingle over all passing under 
the side straps. The packs were always weighed, a 
spring weighing machine taken for the purpose, that 
the two side packs should be evenly balanced, to 
prevent the horse having a sore back, which takes a 
considerable time to heal in a hot climate. These 
boxes are also available for waggon or boat, standing 
a good lot of knocking about and keeping out wet, 
but they should not be packed with anything damp ; 
they make a first rate table if four forked sticks are 
driven in the ground, two straight ones laid in the 
forks and a box on these. I have seen some steel 
cabin trunks with rounded corners which would be 
admirable for these purposes. 

In packing bird skins for sending or bringing back 
home, each skin should be separately wrapped up in 
paper, keeping the feathers as smooth as possible, and 
the large and small parcels fitted in together, as in 
most instances the head and tail are small and the body 
thick. When a town or city is reached and packing 
cases can be procured, the birds can be unpacked 
from the tin boxes and repacked in tin lined cases, 
care being taken that they are thoroughly dry, and 
soldered down plenty of Camphor or Napthaline being 
placed among the parcels ; if the birds are mostly 
small, these can be packed in old tin biscuit boxes, 
the lids being soldered round, then they can be packed 
n a wooden case for shipment, plain tin boxes could 
be taken out nested, that is fitting one in the other, 



and a wooden box to contain the whole when filled 
out with specimens any spare space being packed with 
less destructible specimens ; please bear in mind that 
it is not only to keep the specimens free fron damp 
and rough usage, but also from rats, mice and beetle 
that so much trouble, or rather care is taken with the 
packing ; for I know of nothing so disheartening as to 
find on the arrival home of the specimens that so 
much trouble was taken with in the first instance, 
that they are totally ruined through want of careful 
packing, in some cases water has got in the specimen 
quite spoilt, covered with mold, in others rats or mice 
have formed their nest and brought up their young in 
the body of some fine specimen, legs and bills gnawn 
off, the contents of the case chaos ; for destructive- 
ness next to the rat are various small beetles and 
their larvae; these will eat up every particle of skin, all 
that is left are the bones and feathers. 

In packing skins of Mammals for a long voyage 
these should be opened out, beaten with a stick and 
brushed with a stiff brush, folded up in as small a 
compass as possible, dried and soldered down in tin 
lined cases after being plentifully sprinkled with 
paraffin ; horns and skulls do not require so much 
care, wooden cases or crates being sufficient after 
being brushed over with paraffin. 

Should any further particulars be required, I should 
be pleased to render any assistance in my power 
through the medium of our Editor. 

W. B. 



Obituary. 



On the 4th of May, at Dijon, Côtes d'Or, France, 
Henry de La Cuisine, aged 64 years. Henry de La 
Cuisine died rather suddenly. His last letter to me 
is dated 16th April, 1891, and he was quite well at 
that time. Since twenty years, he was one of my 
best correspondents, and a good friend. He was a 
very enthusiastic Naturalist, interested in all branches 
of Natural History ; but more especially in Ento- 
mology. He made a very fine Collection of Insects, 
such as Carabus and Cyphus among Coleoptera ; 
Ornithoptera,PapiIio and Morp ho, among Lepidoptera ; 
Chrysis among Hymenoptera, &c. Lately he was very 
interested in the 'Genus Acherontia (Sphingidœ). Of 
these Moths he succeeded in procuring a large number 
of specimens from all parts of the World. Besides his 
love for Natural History, Henry de La Cuisine was a 
splendid artist. No one had more facilities than him 
for making a beautiful painting, in water colours at a 
moment's notice, i remember having sent him a very 
rare specimen of Morpho or Acherontia, which was 
returned to me in the shape of a splendid water- 
colour, three hours after having received the speci- 
men. Henry de La Cuisine was a very learned man, 
and at the same time quite modest. It is a great loss 
for Science, and more for his friends. 

A. B. 



58 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[July 



1891 



Report on June Public Sales of leathers and 
Bird Skins. 



Ostrich Feathers. 

The auctions commenced 1st inst. and concluded 
yesterday — they comprised 2,276 cases Cape and 8 
Egyptian, of which 2,140 cases Cape, and 6 cases of 
Egyptian sold. 

The weight of feathers offered was 31,000 lbs. 
against 20,000 lbs. in April 

The sales opened quietly and continued with a 
dull tone throughout, and a general decline in prices 
was established. No doubt this was on account of 
the exceptionally bad weather during last month 
having depressed trade, added to the large quantity 
brought forward which was in excess of require- 
ments. 

White. — The best qualities were not in so much 
request as the medium, and were about 30s. per lb. 
lower — seeonds and thirds declined 10s. @ 20s. per 
lb. Femina were about 10 per cent, lower on the 
average, and Byocks 20s. @ 30s. per lb. Spadonas 
White and Light were 10s. @ 20s. per lb. under last 
sales, and Femina even more — White Boos declined 
about 15s. per lb., Black butts 10s. and Femina and 
Drab 5s- @ 7s. 6d. per lb. — Long and medium Black 
were 15 @ 20 per cent, and best medium about 10 per 
cent, lower, but ordinary medium and medium and 
short not much change. Long and medium Drab 
declined 15s. @ 20s. per lb., except fine lots, which 
were steady, good medium were about 10s. per lb. 
lower and medium and short about 5s. easier. Floss 
sold rather lower than last sales. 

The quantity sold realised ^102,000. 

The remaining Sales are fixed for the following 
dates : 

20th July. 19th October, 

7th September. 30th November. 

White Primes 1st, 2nd and 3rd £5 to ^14 per lb 
White Femina ... ...from ^7to^io 10s. 

Black long and medium 
Drab long and medium 
Floss black medium... 
Spadonas white and light 
Spadonas femina 
Boos white ... 
Boos femina ... 
Boos femina and drab 



Feathers and Bird Skins. 



60s. to ^5. IOS. 
40s. to £6. 
35s. to 58s. 6d. 
60s. to 95s. 
25s. to 55s. 
60s. to 67s. 6d. 

45 s - t0 55 s - 
27s. 6d. to 35s. 



Long Osprey' ... ... 


... 13 to 17s. per oz 


Medium Osprey ... 


... 25 to 37s. „ 


Short Osprey 


... 39 to 45s. 


Selected ditto 


... 52 to 70s. 


Mixed Heron 


... is. 6d. to 2s. ,, 


Red Heron 


... 2s. 9d. to 3s. ,, 


Grey Paddy 


... 16s. to 20s. ,, 


Peacock Neck feathers, blue 


... 2S. 9d. to 3s. per lb 


Peacock Neck feathers, gold 


... 16s. to 25s. ,, 


Peacock tail feathers 


... id a bundle. 


Impegan Pheasants ... 


. 2s. nd4. s. 6d. each 


Black Argus ... 


. 2S, 6d. 2s. nd. ,, 


Red Argus 


. is. 4d. is. iod. ,, 


Japanese Pheasants ... 


8d. 9 d. „ 


Blue Chatterers 


... 7s. 6d. „ 


Red and black Tanager 


is. 7d. 


Yellow and black ditto. 


is. 6d. to is. 7d.„ 


Dark red ditto ... 


9^d. to iod. „ 


Red Tanagers ... 


8£d. to 8fd. „ 


Orange „ 


... sd. to 5id. „ 


Blue Creepers ... 


4id. to 5^d. „ 


Finches, various 


ifd. to 2d. ,, 


Ruby Humming 


7d. to. 7|d. „ 


,, Emerald ... 


3|d. to 3fd. ., 


Various ditto. ... 


id. to 2d. ,, 


Parrots rose heads 


4|d. to 5|d. „ 


,, ring necks 


ifd. to 2fd. „ 


Small Kingfishers 


4d. „ 


Jays ... 


3d. to 4d. „ 


Various India and Japan 


Jd. to 4d. ,, 


Next sales will take place 


on the 24th of July. 



Just Arrived. 



A magnificent collection of Bird Skins from New 
Guinea, about 200 species, including sEpypodius 
bruijni, Pitta rosenbergi, Xatithomelus aureus, Semi- 
optera gouldi, Charmosina arfalki, and others, Nasi- 
terna various, &c, &c. 

A fine collection of bird skins from Japan, con- 
taining Turdus sibiricus, male, female and junior, 
and many other species of Turdidae ; a fine series of 
hawks and owls, &c, &c. 

A small collection of bird skins from Brazil, con- 
taining Scolopax gigantea and other good species. 

A small collection from Gaboon, containing rare 
species of Nectarinida? and others. 

A small collection of beetles from Riversdale, S. 
Africa containing Manticora Seicheii and fine species 
of Buprestidœ Cetonidie, and others. 

A very large collection of butterflies and moths 
from Japan, 500 species. 



FOR SALE. 



Life Admission to Royal Aquarium. 

Price 5 Guineas. 



fuly i, 1 891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



RARE STAMPS FOR SALE. 

A fine lot of unused Colonials in very fine condition 
with original gum. 

ONLY ONE OF EACH~FOR SALE. 



Bahamas, 1859, imperf., no wmk., Id. lake, 

ine pair 

,, ,, perf., no wmk., Id. lake 

Barbados, 1852, imperf., on blue paper, Id. blue 
,, „ ,, „ 4d. red 

,, 1856, ,, on white paper, Jd. green 

„ ,, „ ,, Is. black, pair 

,, 1860, perf., Jd. green, Id. blu<\ 4d. red, 

the three 
,, ,, ,, 6d. red, Is. black, the two 

Ceylon, 1861, petf., wmk. star, 9d. brown ... 

„ 2s. blue 

Mauritius, 1858. Figure of Britannia, 4d. green... 
St. Vincent, 1861, perf., no wmk., Id. lake... 

6d. green 

,, , ,, ,, ,, Is. purple black 

,, ,, ,, ,, Is. dark blue ... 

Trinidad, 1851, imperf., on blue paper. Id. brown 

,, ,, ,, 4d. purple brown ... 

6d. blue... 
,, ,, white paper, 4d. purple brown ... 

,, 1857, ,, ,, 4d. slate... 

„ Is. indigo 

Turks Islands, 1867, perf., no wmk., Id. rose 

„ 6d. black ... 

„ „ „ „ Is. blue 

Victoria, 1857, imperf., star wmk., Id. green, pair 



£ s. d. 



5 











10 








15 





1 


5 








15 





1 


10 








5 








7 





1 


10 





1 


15 





3 











1 








2 


6 





12 








10 





1 








1 


10 





1 


10 





1 


5 





1 


15 





2 


5 








1 








3 








4 





1 









TO ETHNOLOGISTS AND OTHERS. 



FOR SALE. 

Twenty finely carved An ows and 1 Bow from New Guinea 

Price 20s. 

African Rhinoceros War Club Price 30s. 

Three distinct Zulu War Clubs, made of iron wood and very 
nicely carved Price 30s. each. 

Pagaie from New Guinea, made of palm tree Price 30s. 

Magnificent Gold Antiquity from Panama, representing what 
appears to be Musicians, two large figures in the centre and 
six small ones round. It weighs 6 oz. 187 grammes. It is 
quite unique, and no Museum in the world possesses anything 
like it Price £50. 

A great variety of American Antiquities, chiefly from Central 
America, in hardstone, agathe, Idols, Vases, etc. from 5s. 

Modern pottery from Mexico and Central America 

from 6d. 
Statuettes representing the Indians of Mexico and Guatemala 

from 3s. 
Hats, Baskets, Mats and various Objects made with palm 
leaves and various textile plants, from Central America, Mada- 
gascar, New Guinea, etc. from 6d. 

Samples of Textile Fibres, Seed.s, Gums, Resins, Medicinal 
Plants, etc, from Mexico and Central America from 6d. 

Old and Modern Coins from Mexico from Is. 

Etc., etc., etc. 



STANDS, NWA\ STYLE. 

Wholesale Price. 
No. 1 for Humming birds and Small birds at 20s. per hundred 
,, 2 ,, Small birds up to Tanagers at 24s. ,, 

,, 3 ,, Tanagers up to Magpies at 28s. ,, 

,, 4 ,, Magpies up to Crows or Small 

Hawks at 32s. ,, 

„ 5 „ Small Hawks to Large Hawk» 

and Owls at 40s. ,, 



TO BOOKSELLERS AND OTHERS. 



Boucarrt. Catologus Avium, English or French preface, Syste- 
matic Classification of Birds, 8s. instead of 12s. 

Catalogue of Birds, published by the British Museum. 

Vol. 1 to 6 inclusive. The first three Volumes are out of 
print. Price £10. 

Hand List of Birds, Gray, published by the British Museum. 
3 vol. 8vo. Price 25s. 

Guide pour collecter, préparer et expédier des Collections 
d'histoire naturelle. ls. 

Guia para colectar, eonservar y despachar Colecciones de 
historia natural. Is. 

Petit Atlas d'Ornithologie ou Collection choisie d'Oiseaux 
les plus connus, dessinés d'après nature par Martinet, 
Paris, 1784. 
1 Vol. grand in folio, in magnificent condition. Contents : 

Spître à Buffon, Tableau général du classement des Oiseaux 

livisé? d'après Buffon en neuf Ordres et cent un Genres ou 

Familles. 150 splendid coloured plates par Martinet. Exceed- 
ingly rare. £50. 

America, by John Ogilby Esq., London, 1671. Grand in folio, 
675 pages, 121 splendid Engravings and Maps. £30. 

Historia de la Conquista de Mexico, etc., by Don Antonio Solis, 
Brusselas, 1741. 

1 Vol. in folio, 276 pages, 13 Engravings and Maps. Pages 
1 to 9 slightly stained. £20. 

Historia General de las Cosas de Nueva Espana, by Rev. 
Bernardino de Sahagun, con notas y suplementos, por 
Carlos Maria de Bustamante, Mexico, 1829. 4 vols, in 
4to., uncut. £5. 

Historia de las Conquistas de Hernando Cortez, por Francisco 
Lopez de Gomara, con varias notas y addiciones, por Carlos 
Maria de Bustamante, Mexico, 1826. 1 vol. in 4to, 315 pp. 

£2. 

Tezcoco en los ultimos tiempos de sus antiguos Reyes. 
Tomada de los manuscritos ineditos de Boturini y redac- 
tados por el Lie. Mariano Veytia, Mexico, 1826. 1 vol- 
16mo, 276 pages. £2. 

3atecismo y Declaracion de la Doctrina Christiana en lengua 
OTOMI, con un Vocabulario del mismo idioma, por el 
R. P. Joaquin Lopez Yepes, Mexico, 1826. 1 Vol. in 4to, 
254 pages. £4. 

D. R. Kampuysens Stichtelyke Ryinen, by M. Mathieu, Rot- 
terdam, 1688. 1 Vol. in 8vo., 680 pages. £2. 

Clara y Sucinta Exposicion del pequeno Catecismo impreso 
en el idioma MEXICANO, por un Sacerdote devoto de la 
Madré santissima de la Luz, etc. 

Puebla, 1819. 1 Vol., 67 doubJepages, one side in Mexican, 
the other in Spanish. £2 10 

Various Calendarios Mexicanos, 1830 to 1860. 2s. each. 



ARTIFICIAL EYES. 

Wholesale Price. 



Black 


Coloured 






Cornered 


Cornered 
& Veined 


per gross 






per 


ooz. pairs 


per doz. pairs 


No. 1 to 4 6d. 


ls. 6d. 


No. 


4 to 6 


3s. 6d. 


4s. 6d. 


„ 5 „ 8 8d. 


2s. 6d. 


, , 


7„ 8 


5s. 0d. 


6s. Od. 


,, 9 „ 10 ls.Od. 


4s. Od. 


,, 


9 


6s. Od. 


8s- Od. 


„ 11 2s. Od. 


5s. 6d. 




10 


7s. Od. 


9s. Od. 


„ 12 2s. 3d. 


7s. Od. 




11 


8s. Od. 


10s. Od. 


,, 13 2s. 6d. 


10s. Od. 


5, 


12 


9s. Od. 


lis. Od. 


doz. of pairs 










„ 14 3s. Od. 


Is. 6d. 


,, 


13 


10s. Od. 


12s. Od. 


„ 15 3s. 6d. 


2s. 6d. 




14 


lls.Od. 


13s. Od. 


„ 16 4s. Od. 


2s. 6d. 




15 


13s- Od. 


15s. Od. 


„ 17 8s. Od. 


3s. Od. 




Larger sizes can be made 


„ 18 12s. Od. 


4s. Od. 






to or 


der. 



Nr. 1 to 4 are good for humming birds and others up to 
the size of Tanagers. 

No. 5 to 8 Tanagers to Magpies. 

No. 9 to 10 Magpies to Gulls. 

No. 11 to 12 Pheasants, etc. 

No. 13 to 18 Hawks, Owls, Herons, etc. 



VI 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



July i, 1891] 



List of stuffed Birds 
Sale. 

Tinamus major, G. 

Crypturus ' variegatus, G. 

Otis tarda, L. [cited in Vieillot 

works) 
— Tetrax, L. ... 
JLupodoiis denhami, C. ... 
Sypheotis bengalensis, M. 

Afrotis afra, G 

Sypheotides macqueeni, G. ... 
Cariama Cristata L. ... 
Psophia crepitans, L. ... 
Chauna chavaria, L. ... 
Opisthocomus cristatus, L. .,. 
Penelope obscura, V. ... 
Ortalida motmot, L. ,. 
Oreophasis derbiana, G. R. G. 
Crax alector, L. 
Polyplecfron chincquis 
Phasianus colchicus, L. 

— torquatus T. 
Chrysolophus pictus, male ... 

— — female . . . 

— amherstise, male ... 
- — — female ... 

Acomus erythropthalmus, R. . . . 
Gallus sonnerati, T. ... 
Creagrius varius, S. ... 
Ceriornis satyra, E. male ... 
Meleagris americana, B. 

ocellata, C. 
Tantalus ibis, L. 

— religiosus, L. 
Ibis rubra, L. ... 

— falciiiellus, L. 
Carphibis spinicollis. J. 
Hagedashia bishagedash, L. ... 

— chalcoptera, Vieitl, typical. . . 
Theristicus albicollis „ 
Dromas ardeola, P. ... 
Ardea cinerea L. 

— melanocephala, V. 
major, L. 

— purpurea, L. ... 
Herodias egretta, G. ... 

— garzetta, L. ... 

— pealei, B. 
Florida ccerulea, L. ... 

— tricolor, M. ... 
Agamia agami, G. 
Bubulcus ibis, H. 

speciosus, India 
Ardeola comata, P. ... 
Ardetta minuta, L. 

exilis, L. 

scapularis ... ... 

Zebrilus undulatus, G. 

— philippensis ... 
Butorides virescens, L. 
Botaurus stellaris, L. ... 

— lentiginosus ... 
Tigrisoma brasiliense, L. 

— tigrinum, G. 



for 

s. 

3° 
1.5 

IOO 

10 
200 

50 

50 
40 

1 00 

30 
80 

3° 

3° 
20 

100 

5° 
40 

20 

20 

20 

15 

5° 
20 

16 

20 

20 

20 

80 

IOO 

2 5 
2 

12 

10 

5° 
25 
5° 

5° 
20 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
20 
20 
10 
8 

TO 

6 
6 

8 

8 

8 

10 

12 

12 
12 
12 



L. 



L. 
L, 



Nyctiardea europea, S. 

— ardeola 
Nyctherodius violaceus, L. 
Pilherodius pileatus, B. 
Scopus umbretta, G. .. 
Canchroma cocklearia, 
Ciconia alba, B. 

— maguàri, G. . . 
Menanopelargus nigra, 
Xenorhynchus indica, 
Leptoptilos crumeniferus, C. 
Cranopelargusjavanicus, H. 
Platalea leucorodia, L. 

— njtijcij JU. 
Grus cinerea, B. 

— antigone, mate ... 

— leucogeranus, P. 
Anthropoides virgo, L. 
Balearica pavonina, L. 
Phcenicopterus antiquorum, 
Phcenicorodias ruber, L. 
Sarkidiornis melanonotus, P. 
Plectropterus gambensis, L. 
Anser segetum, G. 

— brachyrynchus, B. 

— albifrons, G. 
Manlochen erythropus L. 

— minutus ... 
Chen liyperboreiis, Pall. 
Branta bernicla, L. 
Chlamidochen jubata, L. 
Leucopareia leucopsis, B. 
Rufibrenta nip col I is, P. 
Chloephaga mageilanica, G. 
Bernicla leucopiera, G. 
Nettapus madasgariensis G. 

— coromandelicus, L. 
Cygnus olor, G. 

— nigricollis, G. 

— musicus, B. ... 

— minor, P. 
Chenopis atratus, L. ... 
Dendrocygnaarcuata, C. 

major J. 
viduata, L. 
autumnalis. L. 



mexicana, L 



L 



Tadorna cornuta, G 
Casarca rutila, G. 
Aix sponsa, L. 

— galericulata, L. 
Mareca penelope, L. ... 

— [americana, G. 

chiloensis, K 

Dafila acuta, L. 
Poeciloneta bahamensis 
Anas boschas, L. 

— cristata, G. 

— gloscitans, P. 
Querquedula ccerulcata, L. 

■ — discors, L 

pa lea la. G. 
Nethon crecca, L. 
torquata, V. {type.) 
formosa, G.... 



{type.) 



10 




s. 


10 


Chaulelasmus strepera, L. 


10 


10 


marmoratus, T. 


10 


12 


Marmonetta angustirostris, M. 


12 


12 


Spatula clypeata, L. ... 


10 


20 


Fuligula rufina, V. 


16 


40 


Fulix rufttorques, B. ... 


16 


5° 


— marila, L. 


10 


5° 


— apfinis, E. {Labrador?) ... 


5° 


3° 


Aythya ferina, L. 


10 


So 


— nyroca, G. 


8 


80 


Bucephala baroivi, D. .r. 


5° 


20 


— clangula, L. 


10 


12 


— albeola, L. 


10 


40 


— histrion ica, L. 


5° 


60 


Harelda glacialis, L. ... 


12 


80 


Stelleria dispar, S. 


5° 


60 


Somateria mollissinia L, 


5° 


80 


— spectabilis, L. 


60 


5° 


Oidemia nigra, L. 


10 


40 


Pelionetta perspicillata, L. 


40 


40 


Melanitta fusca, L. 


3° 


5° 


Erismatura leucocephala, S. ... 


10 


20 


Mergus serrator, L. ... 


15 


25 


— merganser, L, 


16 


5° 


Lophodytes cucullata, L. 


20 


20 


Mergellus albicollis, L. 


20 


20 


Colymbus glacialis, L. 


20 


80 


— articus, L. 


40 


20 


— septentrionalis, L.... 


20 


20 


Podiceps cristatus, L. ... 


10 


20 


rubricollis, L. 


8 


IOO 


Dytes auritus, L. 


8 


40 


— cornutus, G. 


10 


5o 


Proctopus nigricollis, S. 


12 


12 


Rollandia leucotis, C. 


12 


10 


Sylbeocyclus minor, L. 


5 


5° 


Podiceps carolinensis, L. 


8 


50 


Mormon fratercula, C. 


16 


5° 


— grabœ, B, 


12 


50 


— glacialis, L. ... 


20 


60 


Utamania torda, L. 


12 


10 


Cheniscus cirrhatus, G. 


25 


10 


Simorhynchus cristatellus, P. 


12 


10 


Phaleris nodirostris, P. 


20 


10 


Sphenisais chryscconiits, T. 


5° 


10 


Apienodyics patagonica, P. 


IOO 


1 5 


Brachyramphus antiquus, L. ... 


16 


10 


Uria grylle, L. 


6 


12 


— troile, L. ... 


10 


12 


— brunicki, L. 


20 


12 


— lachrymans, L. ... 


16 


12 


Artica aile, L 


6 


20 


Pufhnus major,' F. 


10 


12 


— fuliginosus, S. 


8 


16 


— anglorum, C. 


10 


10 


obscurus, G. 


20 


16 


— cinereus, S. ... 


12 


5° 


— yelcuanus, A. 


3° 


6 


Procellaria pelasgica, L. 


10 


5 


leucorhoa G. 


!5 


IOO 


Pelagodioma fregata, L. 


5° 


S 


Fulmarus glacialis, L 


3° 


5o 


Cookilaria cooki, G.R. Gr. ... 


3° 


50 


Daption capensis, T.. 


1? 



Tuiy i 5 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



vn 



List of Stuffed Birds for 




s. 




s. 


Sale. — (Continued.) 


s. 


Circus cyaneus, L.' ... 


8 


Falco aesalon, L. 


8 


Prion magnirostris, G. 


200 


— Swainsoni, S. ... 


16 


— aurantius, G. ... 


10 


Diomedea exulans, L. 


100 


— cinerascens, S. ... 


8 


— chicquera, D. ... 


20 


Thalassarche chlororhynchas, 




— — ■ S. (black variety 


) 30 


— concolor, C. (leg. imper.) 


30 


G. 


80 


— aeruginosus, L. 


10 


— eleonorae, M. ... 


3° 


Stercorarius parasiticus, L. ... 


20 


Melierax polyzonus, R. 


20 


Hiero falco candicans, G. (Tem. 




Coprotheres pomarinus, T. ... 


-5 


Astur palumbarius, L. 


16 


Collection) ... 


80 


Megalesthris catarractes, L. ... 


10 


— badius, G.... ... 


6 


Hier of al co gyrfalco, L., Norway 


5° 


Larus maximus, L. 


20 


— soloensis, L. 


12 


— Lapponia 


60 


— peyreaudi Vieill, 


20 


— ■ novae hollandiae, G. .. 


20 


— saker, G. ... 


20 


— tenuirostris, C. ... 


15 


Accipiter nisus, L. 


6 


Cerchneis tinnuncula, L. 


6 


— cirrhocephalus, V. 




— virgatus, B. 


16 


— ■ punctata, T. 


12 


(typical sp.) 


20 


— cooperi, B. 


16 


— sparveria, L. 


5 


— canus, V. 


12 


— tinus, L. 


8 


— tinnunculoides, V. 


12 


— flavipes, M. 


12 


— badius, Alleon, Smyrnc 


'. 16 


— vespertina, L. 


12 


— Richardsoni, W. 


16 


Tachytriorchis pterocles, V. . . 


40 


Pandion haliaetus, L. 


3° 


— bonapartei, S. .... 


20 


Buieo jakal, D. 


5° 


Gyps fulvus, occidentalis 




Gabianus pacifiais, L. 


3° 


— Jerox, G. {Volga). 


50 


G. Sardinia 


100 


marinus, L. 


20 


desertorum, D. 


20 


Otogvps auria/laris, D. ... 


100 


Clupeilarus fuscus, L. 


20 


— lineatus, V. Canada. .. 


3° 


Neophron perenopterus, L. ... 


3° 


Leucus glaucus, B. ... 


3° 


vulgaris, L. 


16 


Sarcoramplius gryphus, L. 




— leucopterus, F. 


2^ 


— tachardus, martini, Hare 


1 


very old male. 


200 


Laroides michaelis, B. 


16 


Volga. 


3° 


Cathartes papa, L. 


5° 


Adelarus leucopthalnw. ; |. n . ., 


25 


Archibuteo lagopus, G. 


25 


Catharistes atrata, B. ... 


c 


— icthyaetus, F„ 


■ ;o 


Busarellus nigricollis, L. 


20 


Oenops aura. L. 


20 


Chroicocephalus ridibundus, L. 


'8 


Urubitinga niger, V. ... 


3° 


Polyborus brasiliensis, G. 


20 


— capistratus, T. 


10 


Gypaetus barbatus, S. (very fine 




Ibycter americanus, B. 


20 


Atricilla atricilla, L. 


8 


specimen) ... 


100 


— chimango. V. ... 


10 


Melagavia melanocephala, N. 


20 


Aquila fulva, L. 


60 


Bubo turcomanus, E. 


60 


Hydrocoioeus minutus, P. 


20 


heliaca S. 


100 


— ascalaphus, S. ... 


40 


Pagophda eburnea, G. 


5° 


— plqnga, V. 


5° 


— at/ieniensis A. 


5° 


Rissa tridactyla, L. 


8 


— rapax, C. 


5° 


— magellanicus, G. 


25 


Sterna hirundo, L. ... 


8 


— naevia, G. 


3° 


Scops aldrovandi, B. ... 


8 


— 1 acte a, alba V. 


100 


Nisaetus bonnelli, C. . - . 


80 


— leucotis, T. 


12 


■ — leucopareia, N. 


10 


pennatus, G. Turkey.. 


3° 


Nyctea scandiaca. L. ... 


4c 


— nigra, S. 


3° 


Circaetus, galliais, G. (froir 


1 


Surnia uiula, L. Arkangel 


4° 


dougalli, M 


16 


Duchess de Berry Coll.) .. 


5° 


— N. America. 


20 


Gelichelidon anglica, Mont. ... 


1 2 


Spilornis, bâcha D. ... 


20 


Carine noctua, S. 


6 


Actochelidon cantiaca, G. 


10 


Helotarsus ecaudatus, D. 


60 


— brama, C. 


8 


— affinis, R. ... 


. 12 


Haliaetus albicillus, L. 


80 


— persica, V. 


10 


— arclica, A. ... 


20 


— leucocephalus. L. 


80 


Speotypo cunicularia, M 


10 


Thalasseus caspiae, P 


20 


leucoryphus G. 




Glaucidium passerinum. L. ... 


c. 


— bergi, L. 


20 


Monts Altai 


100 


perlatum V. {type). 




Sternula minuta, I,. ... 


6 


Gyp>o/iierax angolensis, G. 


100 


{ occipitalis, T. 
( ferruginea, B. 


40 


Hydrochelidon fissipes, L. ... 


6 


Haliastur ponticerianus, G. . . 


12 


io 


— fuliginosa, G. 


16 


Elanoides furcatus, L. 


• 25 


Asio otus, L. - 


10 


Anous stolidus, L. 


10 


Nauclerus fîoeouri, V, typica 


1 60 


brachyotus, L. ... 


10 


Naenia inca, L. 


40 


Milvus regalis, B. 


• 3° 


Syrnium aluco, L. 


12 


Pdiyncops nigra, L. ... 


12 


— govinda, S. 


• 3° 


— lapponiatm, R. 


60 


Phaeton aethereus, L. 


25 


— aegyptus, G. ... 


12 


uralense, P. ... 


50 


— phsenicurus, G. 


3° 


aetolius, V. 


• 3° 


- — nebulosum, T 


40 


— çandidus, G. 


25 


Rostramus hamatus, V. 


■ 3° 


Nyctala tengmalmi, G. 


10 


Plotus anhinga, L. 


IC 


Elanus coeruleus, D. ... 


S 


— acadica, G. ... 


6 


levaillanti, L. 


16 


— melanopterus, B. Volga.. 


16 


Strix flammea, L. 


12 


Carbo cormoranus, M. 


16 


Gampsonyx swainsoni, V. 


20 


■ — javanica, T. 


12 


— sp. N. Zealand ... 


16 


Pernis apivorus, L. 


. 16 


All these birds are in fine condition 


Desmaresti, P. 


20 


Harpagus diodon, T 


20 


and mounted by experienced hands. 


■ — albicollis, 


16 


Ictinia plumbea, G. ... 


8 


' 




gay mardi, L. 


40 


Microhierax coerulescens, L. .. 


12 






cristatus, F. (Island) 


20 


Falco communis, G. ... 


12 


FOR SALE, 




Pelecanusonocrotalus, L. 


80 


— pealei, R. 


20 


Several hundred species of Rept 


iles, 


— crispus, B. ... 


100 


— barbarus, L. 


. 16 


Fishes and Crustaceae, in alcohol, 


Atagen aquila, L 


5° 


— lanarius graecus, S. 


» 3° 


from Mexico, Central America, 


Polyborides radiatus, S. 


20 


— subbuteo, L. ... 


8 


Cuba, New Guinea etc. 





vin 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[July i, 1 89 1 



5 * w a a Am^aiL 4UU CO.5 

NATURALISTS AND FEATHER MERCHANTS, 

0«« JS:r&g£lojra.ci«. 




Messrs. BOUCARD, POTTIER & CO. offer to sell on commission all kinds of Objects of Natural 
History, Collections of Mammal and Bird Skins, Skeletons, Human and Animal Skulls, Insects of all 
orders pinned and set, or in papers ; Marine, Fresh Water, and Land Shells ; Reptiles and Fishes in spirit ; 
Crustacea) and Arachnide in spirit ; Ethnological collections from all parts ; Showy Bird Skins and 
Feathers for Plumassiers and Naturalists ; Mammal Skins for Furriers ; Bright species of Insects for 
Artificial Florists ; Rare old Stamps, used and unused; Curios of all sorts, Pictures and Works of Art, etc., 
etc., etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting Messrs. Boucard, Pottier 
& Co., who having a large connection with Amateurs in all parts of the world, are able to get the very best 
prices for them. 

Messrs. Boucard, Pottier & Co. beg to advise Directors of Museums and private Amateurs that they 
undertake to stuff from a Humming Bird to a Whale at very reasonable prices. Only experienced and 
scientific Ta i cidermists are employed by the hour for that work, which will always be of the best class. 

An inspection of their Galleries, where a large number of specimens are always on show, is solicited. 

Special fabrication of Mammals and Birds Eyes at wholesale prices which defy all competition, either 
as quality or price. See special Advertisement. 

New Stands for Birds, suitable for Museums and Scientific Institutions. No one should be without 
them. The appearance of the Birds on these stands is unequalled, and everyone should adopt them and 
renovate the old ones. See Advertisement. 



TO BE LET OK BOLD 



SEVERAL PROPERTIES 



The celebrated Winter Resort on the Riviera, 
<&0 minutes from Monte €arlo. 



1° VI LLA MARIA LU I G I A. 

A charming residence, standing in its own ground, situated 
Coero Levante on one side and the Beach on the other, at 
about 15 minutes' walk from the centre of the town and 20 
from the suition. Splendid view in all directions, beautiful 
garden of about 2,000 mètres, in which a large space has been 
laid purposely for laivn tennis and other games. 

Carriage and private entrances. 

Gymnastic, Suvimer Houses, Aviary, Bathing Cabin, 8{c. 

Excellent water. 

Ground Floor.— Three fine rooms, full south, with 7 buy 
windows opening on the Garden, Kitchen, Offices, Cellar, &c. 

First Floor. — Three large and fine rooms, full south, two on 
the north side, all of them communicating. Magnificent for 
Receptions, Soirées, &c. Cloak Room. 

Second Flo-,,-.— Four large rooms, full south, one of them 
with dressing-room, three fine rooms on the north side. Cloak 
Room. Corridor in the middle. 

Size of Villa : length 18 metres, width 10 metres. 
Price francs 60,000 

LETTING. 

Unfurnished francs 3,500 

Furnished, Winter season, 6 months „ 2,500 

More the letting of the furniture according to the value of 

same required. 

Furnished, Summer season, 3 months. Price to agree. 



2° VILLAS RONDO 25, 27. 

Two semi-detached Villas, full south, standing in their own 
ground of 1,000 mètres, situated on the Corso Gakabaldi, (the 
most pleasant walk of the town) hardly at 10 minutes walk 
from the central part of the town and 15 of the station. 

No. 25.— Ground Floor.— Three fine rooms, Kitchen, Office, 
and Cellar. 

First Floor. — Six comfortable rooms. 

No. 27 — -Exactly the same, more Underground floor with 
kitchen and two large rooms. Front and back gardens. 

Priée for the two villas francs 45,000 

Separately. 

No. 25 francs 25,000 

No. 27 francs 30,000 

LETTING. 

No. 25. — Unfurnished franes 1,000 

Famished, winter season ... — 2,000 

— summer season ... — 1,000 

No. 27 . — Unfurnished francs 1,250 

Furnished, winter season ... — 2,500 

summer season ... 1,250 

Separate floors can also be let with or without furniture. 



3° A PIECE OF HUD, about 350 metres. 

Full south, on the Coeso Mezzogiokno, two minutes from 
the station and the port, in the central part of the town. 

Price francs 15,000 

Letting ■ francs 800 



Exchange could be made for property situated in England. 
For further information, apply to — 

M, A, BOUCARD, 
225, High Holborn, London, W.C- 



LuKDOK I; Published by A. BOUCARD, at 225, High Holboru, W.O. ; and Printed at J. S. LUVlbTS Printing Works, 75, Leadeuljall Sorect, B.C. 

.////;/ 1, 1891. 




£be 



1bum 





A MONTHLY SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC, AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW. 



GUARANTEED CIRCULATION, 5000. 



VOL I., NO. 8. 



August 1, 1891. 



PRICE SIXPENCE. 



Annual Subscription: United Kingdom, Post free, 4 shillings ; all countries included in the Postal Union, 5 shillings ; 

All other countries, 6 shillings. 




(XaJ/V\£q_' Jà^MAÀU>,^ÙÂy 



EDITED UNDER THE DIRECTION 

OF 

MR. ADOLPHE BOUCARD, 

NATURALIST, 

Officier d'Académie, 1878; Knight of the Royal Military Order of the Conception, 1881 ; 
Knight Officer of the Royal Order of Cambodje, 1889; Knight Commander of the Royal Order of Isabelle la Catholique, 1882; 

Corresponding Member of the Zoological Society, London, 1865; 

de la Mission scientifique française au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale, 1866; of the Royal Museum of Madrid, 1881; 

Commissioner for the Republic of Guatemala in the Paris International Exhibitions of 1878 and 1889 ; 

Member of the International Jury, Paris, 1889 ; Member of many scientific societies; 

etc. etc. etc. etc. 



CONTENTS OF No. 8.— AUGUST 1, 1891. 



The Plantain or Banana Plant by A. Boucard. 

A Visit to the British Museum. Natural History 

Department. 
Inauguration of the Statue of Pierre Belon, the 

Naturalist. 
A Giant Land Crab. 
An easy way of making ^100 a year in collecting | Scientific Books for Sale 

specimens of Natural History at leisure time. 



Royal Aquarium. 

Review of New Scientific Books. 

Report on the celebrated Collection of Shells formed 
by the late Sir David Barclay and sold in public 
Sale at Stevens the 6th of July and three follow- 
ing days. 



&. 



^1 



[Entered at Stationers' Hall.] 



11 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[August i, 1 89 1. 



FOR SALE.— Shells. 

Private Collection of Mr. Boucard. 
Land, Fluviatile and Marine Shells. 

Glandinidse, is. each. Helicidse, 6d. each. Bulimidse 
is. each. Achatinidae, is. each. Chlindrellidae, is. 6d. 
each. Clausilidae, 3d. each. Ampularidse, 6d. each. 
Lymmea, Physa, and Planorbis, 3d. each. Cyclosto- 
nidse, 6d. each. Helicinidae, 3d. each. Unio, 
Anodonta, and Ostrea, 6d. each. 

Marine Shells — All the Collection including 
Argonyuta, Murex, Fusus, Triton, Ranella, Nassa, 
Oliva, Marginella, Harpa, Terebra, Conus, Sfrombus, 
Cypraea, Neritina, Patella, Chiton, Haliotis, Turbo, 
Venus, Cardium, &c, 6d. each. 

Can be divided if required. 

All applications to be made at the Journal's Office. 

Insects Coleoptera. 

Private Collection of Mr. Boucard. 

Cicindelidse, including types of Oxygonia, 
Boucardi Chev, Cincindela costaricensis and others, 
2j.each. Carabidse, including many types, is. each. 
Dytiscidae, 6d. each. Staphylinidae, 3d. each. 

Pselaphidae, Gnostidae, Paussidae, Scydmaenidae, 
Silphidae, Scaphididae, Histeridae, Nitidulidae, Trog- 
ositidae, Rhyssodidae, Cucujidae, Cryptophagidae, 
Derodontidae, Latrididae, Mycetophagidae, Dermestidae 
Byrrhidae, Parnidae, and Heteroceridae, 3d. each. 
Lucanidae and Passalidae, including many types, uf« 
each. Copridae, 6d. each. Melolonthidae, 6d. each, 
Rutelidse, including all the types of Plusiotis, 
Chrysina, Heterosternus, 2s. each. Scarabaeidae, is. 
each. Cetonidae, is. each. Buprestidas, is. each. 
Trixagidae, Monommidas, Eucnemidae, and Elateridae, 
6d. each. Cebrionidae. Rhipidoceridae, Dascillidae, 
and Malacodermidae, 3d. each. Cleridae, 6d. each. 
Lymexilonidae, Cupesidae, Ptinidee, Bostrychidae, and 
Cioidae, 3d. each. Tenebrionidae, 3d. each. Nilion- 
idse, Pythidae, Melandryidae, Lagriidae, Pedilidae. 
Anthicinae, Pyrochroidae, Mordellidae, and Rhipidoph- 
oridae, 3d. each. Cantharidae, 6d. each. Cephaloidas, 
Oedemeridae, and Mycteridae, 3d. each. Curculionidae 
and Scolytidae, 3d. each. Brenthidae and Anthotribidae, 
6d. each. Cerambycidae, is. each : Bruchidae, 3d. each. 
Chrysomelidae, 3d. each. Cassididse, 6d. each. 
Languridae and Erotylidae, 6d. each. Tritomidae and 
Coccinellidae, 3d. each. 

Postage Stamps 
FOR SALE. 

A large variety of rare Stamps and New Issues from all parts 
of the World. For prices &c. apply to Naturalists Agency, 

225, High Holborn, W.C. 

WANTED TO BUY. 

Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwards^ 
which none have beeu added since the last 20 years. 

Old stamps on their original letter sheet or envelope, especi- 
ally Colonials and old German states. 

Mulready Wrappers and Envelopes. 

Old unused English and Colonials. 

Old works on stamps. 

Proofs of stamps, etc. etc. 



TO ORNITHOLOGISTS. 



FOB SALE. 

Fine mounted specimen of Aha impennis, the Great Auk, 
(extinct species). Pedigree from date of capture, 1836, will 
be given to buyer. 

Fine male specimen of the exceedingly rare new genus of 
bird Remhardtia ocellata Bp., the greatest discovery of the 
century. p r i C e £50 

FOR SALE.— From Kina Balu {Borneo). 
Calyptomena whiteheadi, male, 100s. A magnifi- 
cent bird, discovered lately by Mr. Whitehead in the 
interior of Borneo. Many other species from the 
same collector (magnificent skins). 

FOR SALE. 
A magnificent Collection of Woods from all parts 
of the world. 2,000 varieties. Fifty years work. 
Will be sold at a bargain. 

Fourteen species of Carabus from Chili. In the 
most perfect condition. 23 specimens, at 5s. each. 



Great Reduction in Prices. 

Bird Skins for Sale. 

AT NATURALIST'S AGENCY, 

225, HIGH HOLBORN. 



LONDON, W.C. 

Wild Pigeon 12/- 

Parrots, various ... ... ... 12/- 

Mandarin Duck ... ... ... 30/- 

Red Partridge ... ... ... ... 20/- 

Small Owl (Scops) ... ... ... 30/- 

Medium Owl ... ... ... ... 12/- 

Barn Owl ... ... ... .., 36/- 

Large Owls, various ... ... ... 24/- 

King Fisher (fiat skins) 12/- 

Pheasant heads ... ... ... 1/- 

Metallic Merle ... 10/- 

Metallic blue Merle ... 24/- 

Longtail ... ... ... ... 24/- 

Longtail Trojan ... ... ... 200/- 

Short ,, „ ... ... ... 50/- 

Red Tanager ... ... ... 12/- 

Orange Tanager ... ... 8/- to 24/- 

Black and Yellow ditto ... ... 24/- 

Large Grey King Fisher ... ... 24/- 

Californian Quail ... ... ... 12/- 

Grey Starling ... ... ... ... 6/- 

Starling (fine skins) ... ... ... 6/- 

„ (poor made skins) ... ... 2/- 

Large African Bee Eater ... ... 20/- 

Grey Heron (Breast) ... ... ... 20/- 

Indian Partridge ... ... ... 6/- 

African Hoopooe (fine skins) ... ... 24/- 

Small Bustard ... ... ... ... 36/- 

Red Bird of Paradise (round skins) ... 120/- 

Yellow, ditto ... ... ... ... 200/- 

Australian Rifle Bird ... ... ... 200/- 

New Guinea, ditto ... ... ... 180/- 

Californian Woodpecker ... ... 24/- 

Red Mackaw (flat skins) 30/- 

American Jay ... ... ... ■•• 10/- 



dozen 



August i, 1891. 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



ill 



Japanese, ditto 


... 


... 61- 


doze 


Swallows 


... . . 


... 61- 


o 


Thrushes 


... . . 


... 6j- 


)> 


Woodpeckers ... 


... 


. ... 6/- 


)5 


Cock of Rock (fine 


skins) 


co/- 


)) 


Indian Crow, ditto 


... . . 


... 36/- 


)) 


Gull 


... 


. ... 18/- 


)) 


Large, ditto 


... 


. ... 18/- 


)) 


Large Sea Swallow 




... 12/- 


)J 


Small ,, ,, 


(minuta) .. 


... 24/- 


)> 


Small black, ditto 


... 


. ... 18/- 


)) 


Waxwing 


... . 


. ... 61- 


J) 


Five Coloured Finch ... 


... 24/- 


)) 


Tanagers, various 


... 


3/- to I2 /" 


)) 


Blue Creeper ... 


... 


. ... 12/- 


') 


Green • ,, 




. ... 10/- 


■>■> 


Manakins, various 


* * . 


6/- to 12/- 


5> 


Turtle Doves 


... . . 


6/- to 12/- 


)> 


Hawks, various 


... 


6/- to 12/- 


>> 


Regent Bird 


... 


. 60/- to 80/- 


)) 


Owl Parrot 




... 250/- 


)) 


Golden Turkey 


... 


... 600/- 


)) 


Grebe (flat skins) 


... 


... 24/- 


)5 


Alpine Crow ... 


... 


. ... 18/- 


)' 


Argus Pheasant 




.. 60/- to 80/- 


)) 


Impeyan ,, 


... 


. 80/- to 100/- 


)' 


Japanese ,, 


... 


. ... 18/- 


)) 


Fire Back „ 




36/- 


)» 



Red Osprey (flat skins, very fine) ... 30/- dozen 

Plovers and Snipes ... ... 6/- to 12/- „ 

Golden Oriole ... ... ... ... 12/- ,, 

Mexican Starling ... ... 12/- to 24/- ,, 

Longtail „ 24/- „ 

Royal Fly Catcher 80/- ,, 

Birds, various, large ... ... 6/- to 12/- ,, 

small 3/- to 6/- 

Ruby Humming ... ... ... 12/- „ 

Long Bluetail Humming ... ... 36/- „ 

Humming, various (all males) 6/- to 12/- „ 
„ „ (young males and 

' females) 2/- to 3/- „ 

Butterflies set, a large variety of 

species 3/- to 6/- „ 

Blue Morpho ... ... 24/- to 48/- „ 

Beetles, a great variety from ... 2/- to 6/- ,, 
Blue beetles ... ... ... 4/- per 1000 

Green, ditto ... ... ... ... 4/- per 1000 

For other sorts, and for Ospreys, Peacock, Ostrich, 
Paddy, and Vulture feathers, apply at 

The Naturalist's Agency, 

225, High Holborn, 

London, W.C. 

Novelties always in stock, and new Lots constantly 
coming to hand. 



FOR SALE. 
Books on Natural History, etc. 

Atlas d'Ornithologie ou Collection choisie d'Oiseaux 
les plus connus dessinés d'après nature par 
Martinet, Paris, 1784. 
1 Vol. grand in folio, in magnificent condition. 
Contents : Epître à Buffon, Tableau général 
du classement des Oiseaux divisés d'après 
Buffon en neuf Ordres et cent un Genres ou 
Familles. 150 splendid coloured plates par 
Martinet. Exceedingly rare, perhaps uni- 
que. ^50. 

Agassiz — Nomenclator Zoologicus, Soloduri, 1842- 
1846, gros vol. in 4to. ... ... 40s. 

— Nomenclatoris Zoologici index universalis Solo- 

duri, 1848, in i2mo ... ... ... ios. 

— De l'espèce et des classifications en Zoologie, 

1 vol. in 8vo ... ... ... ... 4s. 

America, by John Ogilby, Esq., London, 167 1. 
Grand in folio, 675 pages, 121 splendid 
Engravings and Maps. £10. 

Boucard, A. — Catalogius Avium; contenant 2,456 
genres et 11,030 espèces, avec une nouvelle 
classification systématique. Londres, 1876, 
1 vol. in 8vo... ... ... ... 10s. 

— Monographie List of the Genus Plusiotis, with 

description of new species. (From the Pro- 
ceedings of the Zoological Society of London), 
1874. Brochure in 8vo, avec planche 
coloriée ... ... ... ... 4s. 

— La même, planche noire 2s. 



— Notes sur les Trochilidés du Mexique (Extrait 

des Annales delà Société linnéenne de Lyon), 
1 brochure in 8vo, Lyon, 1875 ... is. 

— Notes sur quelques Trochilidés, ditto, 

1873 is. 

— Catalogue des collections d'Histoire na- 

turelle, récoltées au Mexique, par Mr. A. 
Boucard, avec le prix de chaque espèce 6d. 

— Catalogue de Mammifères, Oiseaux, Reptiles, 

Poissons et Coquilles, de la Californie, de la 
Louisiane, du Mexique, et de l'Uruguay, 
1,328 espèces, avec prix ... ... 6d. 

— Catalogue de Coléoptères (Carabidte), et Colé- 

optères divers 1,477 espèces, avec prix td. 

— Catalogue de Coléoptères Héteromères et de 

Curculionides, 2,242 espèces, avec prix 6d. 

— Catalogue d'Oiseaux, Reptiles, et Poissons, 1,157 

espèces, avec prix ... ... ... is. 

— Liste de Coléoptères exotiques, 2,636 espèces, 

avec prix ... ... ... ... is. 

— Guide pour collecter, préparer et expédier des 

collections d'histoire naturelle ... 6d. 

— Le même en espagnol ... ... 6d. 

British Museum — Catalogue ' of the specimens 

and Drawings of Mammals, Birds, Reptiles and 
Fishes of Nepal and Thibet. Presented by 
B. H. Hodgson, Esq., to the British Museum, 
by John Edward Gray, second edition. 2s. 3d. 

— Report on the Zoological Collections made in 

the Indo-Pacific Ocean during the voyage of 
H.M.S. Albert 1881-2. Pp. XXV, 684, 54 
plates, 1884, 8vo. ... ... ... 30s. 

■ — ■ Catalogue of the bones of Mammals in the 
Collection of the British Museum, by E. 



Gerrard. Pp. IV ; 296, 1862, 8vo. 



5s- 



IV 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[August i, 1 89 1 



Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats in the Collection of the British Museum 
by Dr. J. E. Gray, Pp. VIII. 137, 21 Wood- 
cuts. 1870, 8vo. ... ... ... 4s. 

Catalogue of Carnivorous, Pachydermatous and 
Edentate Mammalia in the British Museum 
by John Edward Gray, Pp. VII. 398, 47 
Woodcuts, 1869, 8vo. ... ... 6s. 6d. 

Hand List of Seals, Morses, Sea Lions and 
Sea Bears in the British Museum, by Dr. 
J. E. Gray, Pp. 43, 30 plates of skulls. 1874, 
8vo. ... ... ... ... ... 12s. 6d. 

Catalogue of Seals and Whales in the British 
Museum, by John E. Gray, second edition, 
Pp. VII; 402. 101 Woodcuts. 1866. 8vo. 8s. 

Supplement by John E. Gray, Pp. VI. 163. 
II Woodcuts. i87i,8vo. ... ... 2s. 6d. 

List of the specimens of Cetacea in the Zoo- 
logical Department of the British Museum, 
by William Henry Flower, Pp. IV ; 36. 1885, 
8vo. ... ... ... ... ... is. 6d. 

Catalogue of Ruminant Mammalia (Pecora 
linnœus) in the British Museum, by John 
Edward Gray, Pp. VIII. 102, 4 plates, 1872, 
8vo. ... ... ... ... ... 3s. 6d. 

Hand List of Edentate, Thick skinned and 
Ruminant Mammals in the British Museum, 
by Dr. J. E. Gray. Pp. VII. 176. 42 plates 
of skulls, etc. 1873, Svo. ... ... 12s. 

Catalogue of the Marsupialia and Monotremeta 
in the Collection of the British Museum, by 
Oldfield Thomas. Pp. XIII. 401, 4 coloured 
and 24 plain plates, 1888, 8vo ... 28s 

Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum 
Vol. 1. {out of print) Accipitres or diurnal 
Birds of prey, by R. Bowdler Sharpe, 480 
pages. Woodcuts and 14 coloured plates, 
(Systematic and Alphabetical Index). 1874, 
8vo. ... ... ... ... ... 50s. 

Vol. II. {out of print) Striges or Nocturnal 
Birds of prey, by R. Bowdler Sharpe. 326 
pages, Woodcuts and 14 coloured plates. 
1875, 8vo 50s, 

Vol. III. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. Colio- 
morphœ containing the families, Corvidse, 
Paradiseidae, Oriolidae, Dicruridae and Prion- 
opidae, by R. Bowdler Sharpe, Pp. XIII; 363. 
Woodcuts and 14 coloured plates. 1879, 8vo, 
... ... ... ... 17s. 

Vol. IV. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. Ciclo- 
morphœ Part 1 containing the families Campe- 
phagidae and Muscicapidse, by R. Bowdler 
Sharpe, Pp. XVI ; 494. Woodcuts and 14 
coloured plates, 1879, 8vo. ... ... 20s. 

Vol. V. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Cichlomorphœ : Part II. containing the families 
Turdidae (Warblers and Thrushes), by Henry 
Seebohm, Pp. XVI ; 426. Woodcuts and 18 
coloured plates. i88t, 8vo. ... ... 20s. 

Vol. VI. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Ciclomorphœ : Part III. containing the first 
portion of the family Timelidae (Babling 
Thrushes), by R. Bowdler Sharpe. Pp. XIII ; i 



420. Woodcuts and 14 coloured plates 1881 
8vo. / ... ... ... ... 20s. 

Vol. VII. Passeriformes or Perching Birds 
Ciclomorphœ : Part IV. containing the conclu- 
ding portion of the family Timelidae, by R. 
Bowdler Sharpe Pp. XVI ; 698. Woodcuts and 
15 coloured plates, 1883, 8vo. ... 26s. 

Vol. VIII. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Cichlomorphœ ; Part V. containing the families 
Paridae and Laniidae (Titmice and Shrikes) and 
Certhiomorphœ (Creepers and Nuthatches), by 
Hans Gadow, Pp. XIII, 386 Woodcuts and 
9 coloured plates. 1883, 8vo. ... 17s. 

Vol. IX. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Cynnirimorphœ, containing the families Nec- 
tariniidae and Meliphagidae (Sun birds and 
Honey eaters), by Hans Gadow. Pp. XII, 310. 
Woodcuts and 7 col. plates. 1884, 8vo. 14s. 

Vol. X. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Frin^illiformes ; Part I, containing the fami- 
lies Dicaeidae, Hirundinidae, Ampelidae 'Mnio- 
tiltidae. and Motacillidae, by R. Bowdler Sharpe, 
Pp. XIII, 68?. Woodcuts and 12 coloured 
plates, 1885, 8vo .... ... ... 22s. 

Vol. XL Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Fringilliformes: Part II, containing the families 
Coerebidae, Tanagridae and Icteridae by Philip 
Lutley Sclater, Pp. XVII ; 431. Woodcuts 
and 18 coloured plates, 1886, 8vo. ... 20s. 

Vol. XII. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Frinigilliformes ; Part III; containing the 
family Fringillidae, by R. Bowdler Sharpe Pp. 
XV, 871, Woodcuts and 16 coloured plates, 
1888, 8vo 28s. 

Vol. XIII. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Sturniformes containing the families Artamidae. 
Sturnidae, Ploceidae, and Alaudidaa. Also 
the families Atrichiidae and Menuridas, 
by R. Bowdler Sharpe, Pp. XVI; 701 Wood- 
cuts and 15 coloured plates, 1890. 8vo. ;.. 28s. 

Vol. XIV. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Oligomyodœ or the families Tyrannidae, Oxyram- 
phidae, Pipridae, Cotingidae, Phytotomidae, 
Pbilepittidae, Pittidas, Xenicidae, and Eurylae- 
midae, by Philip Lutley Sclater, Pp. XIX, 
424Woodcuts, and 26 coloured plates. 1888, 
8vo. ... ... ... 24s. 

Vol. XV. Passiformes, or Perching Birds. 
Tracheophonœ : or the families of Deudroco- 
laptidae, Formicariidae, Conopophagidae, and 
Pteroptochidae, by Philip Lutley Sclater. Pp. 
XVII. ; 371. Woodcuts and 20 coloured 
plates. 1890, 8vo ... ... ... 20s. 

Vol. XVIII. Picariaa Scansores containing the 
family of Picidae, by Edward Hargitt. Pp. 
XV., 527. Woodcuts and 15 coloured plates, 
1890, 8vo ... ... ... ... 26s. 

Vol. XIX. Picariae, Scansores and Coceyges, 
containing the families Ramphastidae Gal- 
bulidae and Bucconidas, by Fhilip Lutley 
Sclater and the families Indicatoridae, Capi- 
tonicte, Cuculidae, and Musophagidae, by G.E. 
Shelley. 484 pages. Woodcuts and 13 coloured 
plates, 1 891, 8vo ... ... ... 25s. 

Catalogue of the Tortoises, Crocodiles and 
Amphisbaanians in the Collection of the British 



August i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



59 



The Plaintain or Banana Plant. 

By A. Boucard. 



The Plantain or Banana plant belongs to the family 
of the Musaceae. It is found in all tropical coun- 
tries, and there are many species known, and 
probably more will be discovered in Central Africa, 
New Guinea and adjacent Islands. 

These plants have scarcely any aerial stem but 
have shoots from subterraneous root stocks from which 
emerge stems composed of sheathing leaf-stalks. The 
leaves are flat and traversed throughout by a thick 
median rib with simple veins running directly towards 
it from the margin. The general aspect of the plant 
is somewhat like a Palm-tree. 

The Genus Musa is the type of the family. 

The largest species is known under the name of 
Musa sapientum. It has a fruit, which sometimes 
grows to the length of 12 inches. Each plant pro- 
duces a bunch containing from twenty to 'fifty fruits, 
closely grouped together. It weighs from 25 to 50 
pounds and sometimes more. In Central and South 
America, natives have no other food. They eat them 
green or ripe ; green they boil them and are a good 
substitute for b-ead, being very farinaceous. When 
half ripe they roast them and make a delicious entre- 
mets. Ripe they are exquisite raw and also made 
into sweetmeats. 

During my sojourn in Mexico and Central America, 
I have eaten these fruits raw and cooked in many 
ways, and I have always found them nice and whole- 
some. In fact, I have never got tired of them although 
sometimes taken in excess. I really don't know how 
the lazy natives of the tropical countries would live 
without them. The plant bears flowers and fruit only 
once ; but it constantly reproduces new shoots from 
the subterraneous root stocks, so that once planted, 
they require very little care to keep in order and are 
always increasing in number. A few hundred plants 
are quite sufficient to sustain a whole family. It bears 
flowers and fruit all the year. In a medium size planta- 
tion, there are always plants with flowers and bunches 
of fruits in all stages of development. 

Another very common species is Musa paradis iaica, 
so called from an allusion to an old notion of being 
the forbidden fruit of Scripture. 

The fruits of this species are rather small, only 
about 3 inches long. They are always eaten ripe, 
fried or preserved. 

In Central aud South America they grow also some 
other species ; such as the Guinea Plantain, probably 
imported from Africa. It is a small species, delicious 
to eat crude, when quite ripe. 

Each bunch contains from 100 to 200 fruits. 

The Manilla plantain, probably Musa textilis from 
Manilla (Philippines), is also another species- largely 
cultivated. 



The fruit is internally of a rosy colour, in size it 
stands between the fruit of Musa paradisiaica and 
Musa sapientium. It is eaten crude, boiled, fried or 
in preserves. All sorts of animals and especially 
insects, such as Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, are very 
fond of the ripe fruits, fresh or rotten. Many times I 
have caught fine species of butterflies and beetles 
when feeding on them. 

Since a few years a large trade of plantain 
fruits is going on between Mexico, Central and South 
America and the United States, where these fruits are 
in great demand, and all shipments are immediately 
sold at about half-penny a piece wholesale. Some 
are also sent to Europe ; but as far as I can make it 
out, they are cut too green and they don't ripe well. 
They are not to be compared with the fruits eaten 
in their growing places. Besides they are rather ex- 
pensive ; but I have not the least doubt that before 
long, they will find way to forward some to 
Europe, so, as to arrive in fine condition, and sold at 
a moderate price, and a great trade of that fruit will be 
established between Europe and the tropical countries 
of the World. 

An intoxicating liquor is made with the fruit. It is 
rather pleasant and has a very distinct taste of all the 
liquors we know. 

Very likely, a very good sugar could also be made 
with it. 

The leaves are employed by the natives for the 
thatch of their houses. 

Besides a tough fibre, capable of being made into 
thread is extracted from the stems, and lately it has 
been discovered that a very good printing paper of 
the finest quality, can be made from them, at a very 
cheap rate. 

The supply of this new material being illimited, 
very likely it will affect greatly the price of the paper. 

Therefore we have here a plant of the greatest 
utility easy to grow, whose products will sell more 
and more every day, and I can predict to those who 
will undertake the cultivation of that plant that they 
are sure to reap a good and profitable harvest. 

A.B. 



A Visit to the British Museum. 
Natural History Department. 



Continued from page 55. 

The Central Hall. 

In the centre of the entrance hall is placed the 
skeleton of one of the most colossal of animals, the 
Cachalot or Sperm-whale {Physeter macrocephalus) pre- 
pared from an animal cast ashore near Thurso, on 
the north of Scotland, in July, 1863, on the estate of 
Capt D. Macdonald, by whom it was presented to the 
Museum. It measures fifty feet in length. 

One group, in a case, placed at present near the 



6o 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[August i, 1 89 1. 



entrance to the hall, shows to which a species may 
become subject, under the influence of domestication, 
as illustrated by choice examples of the best marked 
breeds of pigeons, all of which are derived from the 
wild Rock dove {Columbia livid). 

One case contains a series of specimens illustrating 
albinism. Another shows examples of the opposite 
condition, called melanistn. The bays or alcoves round 
the hall, five on each side, are devoted to the intro- 
ductory or elementary morphological collection, design- 
ed to teach the most important points in the structure 
of the principal types of animal and plant life. 

This collection is only in its infancy but when com- 
pleted, it is hoped that it may ultimately serve as a 
guide for the formation of educational biological 
museums elsewhere. 

The bays on the west side (left hand on entering 
the hall) are devoted to the Vertebrated Animals. In 
Nos. 1 and 2 are shown the characters of the Mam- 
malian modifications of this type. The wall-cases of 
No. 1 are already filled with specimens showing the 
bony framework of Mammals. 

The central case of Bay 1 contains a collection 
illustrating the principal characters of the teeth in 
Mammalia. Bay No. 2 contains in its first wall-case 
illustrations of the outer covering or integument and 
its modifications in the class of Mammals. 
Bay No. 3 is devoted to the class of Birds. 
Bays Nos. 4 and 5, show the most important points 
in the structure of Reptiles and Fishes. 

Bays Nos. 6 and 7 will contain illustrations of the 
articulated classes Cruitacea, Arachnida, Myriopoda, 
Insecta, Annulosa, Vermes, Mollusca, Echinodermata, 
Cselenterata, Porifera, Protozoa. 

Bays Nos. 8, 9 and 10 will be devoted for the 
morphology of the vegetable kingdom, the first con- 
taining the Cryptogams, the next the Gymnosperms 
and the Monocotyledons, and the last the Dycotyle- 
dons. 

This Introductory or Elementary Morphological 
Collection, which is intended to be an introduction to 
all the others, is under the immediate supervision of 
the Director, Professor W. H. Flower. 



GALLERY OF BRITISH ZOOLOGY. 

At the north end of the Central Hall, on either 
side of the staircase, is a large room containing a 
collection of animals of all classes, which are or have 
been found in the British Isles. 

It is excessively interesting and contains very rare 
and valuable species, amongst which I have already 
mentioned one specimen of the excessively rare, ex- 
tinct species of Bird, the Great Auk [Alca impennis). 

Many are the species of Mammals, Birds, Rep- 
tiles, Fishes. Mollusca, etc., exhibited in this room. 
They are also two cabinets containing a very val- 
uable collection of British Butterflies and Moths, 
with their larvae, all of them prepared by Lord 
Walsingham and presented to the Museum by him 
in 1887. 

This Gallery is one of the great attractions of 
the Museum. It is greatly appreciated by the 



Visitors, which clearly shows that the exhibit of local 
Collections ought to be the beginning of all public 
Museums. 



BIRD GALLERY. 

On the ground floor (left hand side), of the Cen- 
tral Hall is the long gallery, extending the entire 
length of the front of that wing of the building, 
where is exhibited the collection of stuffed birds. 

The wall-cases contain mounted specimens of the 
principal species, arranged in systematic order, be- 
ginning with the Birds of prey and ending with the 
Penguins. 

The various types of the birds of prey are wel 
represented, from the Condor to the Dwarf Falcon 
which is not much larger than a sparrow. 

Among the rarest species, I have remarked two 
specimens of the Californian Vulture, one specimen 
of Sarcoramphus sequatorialis (the type of the species) 
which I believe to be a young of the Condor or 
Great Vulture of the Andes ; two poor specimens of 
the rare Secretary bird from South Africa. 

Thrasaetus harpya (2), Morphnus guianensis (1), 
Gypaetus barbatus (1), Hierofalco candicans (6), 
Hierofalco gyrfalco (1), Syrnium lapponicum (2), one 
perfectly white specimen of Nictea nivea, or Snow 
Owl and many others. 

Case 18 contains the collection of the splendid 
Paradise birds ; but it is not so good as it ought 
to be, and being placed in the lower part of Case 
it shows poorly. 

In Case 28 are two specimens of the rare Bor, 
nean Crow (Pityriasis gymnocephalus ) ; but they 
are poor specimens. 

In Case 29, 1 was astonished not to see the splen- 
did bird Calyptomena whiteheadi, lately discovered 
in Borneo, by Mr. Whitehead. 

Cases 31 and 32 contain the collection of Hum- 
ming birds ; but they are so high that they can .scar- 
cely be seen, which is a great pity, these birds, 
being great favourites with the public. 

In Case 32 is one specimen of the rare Bee 
Eater (Merops Breweri). 

Case 35 contains a fine series of species of King 
Fishers, among which, I noticed two specimens of 
Caridonax fulgidus. 

In Case 40 are found the following rare species 
of Parrots, Ara rubrigenys from Bolivia, Ara glauca, 
Conurus solstitialis, Psittacus pachyrhynchus, etc., etc. 
At the end of the same side of the gallery are 
placed skeletons of the Dodo and Solitaire, supposed 
to be gigantic pigeons, with wings too small for 
flight, cause of their total extermination by the in- 
habitants of the islands of Mauritius and Rodriguez, 
in whose islands these birds did thrive. 

In the Pavilion, at the further end of the Gallery, 
are placed the birds known actually as Ratitœ, in- 
cluding the Ostriches, Emus, Cassowaries, and 
Aptéryx. 

The series of these birds is very fine and very 
valuable. 



August i, 1 891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD, 



61 



The cases on the right hand side of the gallery 
are occupied by the birds allied to the common 
Fowl, known as Gallinacse, Perdicidas, Colum- 
bidse, etc., and by the wading and swimming 
birds ; among them some rare species of Pheasants, 
Crossoptilon thibetanum, and mantchuricum, Lobio- 
phasis bulweri, a very fine male, presented by His 
Excell. F. F. Usher, Governor of Labuan, Meleagris 
gallo pavo, fera, and ocellata, Leiopoa ocellata (2), 
Notiornis mantelli, Balseniceps rex (2), Chauna 
chavaria, Bustards, Flamingoes with their nest, the 
Emperor Pingouin, a very rare bird, and lastly the 
second specimen of the Great Auk. 

In the middle of the gallery, opposite the cases 
containing the collection of Pheasants, is one con- 
taining two magnificent specimens of the very rare 
Pheasant discovered a few years ago by Captain 
Reinhardt, Governor of Tonkin. The female 
exhibited is the only known specimen of this 
extraordinary bird. . 

Many other cases placed in this gallery and in 
the spaces between the wall-cases contain isolated 
groups of particular interest, among which are those 
showing the nesting habits of the best known British 
birds. The great interest of these groups consists 
in their absolute truthfulness. When it has been 
possible, the actual rocks, trees or grass have been 
preserved, and when these were of a perishable 
nature they were accurately modelled from nature. 
The stuffing of the birds is very good, quite artistic 
and natural, and can serve as example to all 
Museums. 

On the whole, the collection of Birds is very fine, 
and it is a pity that the Guide of the Bird Gallery 
is not printed yet. It is to be hoped that the 
the authorities of the British Museum will give special 
instructions for its speedy publication. 

To be continued. 



Inauguration of the Statue of Pierre Belon, 
the Naturalist. 



At Cerans-Foulletourte, near Mans, Sarthe (France), 
on the 14th June last, was inaugured the statue of the 
Naturalist Pierre Belon, born in that small town 
in 1517. 

Pierre Belon is the author of l'Histoire de la 
Nature des Oiseaux, in seven volumes. 

The first treats of the anatomy and physiology of 
birds, the second of the Birds of prey, the third of the 
Swimming birds, the fourth of the Snipes and allied 
species, the fifth of the Gallinacae, the sixth of the 
Crows and allied species, and the last of the Songsters. 



One of the chapters of the first volume is remark- 
able, that of the Osteology of Birds compared to that 
of Man. 

Pierre Belon figures in opposition one to another, 
one skeleton of Man to one of Bird, and shows how 
the bones of both correspond exactly and so well, 
that they can be designed in the two figures by the 
same letters, as the angles of similar figures in 
Geometry. He shows in detail the existing analogy 
between] the wing of Bird, the arm of Man, and the 
anterior limb of Mammal. 

Nearly the same bones are found in the wings of 
Birds as in the arms of Men or legs of Mammals, 
the hand being represented in birds by the six small 
bones, osselets, which form the end of the wing. 

There is no doubt whatever that Pierre Belon, the 
ancestor of Buffon, Linné, Lacépéde, Cuvier, Geoffroy 
St. Hilaire, and many other celebrated Naturalists of 
the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, was a man 
of genius and is the father of the principles of 
Classification in Ornithology, and I don't see why the 
modern scientists ignore him completely. 

Pierre Belon at first studied Botany, then Medicine. 
In 1540, he travelled in Germany and Bohemia in 
company of the celebrated Professor Valerius Cordus. 
After that, he visited successively Greece, Turkey, 
Lemnos, Thrace, Macedony, Asia Minor, Chio, Samos, 
Rhodes, Egypt, Palestine, and Syria. 

For that time, it was an extraordinary journey. 
When back, he published his observations in a 
remarkable work, which contains curious and interest - 
ing accounts on geography, customs, flora and 
fauna of all the countries visited by him. 

Later, when retired at Boulogne, near Paris, and 
working at a traduction of Dioscoride and Theophraste, 
he was murdered in 1564 in his forty-seventh year. 

What a reward for such a meritorious Scientist ! ! ! 

After a little over two centuries, the memory of 
Pierre Belon has been at last duly honored, and in 
1887, a statue of this illustrious man was inaugurated 
on the place of the Prefecture at Mans, and now 
another at Foulletourte, his native place. 

The bronze statue of Pierre Belon, which has just 
been inaugurated, is the work of Miss Anaïs Loriot, 
a native also of Foulletourte, who, without study, 
and never away from Foulletourte, has produced 
a work, that masters would not hesitate to sign. 

Pierre Belon is represented in a Henry III. costume, 
cap, doublet and breeches. He has a fine beard 
and looks more like a Nobleman than a Scientist. 

On the socket are engraved these words : 

A PIERRE BELON 

Médecin, Voyageur Naturaliste 

né en 15 17 au hameau de la soultiere 

cérans-foulletourte. 



62 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



{August i, 1 89 1 



A Giant Land Crab. 



In wandering over Kneeling Island the naturalist's 
attention was immediately attracted by a giant land 
crab, Birgos, which lived here, feeding upon cocoa- 
nuts. The crab is, in reality, a close ally of the her- 
mit variety, having, instead of a shell, an abdomen 
protected by an armour. That such a creature can 
open a cocoanut, which man finds difficult, even with 
a hatchet, seems incredible, yet it is a very simple 
matter for the big crustacean. It begins by tearing 
away the husk, bit by bit, fibre by fibre, and, what is 
remarkable, always at the end bearing the two eye- 
holes. When the husk has been removed, the crab 
hammers away at the holes with its large claw until 
an opening is made. But then, one may ask, how 
can it obtain the meat ? The crab solves this by 
turning around and inserting its long, slender, fifth 
claw into the orifice, which, being armed with pincers, 
takes out the meat bit by bit. " I think," says Dar- 
win, " this is as curious a case of instinct as ever I 
heard of, and likewise of adaptation in structure 
between two objects apparently so remote from each 
other in the scheme of nature as a crab and a cocoa- 
nut tree. The Birgos is diurnal in its habits ; but 
every night it is said to pay a visit to the sea, no 
doubt for the purpose of moistening its branchiae. 
The young are likewise hatched, and live for some 
time, on the coast. These crabs inhabit deep bur- 
rows, which they hollow out beneath the roots of 
trees, and where they accumulate surprising quanti- 
ties of the picked fibres of the cocoa-nut husk, on 
which they rest as in bed. The Malays sometimes 
take advantage of this, and collect the fibrous mass 
to use as junk. It has been stated by some authors 
that the Birgos crawls up the cocoa-nut trees for the 
purpose of stealing the nuts ; I very much doubt the 
possibility of this. I was told by Mr. Liesk that on 
these islands the Birgos lives on the nuts which 
have fallen to the ground. To show the wonderful 
strength of the front pair of pincers, I ■ may 
mention that Captain Moresby confined one in 
a strong tin box, which had held biscuits, the lid 
being secured with wire ; but the crab turned down 
the edges and escaped. In turning down the edges 
it actually punched many small holes quite through 
the tin !" 



THE NATURALISTS AGENCY, 
225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 

Has just received several specimens of these Gigantic 
land Crabs, from Japan, as also many other species of 
Crustacea, including Lobsters, Crabs, Shrimps, etc. 

Also Reptiles, Echinoderms, Sponges, Corals, Marine, Fluvia- 
tile and Land Shells, 300 species, Insects, Colcoplera, Lcpidop- 
tera, Butterflies and Moths, Orthoptera, Diptera,Hymenoptera, 
Neuroptera, Hemiptera, several thousand species, and a fine 
Collection of Bird Skins, the whole suitable for public or 
private Museums. 



An Easy Way of making One Hundred 
Pounds' Sterling a Year in Collecting 
Specimens of Natural History at Leisure 
Time. 

Continued from pages 7, 15, 23, 32, 56. 



FOSSILS. 



All petrified objects found in the water or in the 
earth as Rocks, Shells, Bones, Plants, Animals, etc., 
are fossils. 

They have value when they are beautiful specimens 
and very complete. 

Pack them with paper or soft substance in small 
boxes. 

BRIGHT INSECTS AND SHELLS. 

Jewellers, Plumassiers, Florists, Modists and other 
manufacturers make a great use of them. 

They must be collected by hundreds and thousands. 

Women and children can be very useful for that 
purpose. 

Put them to dry in the sun and pack them by 
species, in boxes, in which you pour benzine, and paste 
strips of paper all over. 

The more you collect, the better; because it is 
easier to sell when you have a large quantity of 
each species ; but take care that they are bright and 
pretty species. Dull specimens are of no value. 

FEATHERS AND BIRD SKINS FOR 
INDUSTIAL PURPOSES. 

Since twenty years a very large trade has been done 
with all kinds of feathers and bird skins for industrial 
purposes. Foremost of all are the Ostrich feathers. 
They are sent chiefly from South Africa, where 
extensive breeding farms of these birds have been 
established during the last twenty years. 

In last sale, June 5th, 2,140 cases Cape and 6 cases 
Egyptian were sold and realized the handsome sum 
of ^102,000. 

During the last ten years they have tried the farm- 
ing of Ostriches in Algeria, but for one cause or 
another, they have not succeeded : 

All the young die, but I don't see why a better 
result could not be obtained. I think it ought to 
succeed, if an enterprising and competent Naturalist 
should under take the task, after one or two years of 
aprenticeship, on South African farms. 

A small quantity of Ostrich feathers is also sent 
yearly from Senegal and other parts of West Africa. 
This trade is in the hands of Arabs, who gather them 
in the interior of Africa, where these birds are found 
wild. 

Although these feathers plucked from wild birds 
are stronger and nearly as fine as these sent from S. 
Africa, they are not so much in demand and they sell 
at a lower price. 

Next to the Ostrich, Osprey feathers fetch a good 
price, and the sale is illimited for the best qualities. 

There are three varieties of Osprey feathers known 
in the trade, as Short, Middle and Long Osprey. 

The medium price varies between 12 and 60/- per 
ounce. What is known as Short Selected is about 6 
inches long with curved tip. They are the feathers of 



August i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



63 



Herodias garzetta found all over the world. Middle 
Osprey is slightly longer with straight tip. 

Long Osprey is about 15 inches long, straight at 
tip. They are taken from Herodias egretta, found 
chiefly in South America. 

It is important to kill the birds during spring ; 
because in summer, the tips of the feathers are 
worn and of much less value. 

To this day no attempt has been made to domesticate 
these birds, as it is done with Ostriches, Pheasants, and 
many other species of birds, and I am convinced that 
a serious attempt in that direction would prove very 
beneficial to the inovator. 

Besides the Ospreys the feathers of many other 
species of Herons such as : Bubulcus let's, Ardea cinerea 
and cocoi, Florida cœrulea, Plotus anhinga, etc., etc., are 
also employed by Plumassiers ; but the price is much 
less, ranging from two to six shillings per ounce. 

White and Grey Paddy produces also feathers 
which are sometimes in great demand and fetch a 
good price. Vulture, Emeus, Rhea or American 
Ostrich, Peacock, Turkey and other feathers are also 
useful, especially for the Plumassiers and feather 
dusters trades. They fetch more or less according to 
the demand. 

Then a very large number of species of Birds are 
also wanted. Foremost of all, the well-known Birds 
of Paradise and the Long Tail Trogan. 

All of them fetch a price which will repay the trouble 
of the collector. After these, the species most in 
demand are the Chatterer, Cock of Rock, blue Macaw 
and several other species wanted by the Plumassiers 
and Fishing Tackle Makers. 

Then comes at last the immense variety of small 
birds ; such as Tanagers, Blue Creepers, King Fishers, 
Sea - Swallows, Merles, Starlings, Jays, Waxwings, 
Humming birds of all descriptions, etc., etc. 

The large species of Birds such as Herons, Flamin- 
goes, Pelicans, etc., can be sent in flat skins, the others 
must be sent in good round skins as if they were for 
scientific collections, and the better the skins will be 
prepared, the better they will sell. 

Lately very large consignments have been sent 
from N. Africa, India, Japan and S. America, and the 
prices have somewhat fallen ; but it is probable that 
a rise will soon take place. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

All descriptions of Natural History Collections 
may be easily sold if they are well collected and 
arrive in a perfect state of preservation. 

They must be sent home frequently and in small 
portions ; for the following reasons. 

1. It is easier to sell small than large collections. 

2. If the package or preparation has been done 
badly, your correspondent can forward immediately 
new instructions which will permit to make the 
next sending with more success. 

It will be very good when collecting to be in relation 
with a naturalist for the sale of your collections. I 
make the offer to those who will send me collec- 
tions well preserved, to sell them on their account or 
buy them at the prices which I have indicated. 

To collect Reptiles, Fish, Insects, and Shells, it is 
necessary to buy the following utensils. 



Benzine, tin boxes for Insects, several bottles, glass 
tubes or phials, digger, butterfly and other nets, 
umbrella for collecting Insects, Cork, Pins for Insects, 
Pill boxes of several sizes, Boucard's Insecticide, flax, 
cotton, and nippers. 

Collect especially Reptiles, Fish, Shells, and among 
Insects, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. 

Twenty-five specimens of each species of Reptiles, 
Fish, Crustacean, and Arachnides are sufficient. 

Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and Shells fifty specimens 
of each, and thirty of other Insects. 

One thousand seeds of palm trees of each species, 
and two or three pounds of seeds of all trees, bushes 
and plants of the country. 

Large beetles are not to be pinned ; wrap them 
separately in paper, and dry them in the sun, eight 
or ten days are sufficient. Then pack them in a box 
with saw dust, or any soft substance. 

Very large species of marine Shells, Reptiles, 
Fossils, etc., will be sent, only if ordered, to avoid 
the cost of transport, which in many cases would 
be more than the value of the object. 

One specimen of each species of all the animals 
collected should have a number attached to it, 
corresponding to one in a list in which you wil 
indicate exactly the country where found, the month 
and the year when collected, the local name, the 
habits and other particulars of interest. 

This list will be sent in the same box as the 
objects. 

When you change your residence, change your 
collecting bottles, in order to send in each only 
those animals which have been collected in the 
same place. 

Reptiles are abundant in spring and summer ; the 
best season for Insects and Shells is the rainy one ; 
the more it rains, the more Insects and Shells you 
will find. 

Mammals and birds are found abundantly in 
spring and summer. 

Both sexes and youngs of each species must be 
collected. 

Humming-bird and other curious shaped form 
Nests should also be collected ; as well as eggs of 
all the species. 

Small Mammals ; such as Bats, Rats, Moles, 
Shrew-Mouses, etc., should be sent skinned, and 
also in spirit. 

Particular genera of birds not found in Europe 
should also be sent in spirit. Make an incision in 
the middle of the belly to allow the spirit to get in. 

Now I will conclude with a few words of warning. 
If you have no taste for Natural History, don't 
attempt to make collections. Before all, if you do, 
select a well-known Naturalist as Correspondent, 
otherwise you will not know what to send and the 
result will be probably a failure. 

In all countries, there are objects of Natural 
History of value or of scientific interest ; but it is 
only the experienced Naturalists who can make 
out for you, the list of the species wanted, 
otherwise to acquire experience it will take many 
years and will cost money. 

A. BOUCARD. 



6 4 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



\ August i, 1 89 1 



Royal Aquarium. 

On Wednesday the 8th day of July, was held an 
Extraordinary General Meeting of the Society, in the 
Theatre of the Royal Aquarium. 

This meeting was convened at the requisition of 
welve Shareholders, holding over 5000 Shares. 

1 st. To consider the present position and manage- 
ment of the Society, its business and affairs. 

2nd. To increase the number of Directors from 
four as at present, to seven or such other number 
as the Meeting may determine, and for such purpose 
:o repeal or alter any previous Resolution of the 
Society. 

3rd. To elect the additional Directors and to de- 
termine in what rotation they shall go out of office. 
4th. To call upon Captain Molesworth to resign 
lis present position of Director, and in the event of 
his so resigning to fill up the vacancy to be thereby 
created. 

5th. To do all such other acts and to pass such 
Resolutions as may be necessary or expedient to 
give effect to all orany of the foregoing Resolutions. 
The meeting lasted from 2 to 5. It was rather 
stormy ; but eventually Resolutions 2 and 3 were 
passed by a great majority. Messrs. Henry S. 
Dominy, Chas. Critchett, and Geo. Moss, were 
elected Directors. It is to be hoped now, that with 
such a board of Directors, the affairs of the Society 
will improve in a manner that will enable the Society 
to pay a fair dividend to the Shareholders ; but I am 
still of the same opinion as before, that it is vital 
to the Society to secure a competent Manager if it 
can be had. In so doing, the property of the 
Society will become a valuable one, and the Board 
will secure the approbation and thanks of all the 
Shareholders. 

The Editor. 



Review of New Scientific Books. 



Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum 
Vol. XIX. in 4to, 484 pages, London 1891. 
Price 25 Shillings. 

This interesting volume, on Scansores and Coccyges, 
contains the families Ramphastidae, Galbulidae and 
Bucconidae, by P. L. Sclater, the families Indicatoridae, 
Capitonidae, Cuculidae and Musophagidae, by G. E. 
Shelley. In it, are the descriptions of eleven species 
of Indicatoridae, one hundred and eleven species of 
Capitonidae, fifty-nine of Ramphastidae, twenty one 
species of Galbulidae, forty three species of Bucconidae, 
one hundred and sixty species of Cuculidae, and 
twenty-five species of Musophagidae. Twenty-five 
species are figured in the thirteen coloured plates, 
ending the volume. They are Melanobuco aequatorialis, 
Tricholœma, stigmathorax and affine, Barbatula chry- 
sopyga and bilineaia, heads of Cyanops davisoni, ram- 
sayi, and incognita, Capito, versicolor, steerii, richard- 
soni, salvini, granadensis and bourcieri, full birds ol 
Pteroglossus didymus, Aulacoramphus erythrognathus, 
calorhynchus, whitelyanus, and cyanoloemus, Coccystes 
caroli and hypopinarius Centropus, purpureus, heads of 
Coccysm dominiaZf minor, and maynardi. 



Catalogue of the Fossil, Birds in the British 
Museum, by Richard Lydekker, 1 Vol. in4°, 364 pages 
75 Wood Cuts, London 1891, Price 10 Shillings. 

This remsrkable volume includes the whole of the 
extinct birds, known at present (with the exception of 
those belonging to the suborders PasseresandPicaridae) 
from the Tertiaries of Europe, which have received 
distinct specific names and have been described or 
figured with sufficient exactness to entitle them to rank 
as species. 

The classification followed is partly that of Prof. 
Alfred Newton in his article, Ornithology (Encyclop e- 
dia britannica) and also that of Professor Huxl ey, as 
under : — 

Ordo I. CARINATyE. 

Suborder I. Passeres, Family Corvidae. 

Suborder TI. Picarle, 

Suborder III. Psittaci. Families Stringopidas, 
Psittacidae. 

Suborder IV. Striges. Family Strigidae. 

Suborder V. Accipitres, Families Falconidae, 
Serpentariidae, Cathartidae. 

Suborder VI. Steganopodes, Families Pelecanidae, 
Phalacrocoracidae, Odontopterygidae. 

Suborder VII. Herodiones, Families Ardeidae, 
Ciconiidae Plataleidae. 

Suborder VIII. Odontoglossi, Family Phcenic- 
opteridae. 

Suborder IX. Anseres, Family Anatidae. 

Suborder X. Columb^e, Families Columbidae, 
Dididae, Pteroclidaa. 

Suborder XL Galling, Families Phasianidae, 
Megapodidae. 

Suborder XII. Fulicaridae, Family Rallidae. 

Suborder XIII. Alectorides, Families Gruidae, 
Otididae. 

Suborder XIV. Limicolae, Family Scolopacidae. 

Suborder XV. Gavi>e, Families Laridae, Aegial- 
ornithidae. 

Suborder XVI. Tubinares, Family Procellariidae. 

Suborder XVII. Pygopodes, Families Colymbidae, 
Alcidae. 

Suborder XVIII. Impennes, Family Spheniscidae. 

SuborderXIX Odontorm^e, Family Ichthyornithidse. 

Suborder XX. Odontolc.<e, Families Enaliornithidae, 
Hesperornithidae. 

Ordo IL RATIT.E. 

Families Struthionidas, Aepyornithidae, Apterygidae- 
Dinornithidae, Casuariidae, Dromornithidae, Gastorn, 
thidae. 

Ordo III. SAURUR^E. 

Family Archaeopterygidae. 

All Ornithologists should posess these two volumes. 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of 
London, 1891, Part I, 178 pages of text, 14 black 
and coloured plates, figuring a new Lizard of the 
Genus Ctenoblepharis from Chili, new Bornean Land 
Shells, Anatomy of Anodon and Unio, new Butterflies 
from tropical South-western Africa, Abramis blicca, 
Anatomy of Heloderma, Platycercus erythropeplus, 
male and female, Phrygilus coracinus, and a supposed 
Jacobson's Organ in the Crocodilia. 

Transactions of the Zoological Society 01 
London, Vol. xiii, Parts I. and II. 
Part i. contains ; — On the Genus Urothœ and a new 



August i, 1 89 1 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



65 



Genus Urothoides, by the Rev. Thomas R. R. 
Stebbing (Plates I. — XV.). On four new British 
Amphipoda, by the Rev. Thomas R. R. Stebbing 
(Plates V.— VI.). 

Part II. — On the Morphology of a Reptilian bird, 
Opisthocomus cristatus, by W. Th. Parker (Plates 
VIL— X.). 

Contributions to our knowledge of the Antipatharian 
Corals, by F. Jeffrey Bell (Plates XI.— XII.). 

MÉMOIRES DE LA SOCIETE ZOOLOGIQUE DE FRANCE 

pour l'année 1891. Tome IV. i ère et 2 ème parties, 
208 pages de texte et trois planches noires. 

Contents : — Voyage de la goélette Melita aux Cana- 
ries et au Sénégal 1889 — 1890, par Ed. Chevreux 
(PL L). 

Voyage de la goélette Melita aux Canaries et au 
Sénégal 1889 — 1890. 

Spongiaires, (PI. II.) par E. Topsent. 
Voyage de la goélette Melita aux Canaries et au 
Sénégal, 1889 — 1890. 

Mollusques testacés, (PI. III.) par Ph. Dautzen- 
berg. 

Sur le Cerianthus menbranaceus Gmel, par L. Faurot. 
Nouveaux faits d' hybridation observés chez les Batra- 
ciens amoures, par Héron-Royer. 

Note préliminaire sur les Alcyonnaires provenant des 
campagnes du yacht l'Hirondelle, 1886, 1887, 1888, 
par Th. Studer. 

Revue des derniers systèmes ornithologiques et nouvelle 
classification proposée pour les Oiseaux, par Alph. Dubois. 
Les Oiseaux hybrides rencontrés à l'état sauvage, 
2 ème p ar tie : Les Palmipèdes par A. Suchetet. 

Sur les Helminthes des Primates anthropoides, i ère 
Note, Cestodes par R. Blanchard. 

Coléoptères recueillis aux A çores par Mr.J. de Guerne 
pendant les campagnes du yacht l'Hirondelle (1887 — 
1888), par Ch. Allaud. 

Résultats d'une excursion Zoologique en Algérie, par 
R. Blanchard. 

Primo Resoconto dei risultadi della inchiesta 
ornithologica in Italia. Parte prima, Avifauna 
Italica, compilato dal Dottore Enrico Hillyer Giglioli, 
1 vol. in 4 ., 671 pages, Firenze 1889. 

Primo Resoconto dei resultadi della inchiesta 
ornithologica in Italia. Parte seconda, Avifaune 
locali, compilato dal Dottore Enrico Hillyer Giglioli, 
1 vol. in 4 ., 663 pages, Firenze 1890. 

Primo Resoconto dei resultadi della inchiesta 
ornithologica in Italia. Parte terza ed ultima, 
Notizie d Indole générale, compilato dal Dottore 
Enrico Hillyer Giglioli, 1 vol. in 4 ., 518 pages, 
Firenze 1891. 

These three volumes contain a very large number 
of scientific and valuable information on the Italian 
Avifauna. The first volume treats of the systematic 
classification of all the species of birds found in Italy- 
stationary or accidentally, otherwise with all the 
vulgar names and observations made by the numerous 
contributors who have assisted Dr. Giglioli in doing 
the work. 

In Volume II. are stated the results of all the 
observations made in each province. 

Vol. III. contains valuable informations on the 
migration, nidification, alimentation, etc. of a large 
quantity of species. 



It is quite extraordinary to learn that up to the 
present, England and France have not published any 
collective work of that kind, and it is to be hoped 
that they will soon do so ; as it is useless to remind 
these countries the importance of such a publica- 
tion. 

The West American Scientist Vol. VII. January 
1891. 

Contents : — Edwin Wortham Dorham, (with por- 
trait) by F. W. Goding. 
Star Tulips, by Carl Purdy. 
Easter Island (with Illustrations). 
Ancella-bearing Strata of Oregon, by Aurelius 
Todd. 

A New Raphiomidas, by D. W. Coquillett. 
Ice Caves of Washington. 

Forest Trees of Oregon, by Prof. Thomas Condon. 
The Day Life of the Desert, by C. R. Orcutt. 
Californian Lilies, California Flowers in England, 
California Trees and Floivers (Illustrated). 

The Canadian Entomologist, Vol. XXIII. 
June, 1891, edited by Rev. C. J. S. Bethune. 

Contents : — Notes on some species of Noctuidœ described 
by Francis Walker, by Prof. John B. Smith. 

New Rhopalocera and Heterocera, by B. Neumcegen. 
A new Butterfly form Lower California, Pyrgus 
pelagica, by A. G. Weeks, jun. 

Melanism and Humidity, by T. W. Tutt. 
Preparatory stages of Arctia rectilinea, French, by 
G. H. French. 

Two new species of Canadian Pimplince, by Wm. 
Hague Harrington. 

Nemalus pallidiventris, Fall — A fresh importation, 
by Rev. Thomas W. Fyles. 

Note on Ammophila robusta, by J. M. Aldrich. 
A cannibal cricket, by Wm. Brodie. 
Note on Amblyopone pallipes, Hald, by W. Hague 
Harrington. 

Recommendations for the prevention of Da- 
mage by some Common Insects of the Farm, 
the Orchard and the Garden, by James Flet- 
cher, Entomologist and Botanist to Dominion Experi- 
mental Farms, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, 
Canada. 

This pamphlet of 30 pages is of the greatest 
interest to Agricultors of all countries ; Part. I. con 
tains very interesting observations on Economic En 
tomology, preventive and active remedies ; pumps and 
other apparatus necessary for the application of the 
remedies. 

Part II. contains descriptions of Insects injurious 
to grain and forage crops, to fruits, roots and vegeta- 
bles and how to destroy them. 

The Kansas City Scientist, official organ of tht 
Kansas City Academy of Science. 

Contents : — The Mushroom and the Arrow, by Geo> 
C. Stealey. 

The Probable Origin of the Ore Deposits in the 
mines of Missouri, by F. C. Meyer. 

Scientific value of Fossils, by Edwin Walters. 

Drawing in the public schools, by Sid. J. Hare. 

Popular Superstitions, by R. B. Trouslot. 

The White-Rumped Shrike as a Pet. 

Future of the Phonograph. 

Government's Expedition to Death Valley. 



66 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[August i, 1891 



The Antigua Observer, Vol. XLVII. No. 20, 
edited by D. W. Scarville, City of Saint John, Anti- 
gua, contains the first part of an extract of a very 
interesting paper on the Colony of the Leeward 
Islands by D. Morris, read at the Royal Colonial Insti- 
tute. 



Report on the Public Sale of the Celebrated 
Collection of Shells formed by the late 
Sir David W. Barclay and sold by Mr. J. C. 
Stevens, on Monday the 6th of July and 
the three following days. 

This fine Collection was offered for sale in 1154 
Lots, which realized the total sum of ^1,050 3s. 6d. 

From the beginning, there was a good attendance 
and a keen competition for some of the best Lots. 

Lot 1, Oliva angulata, porphyria, nobilis, maura, 
ponderosa and varieties of tremulina, 1 1 shells, was 
sold for £1 6s. ; Ancillaria obtusa, rubiginosa, cingu- 
lata and australis j^i 10s. ; two specimens of Pinnaxia 
coronata, 22s. ; Ranella candisata, 30s. ; two specimens 
of Scalaria decussata, 45s. ; Mitra rosscp, 40s. ; Mitra 
balteolata, regina and subulata, 24s. ; Mitra tessellata 
and regina, 25s.; Mitra adansoni type, 40s.; Conns 
malaccanus, 42s. ; Conns cedo-nulli, 26s. ; Conus granu- 
latus and dux, 22s. ; Conus aurisiacus and ammiralis 
-J.2S. ; Ovulum longirostrum, 55s. ; Cyprœa bicallosa 
60s. ; Cyprœa tessellata and pulchra, 40s. ; Conus call 
laudi, 45s. ; Conus crosseanus and suturatus, ^3 7s. 6d 
Conus trigonus and aculeiformis, 20s. ; Isocardia 
moltkiana and lamarkii and Chamestrea a/bida, 42s. 
Voluta costata, £■$ ; Voluta prœtexta, 28s. ; Voluta 
aulica, 45s. ; Voluta gracilis, 40s. ; Strombus thersites, 
£2 15s. ; Rostellaria curta, 35s. ; Harpa rosea and 
crenata, 32s. ; Harpa imperialis and rosea, 30s. ; Iso- 
cardia moltkiana, vulgaris, Cardium retusum, cardissa 
and Myochama anomoides, £4 5s. ; Murex clavus, 24s. ; 
Murex fenestratus and aculeatus, £2 12s. 6d. ; Murex 
rubescens and clavus, 20s. ; Murex monodon, endivia, 
rosarium and stainforthii, 28s. ; Helix ugulina, quoyi 
and swinhoei, 20s.; Helix fulgurata, 16s. ; Helix percyi 
and fulgurata var, 30s. ; Helix grata, gealei, and 
solata, 35s. ; Helix crespignyi, conformis and psittacina, 
£2 1 os. ; Cochlostyla turbinoides and sarcinosa, 24s. ; 
Cochlostyla harfordi, £2 5s. ; Helix fulgurata and 
robillardi, 30s. ; Helix cambojensis, 24s. ; Bulimus 
meobambensis, ^"5 5s. ; Helix ungulina and pyrostoma, 
22s. ; Marginella mirabilis, £6 10s. ; Scalaria latifas- 
ciata type, cocklear, and raricostata, 45s. ; Mitra 
terebralis and regina, 28s. ; Mitra nassoides, type, 37s. ; 
Mitra coccinea, 35s. ; Mitra bovei, nympha and declivis, 
45s. ; Conus crocatus, ^5 10s. ; Conus zonatus and 
legatus, 24s. ; Conus aurisiacus, 22s..; Conus dux and 
timorensis, £2 10s. ; Conus festivus and architallasus, 
45s.; Conus malaccanus and splendidulus, 42s.; Cyprœa 
pulchra and reevei, 21s. ; Cyprœa umbilicata and exusta , 
30s. ; Cyprœa nigropunctata, pulchra and physis, 
j£\ 17s. 6d. ; Cyprœa leucostoma and sulcidentata, 42s.; 
Cyprœa aurora, 35s.; Ostrea nobilis, cerafa, and affinis, 
types, 26s. ; Ostrea vitrefacta and barclayana, types, 
24s.; Spondylus amcricar.us, 21s. ; Pecten sanguinolentus 
and mirifcus, 30s. ; Nautilus stenomphalus, macrom- 
phalas and umbilicatus, £1 7s.6d. ; Melapiun lineatum 



and Latiaxis mawœ, £4 5s.; Voluta costata, £2 10s. 
Voluta flavicans and costata, 50s.; Voluta beaui, 40s. 
Strombus thersites, 40s. ; Trichotropis bicarinatus, 20s. 
Harpa imperialis , 20s. ; Delphinula imperialis, £3 3s. 
Delphina tyria and Turbo rubicundus, £1 7s. 6d. 
Voluta aulica, £6 6s. ; Voluta magnifica, 21s. 
Voluta marmorata and sclateri, 28s. ; Voluta costata 
and nivosa, 45s. ; Voluta delessertiana and var and 
V. mitrœformis, 30s. ; Voluta prœtexta, 22s.; Voluta 
papillaris, 18s. ; Voluta mitraeiformis and 2 varieties of 
V. delessertiana, 50s. ; Cassis spinosa, 40s. ; Mascaria 
crocea (2) and Hybocystis mouhoti, 21s.; Acroptychia 
metableta, 30s. ; Cyclostoma formosa, £4 10s. ; Cyclos- 
toma deburghiœ, 35s. ; Cyclostoma formosa, £4 ; 
Cyclostoma deburghiœ and species, 45s. ; Cyclostoma 
cuvierianum, pulchellum, deshayesianum, and 2 others, 
38s. ; Otopoma albicans, Cyclostoma vittatum and 
cariniferum, £1 7s. 6d.; Marginella pseudo-f aba, 24s.; 
Phorus agglutinans and Solaris, 20s. ; Mitra compressa, 
25s.; Mitra rossiœ, 40s.; Conus crocatus, £4 5s.; 
Conus zonatus and pertusus, 24s. ; Conus nimbosus and 
timorensis, 30s. ; Conus timorensis and mitratus, 35s. ; 
Conus ammiralis and cinctus, £1. 7s. 6d. ; Ovulum 
volva, intermedium and rosea, 21s. ; Cyprœa exusta, 
£1 12s. 6d. ; Cyprœa sulcidentata, 22s. ; Cyprœa 
aurora, 42s. ; Cyprœa nigropunctata, spadicea and, 
esontropia, 24s. ; Cyprœa physis and leucostoma, 
£i 17s. 6d. ; Murex clavus, 35s. ; Murex barclayi, 
£g 1 os. ; Helix unicolor angulata horrida gealei and 
trichotropis, 28s. ; Helix nasuta and regina, £2 5s. ; 
Helix lampus and regina, ^3 7s. 6d. ; Strombus 
laciniatus and Pteroceras pseudo-scorpio, 32s. 6d. ; 
Harpa imperialis and rosea, 25 s. ; Voluta aulica, £,\o\ 
Voluta sophiœ, 20s. ; Scalaria pretiosa, a fine pair, 
35s. ; Scalaria raricostata, cochlear (2), borealis (2), and 
another, 25s. ; Mitra mauritiana, type, 40s. ; Mitra 
rossiœ, 40s. ; Mitra tœniata, 28s. ; Mitra adansoni, 
cretacea, type, Deshayesi, type, £1 7s. 6d. ; Conus 
'rocatus, £2 15s. ; Conus centurio, 21s. ; Conus zonatus 
and legatus, 40s. ; Conus granulatus, 35s. ; Conus 
brinceps Var regius and C. legatus, 20s. ; Cyprœa 
mapa, pink base variety, 30s. ; Cyprœa scottii and 
umbilicata, 32s. 6d. ; Cyptœa exusta and tessellata 
£1 17s. 6d. ; Cyprœa sulcidentata, nigropunctata and 
nebulosa, type, J~i 17s. 6d. ; Cyprœa aurora, 
£$ 17s. 6d. ; Cyprœa citrina adamsoni (2), lutea (2) 
and modesta (2), 40s. ; Cyprœa pulchra and reevei, 42s.; 
Cyprœa bregeriana and beckii, £x 17s. 6d. ; Conus 
crosseanus and splendidulus, 32s. 6d. ; Conus thalas- 
siarchus Var, granulatus and saturatus, 27s. 6d. ; 
Aspergillum vaginiferum (2), £1 7s. 6d. ; Spondylus 
pleurispinosus and aurantius, 35s. ; Spondylus regius, 
20s. ; Sondylus foliaceus and Chama iazarus, 2TS. ; 
Pecten mirificus, corallinoides and pes-felis, 25s. ; Dolium 
melanostomus, 30s. ; Latiaxis maurœ and Melapium 
lineatum, £2 5s. ; Cochlostyla harfordi and Nanina 
brookei, 26s. ; Ovulum pulchellum, type, and Oniscia 
cancellaia, 22s. ; Cardium victor, type, mauritiana (2) 
and two others, 40s. ; Strombus iaurus, ^5 tos. ; 
Rostellaria luteostoma, type, 25s. ; Clathurela robil- 
lardi, type, and Enchelus al a]abastrum, type, 25s. 

The total realized by the Shells was ^913 18s. 

Among the books, Reeve Conchologi'i honica realized 

£5°- 



August i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



Museum, by Dr. J. E. Gray, Pp. VIII. 80. 
1844, 8vo. ... ... ... ... is. 

Catalogue of the Chelonians, Rhynocephalians. 
and Crocodiles in the British Museum. 
New Edition, by George Alfred Boulanger. 
Pp. X. 311. 73 woodcuts and 6 plates, 1889, 
8vo ... ... ... ... ... 15s. 

Gigantic Land Tortoises (living and extinct) in 
the Collection of the British Museum. By 
Albert C L. G. Gunther. Pp. IX, 96, 55 
plates and 2 Charts of the Aldabra group 
of Islands, north west of Madagascar (with a 
Systematic Synopsis of the Extinct and Living 
Gigantic Land Tortoises) 1877, 4to 30s. 

Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum. 
Second Edition, by George Albert Boulenger, 
Vol. I. Geckonidse, Eublepharidse, Uroplatidae, 
Pygopodidse, Agamidae. Pp. XII. 436. 32 
plates 1885, 8vo ... ... ... 20s. 

Vol. II. Iguanidae, Xenosauridse, Zoniiridse, An- 
guidae, Anniellidse, Helodermatidae, Varanidae, 
Xantusiidae, Teiidas, Amphisbaenidae. Pp. 
XIII. 497, 24plates ; 1885, 8vo ... 20s. 

Vol. III. Lacertudae, Gerrhosauridae, Scincidas, 
Anelytropidae, Dibamidae, Chamaeleontidae. 
Pp. XII. 575. 40 plates, 1887, 8vo. 26s. 

Catalogue of Colubrine Snakes in the Collection 
of the British Museum, by Dr. Albert 
Gunther. Pp. XVI. 281. 1858, i2mo. 4s. 

Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia in the Col- 
lection of the British Museum, by Dr. Albert 
Gunther, Pp. XVI. 160. 12 plates. 1858, 8vo 6s. 

Catalogue of the Batrachia, Salientia, s. Ecaudata 
in the Collection of the British Museum. 
Second edition, by George Albert Boulenger. 
Pp. XVI. 503. Woodcuts and 30 plates, 
1882, 8vo. ... ... 30s. 

Catalogue of the Batrachia, Gradientia, s. Gra- 
dentia, s. Caudata and Batrachia Apoda in the 
Collection of the British Museum. Second 
Edition, by George Albert Boulenger. Pp. 
XIII; 127, 9 plates, 1882, 8vo ... 9s. 

Catalogue of the Fishes in the Collection of the 
British Museum, by Dr. Albert Gunther. 

Vol. II. Squamipinnes, Cirrhitidae, Triglidse, to 
Xiphiidae. Pp. XXL, 548. i860. 8vo... 8s. 6d. 

Vol. III. Gobiidae, Discoboli to Notacanthi. Pp. 
XXV ; 586. Woodcuts, 1861, 8vo ... 10s. 6d. 

Vol. IV. Acanthopterygi, Pharyngognathi Ana- 
canthini. Pp. XXI, 534, 1862. 8vo... 8s. 6d. 

Vol. V. Siluridae, Characinidae to Stomiatidse. 
Pp. XXII, 455. Woodcuts, 1864, 8vo 8s. 

Vol. VI. Salmonidae, Percopsidae to Cyprinodon- 
tidae. Pp. XV, 368. Woodcuts, 1866, 
8vo ... 7s. 

Vol. VII Heterophygi, Cyprinidae to Halosauri. 
dae. Pp. XX, 512. Woodcuts, 1868, 8vo. 8s. 

Vol. VIII Gymnotidae, Symbranchidae to Lep- 
tocardii, Pp. XXV. 549. 1870 8vo ... Rs. 6d. 

Guide to the Systematic Distribution of Mollusca 
in the British Museum. Part 1, by John Ed- 
ward Gray. Pp. XII, 320, 121 Woodcuts, 
1857, 8vo ' 5s. 



— Catalogue of the Collection of Mazatlan Shells in 

the British Museum, collected by Frederick 
Reigne, by Philip P. Carpenter. Pp. XVI, 552, 
1847, 8vo ... ... ... ... 8s. 

— Catalogue of the specimens of Amphipodous 

Crustacea in the collection of the British 
Museum by Spence Bate. Pp. IV, 399, 58 
plates, 1862, 8vo ... ... ... 25s. 

" For all the other publications of the British 
Museum, apply at Naturalist's Agency." 

Buffon (Suites à) — Zoologie générale, par M. Isidore 

Geoffroy, Saint Hilaire, 1 vol. in 8vo, avec 1 

livraison de planches figures noires ... 10s. 

Ditto ditto coloriées ... ... ... 14s. 

— Cétacés, Baleines Dauphins, etc., par M. Cuvier. 

1 vol. in 8vo, et 2 livraisons de planches 
noires ... ... ... ... ... 12s. 

Ditto ditto coloriées ... ;.. 18s. 

— Reptiles, Serpents, Lézards, Grenouilles, etc., 

par M. Duméril, 10 vol. in 8vo et 10 livrai- 
sons de planches noires ... ... 84s. 

Ditto ditto coloriées .. ... 132s. 

— Poissons, par M. A. Duméril, Tome I et II,. en 

3 vol. et 2 livr. de planches, fig. noires 24s. 
Coloriées ... ... ... ... 30s. 

{En cours de publication.) 

— Introduction à l'entomologie, par M. Lacordaire, 

2 vol.,et 2 livraisons,de planches noires 17s. 
Ditto ditto coloriées ... ... 20s. 

— Insectes Coléoptères (appelé vulgairement. 

Genera Lacordaire), par Mess. Lacordaire et 
Chapuis, Tome I à XII, complet en 14 vol. 
et 13 livraisons de planches noires... 11 6s. 
Ditto ditto coloriées... ... ... 160s 

{Livre indispensable pour un entomologiste.) 

— Orthoptères, par M. Serville, 1 vol. et 1 livr. 

deplanches noires ... ... . . 8s. 6d 

Ditto ditto coloriées ... ... 12s. 

— Hémiptères, par Mess. Amyot et Serville, 1 vol. 

et 1 livr. planches noires ... ... 8s. 6d. 

Ditto ditto coloriées .. . ... ... 12s. 

— Lépidoptères duirnes, par M. Boisduval, Tome 1 

avec 2 livr. planches noires ... us. 6d. 
Ditto ditto coloriées ... ... 17s. 

— Lépidoptères nocturnes, par Mess. Boisduval 

et Gùenée, Tome I avec une livraison de 
planches, Tome V à X avec 5 livr. de 
planches noires ... ... ... 58s. 

Ditto ditto coloriées ... ... 65s. 

— Névroptères, par M. Rambur, 1 vol. et 1 livr. 

de planches noires ... ... ... 8s. 6d. 

Ditto ditto coloriées ... 12s. 

— Hyménoptères, 4 vol. et 4 livr. de planches 

noires par Mess, de St.Fargeau et Brullé 34s. 
Ditto ditto coloriées... ... ... 45s 

— Diptères, par M. Macquart, 2 vol. et 2 livr. de. 

planches noires ... ... ... 17s. 

Ditto ditto coloriées ... ... 28s. 

— Aptères, par MM. Walckenaer et Gervais, 4 vol. 

et 5 livr. de planches noires... ... 38s. 

Ditto ditto coloriées ... ... ... 32s. 

— Crustacés, par Mr. Milne Edwards, 3 vol. et 4 

livr. de planches noires • ... ... 30s. 

Ditto ditto coloriées ... 40s . 



VI 



Tl 



HUMMING SîTRT 



[August i, 189 1 



Boisduval — Lépidoptères de la Californie, Bruxelles, 
1869, br. in 8vo ... ... ... 4s. 

Bonaparte — Conspectus generum avium, 1850-1857. 
2 vol. ... ... ... ... ... 50s. 

— Geographical and Comparative list of the birds 

of Europe and North America, 8vo... ' 6s. 

Clara y Sucinta Exposicion del pequeno Catecismo 
impreso en el idioma Mexicano, por un 
Sacerdote devoto de la Madré santissima de 
la Luz, etc. Puebla, 18 19. 1 Vol., 67 double 
pages, one side in Mexican, the other in 
Spanish ... ... ... ... 40s. 

Candèze — Histoire des métamorphoses de quelques 
coléoptères exotiques, Liège, 1861, 1 vol. in 
8vo, 6 planches noires ... ... 2s. 6d. 

— Monographie des Elatérides, Liège, 185 7- 1863, 

4 vol. in 8vo, 25 pi. noires ... ... 32s. 

— Elatérides nouveaux (Complément à la mono- 

graphie), Brux. 1864, in 8vo, br. ... is. 6d. 

Castelnau et Blanchard — Histoire naturelle des In- 
sectes, avec une introduction par Brullé, 3 vol. 
in 8vo... ... . ... ... 40s. 

Catalogue des Coléoptères d'Europe (extrait du 
Généra des Coléoptères d'Europe de Jacquelin 
du Val et Fairmaire) vol. in 6 ... 3s. 6d. 

Catalogue of Coleopterous Insects in the collection of 
the British Museum, with descriptions of new 
species. 

— Longicornia, Part I. et IL, par Adam White, 

2 vol. in 8vo ... ... ... ... 8s. 

— Cassididae, par Boheman, 1 vol. in 8vo... 5s. 

— Cucujidse, par J. Ed. Gray „ „ ... is. 

— Cleridse, par Adam White „ „ ... 2s. 6d. 

— Passalidae, Buprestidse, par Smith, 1 vol. 

in 8vo... ... ..- ... ... is. 

Chenu — Leçons élémentaires sur l'histoire naturelle, 
Conchyologie, Paris, 1847, 1 vol. gr. in 8vo, 
planches coloriées ... ... ... 20s. 

— Manuel de Conchyologie et Paléontologie con- 

chyologique contenant la description et la 
représentation de près de 5,000 coquilles. 
Paris, 1862, 2 vol. in 4to, planches noires et 
coloriées ... ... ... ... 30s. 

— Encyclopédie d'histoire naturelle, ou Traité com- 

plet de cette science : — Mammifères, 5 vol. ; 
Oiseaux, 6 vol. ; Reptiles et Poissons, 1 vol. ; 
Coléoptères, 3 vol. ; Lépidoptères, 2 vol. ; 
Crustacés, Mollusques, et Zoophytes, 1 vol. ; 
Annelés, 1 vol. ; Botanique, 2 vol. ;' Miné- 
ralogie, Géologie, Races humaines, 1 vol. Le 
tout complet ... ... ... ... 100s. 

chaque volume séparément ... ... 5s, 

Crotch — Synopsis coleopterum europae et confinium. 
London, 1871, in 8vo ... ... 2s. 

— Check List of the Coleoptera of America, north 

of Mexico, Salem, Mass., in 8vo ... 6s. 

— Catecismo y Declaracion de la Doctrina Chris- 

tiana en lengua Otomi, con un Vocabulario 
del mismo idioma, por el R. P. Joaquin Lopez 
Yepes, Mexico, 1826. 1 Vol. in 4to, 254 
pages ... ••• ... ... 60s. 

Degland et Gerbe — Ornithologie européenne, 2 em * édi- 
tion, Paris, 1867 ... ... ... 24s. 



Deyrolle, Henri, Description des Buprestides de la 
Malaisie, recueillis par Wallace, 1865, 1 vol. 
in 8vo, 4 planches coloriées ... ... 12s. 

Diagrams of Natural History, edited by A. Boucard. 
20 sheets, 18-in. by 24-in., comprising 166 
Diagrams of Animals and Plants, life size, 
beautifully printed in colours, and 37 Natural 
specimens of Woods and Minerals, all neatly 
mounted on very stout cardboard, the set 
complete, with Manual ... ... 40s. 

{Quite indispensable for a school.} 
Duponchel — Catalogue méthodique des Lépidoptères 
d'Europe, Fort vol. in 8vo, de 523 pages 

broché ... ... ... 6s. 

Duponchel et Guénée — Iconographie et histoire natu- 
relle des chenilles d'Europe, avec 93 magnifi- 
ques planches gravées et coloriées, nouvelle 
édition, publiée en 4olivraisons à if. Les 2 vol., 
reliés maroquin rouge, tranche dorée . 40s. 
Entomologist's Annual 1855-1891, foolscap, chaque 
année... ... ... ... ... 3s. 

{En cours de publication. ~) 
Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, Nos. 1-86, chaque 
numéro .. ... ... ... is. 

(En cours de publication.) 

Etiquettes pour Insectes, Coquilles, etc. — Grande 

feuille 16x20 contenant 1326 étiquettes, 

avec le nom de tous les pays explorés par les 

voyageurs naturalistes. Chaque feuille est 

divisée en cinq parties: Europa, Asia, Africa, 

America, Australia, etc., et chaque partie est 

arrangée par ordre alphabétique. Un espace 

blanc a été réservé sur chaque étiquette de 

façon à pouvoir y mettre le nom scientifique de 

l'espèce, et le nom du collecteur, la feuille... 3d. 

(Une grande réduction sera faite aux personnes 

qui commanderont plus de 100 feuilles à la fois.) 

Felder — Lepidopterologische Fragmente, Wien, 1859, 

in 4to, 1 1 pi. n. ... ... ... 15s. 

Felder G. et R., Diagnoses lepidopterologicas, Wien, 
1 vol. in 8vo, 240 pages ... ... 10s. 

Gemminger et Harold — Catalogus Coleopterum: — 
Vol. 1 — Cicindelida3,Carabidse ... ... 15s. 

Vol. 2 — Dytiscidae Gyrinidse, Hydrophilidas Sta- 
phylinidae à Scaphiidae, inclus... ... us. 

Vol. 3 — Histeridae à Lucanidse, inclus ... 7s. 
Vol. 4 — Scarabseidae ... ... ... 12s. 

Vol. 5 — Buprestidas, Elateridse à Cebrionidse, 
inclus ... ... ... ... 9s. 

Vol. 6 — Rhypidoceridae Malacodermidae à 
Cioidse, inclus -. ... ... 7s. 

Vol. 7 — Tenebrionidse à Oedemeridae, inclus 14s. 
Vol. 8 — Curculionidse ... ... ... 15s. 

Vol. 9 — Scolytidae à Cerambycidse (Prionini, 
Cerambycini) ... ... ... 13s. 

Vol. 10 — Cerambycidas Bruchidse ... 12s. 

Vol. 11 — Chrysomelidae ... ... ... 12s. 

(Cet ouvrage est tout à fait indespensable pour un 
entomologiste.) 
Grose Smith and Kirby, Rhopalocera exotica, being 
illustrations of new, rare, or unfigured species 
of Butterflies, \ with coloured drawings and 
descriptions, £ folio, Part 1 to 14 inclusive ^4, 
each, part published at ... ... 7s. 6d. 



August i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



vu 



Godart et Duponchel — Histoire naturelle des Lépi- 
doptères, d'Europe, 18 vol. in 8vo, 548 plan- 
ches col. &° 

Gurney — Catalogue of Raptorial Birds, Parts I. in 
8vo ••• 6s. 

Harting — The Birds of Middlesex, 8vo ... 9s. 

Historia de la Conquista de Mexico, etc., by Don 
Antonio Solis Brusselas, 1741 
1 Vol. in folio, 276 pages, 13 Engravings and 
Maps. Pages 1 to 9 slightly stained... ,£10. 

Historia General des las Cosas de Nueva Espana, by 
Rev. Bernardino de Sahagun, con notas y su- 
plementos, por Carlos Maria de Bustamente, 
Mexico, 1829. 4 vols, in 4to., uncut... £$. 

Historia de las Conquistas de Hernando Cortez, por 
Francisco Lopez de Gomara, con varias notas 
y addiciones, por Carlos Maria de Busta- 
mante, Mexico, 1826. 1 vol. in 4to, 315 
p.p. ... ... ... ... ••• £2. 

Ibis — A Quarterly Journal of Ornithology, each 
part ... ••• -•• •■• ••• 6s. 
En cours de publication. {Très recommandé.) 

Insecta saundersiana, Part 1-8, 8vo, sewed, each 
part ... ••• ••• •■■ ••• 3s. 

Ditto ditto. Part 9 3s. 

Jacquelin Du Val et Fairmaire. Genera des Coléop- 
tères d'Europe, représentant plus de 1,500 
types d'après nature et coloriés avec le plus 
grand soin, 4 vol. cartonnés, 303 pi. col. (mag- 
nifique ouvrage) ... ... ... ;£l2. 

Jekel — Catalogus Curculionidum, 1 vol. in i2mo. 2s. 

— Insecta Saundersiana Curculionides, Part I. 154 

pages 5s. 

— Ditto ditto ditto Part II. 225 5s. 
Kirby, W. F. — European Butterflies and Moths, 

1 Vol. \ folio, 427 pages, 61 coloured plates. 
London, 1882... ... ... ... 32s. 

— Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera, 1870, 1 vol. 

in 8vo. 690 pages ... ... ... 24s. 

Kampuysens Stichtelyke Rymen, by M. Mathieu, 

Rotterdam 1688. 1 Vol. in 8vo., 680 Pp. £1. 
Lacordaire (Th.) — Monographie des Coléoptères sub- 

pentamères Phytophages, 2 vol. gr in 8vo. 

Liège, 1848 ... ... ... ... 20S. 

— Généra des Coléoptères, Tome I-XII. en 14 vol. 

in 8vo. et 13 livr. de planches noires ... J~6. 

— Coloriées. Ouvrage complet ... ... £S. 

Latreille — Cours d'entomologie, 1 gros vol. in 8vo. 

et un atlas de 24 planches ... ... 15s. 

Manual of Natural History, with many illustrations, 
edited by A. Boucard ; second edition, 1 vol. 

in 8vo., London, 1876 ... ... 4s. 

Milne Edwards — Eléments de Zoologie, 2ème édition, 

Paris, 1840 — 1843, * v °l- m 8vo ... 16s. 

— Histoire naturelle des Crustacés, Paris, 1837 — 

1840, 3 vol. in 8vo, avec 42 planches 30s. 

— Coloriées ... ... ... ... 40s. 

— Zoologie, 1 vol 6s. 

Mulsant (E.) — Lettres à Julie sur l'entomologie, 

Lyon, 1830, 2 vol. in 8vo. 15 planches 
coloriées ... ... ... ... 30s. 

Mulsant (E.) — Essai d'une classification méthodique 
des Trochilidés ou Oiseaux Mouches, 1 vol. in 
8vo. 98 p. ... ... ... ... 2S. 



Mulsant et Verreaux.— Histoire naturelle des Oiseaux. 
Mouches ou Colibris constituant la famille dei 
Trochilidés ... £ï6 

Marseuil l'Abeille— Journal d'Entomologie, spéciale 
ment consacré aux Coléoptères, iere Série 
1864- — 1867, tomes I. à VI ... ... 75s 

chaque volume séparément ... ... 15s 

2eme. Série, 1870 ... ... ... 15s 

— Catalogus Coleopterum Europas, 1 vol. in 8vo. 2s 
Murray— On the geographical distribution of Mam- 
mals, 103 coloured plates and maps, 1 large 
vol. in 4to ... ... ... ... 50s. 

Nauman A. Nauman's Naturgeschichte der Vogel 
Deutschlands ; 13 vol. in 4 , 391 coloured 
plates, a magnificent copy, rare ... ^25 

Pouchet — Zoologie classique, 2 vol. in 8vo, 1,300 
pages, atlas de 44 planches et 5 grands tableaux 
gravés sur acier, figures noires ... ■ 20s. 

Ditto ditto coloriées ... 25 s. 

Saunders, E. — Catalogus buprestidarum synonymi- 
cus et systematicus. Londres, 187 1, vol. 
in 8vo... ... ... ... ... 8s. 

Sclater et Salvin — Nomenclator Avium neotropi- 
calum ... ... ... ... ... 16s. 

Thomson, T. — Arcana Naturse. Grand in folio, Paris, 
1859, pi. noires 40s., coloriées ... 60s. 

— Archives entomologiques ou illustrations d'In- 

sectes, nouveaux et rares, grand in 8vo, 
2 vol., Paris, 1857-1858, pi. noires, 40s., 
coloriées ... ... ... ... 60s. 

— Essai d'une classification de la famille des Céram- 

bycides, grand in 8vo, 412 pages, 3 planches, 
Paris, i860 ... ... ... ... 24s. 

Thomson, T. — Monographie du genre Batocera, 
grand in folio, 3 pi. noires ... ... 12s. 

— Monographie de la famille des Cicindélides, 1857, 

grand in 4to, n planches noires, 20s., 
coloriées ... ... ... ... 24s. 

— Monographie de la famille des Monomides, i860, 

grand in 8vo, avec 3 planches coloriées 12s. 

— Monographie de la famille des Nilionides, in 8vo, 

4 pi. n.... ... ... ... ... 8s. 

— Monographie du genre Spheniscus, grand in folio, 

2pl.n — ... ... ... ... ios. 

Tezcoco en los ultimos tiempos de sus antiguos 
Reyes. Tomada de los manuscritos ineditos 
de Boturini y redactados por el Lie. Mariano 
Veytia, Mexico, 1826. 1 vol. iômo, 276 
pages ... ... ... ... ... 40s. 

Various Calendarios Mexicanos, 1830 to i860, is. 
and 2S. each. 

Zoological Report, 8vo, 30s. annually (1864 — 1891 
published) chaque volume ... ... 21s. 

(Ouvrage indispensable pour un zoologiste.) 

Zoological Society of London, Transactions, of pub- 
lished in four parts annually (57 vol. published) 
each part un-coloured, 3s., coloured 12s 

{Price of each volume sent on application.) 

The Naturalist's Agency will procure to his 
Customers all the Scientific Works published in 
London at publisher's prices. 

Apply at Naturalist's Agency, 225, High Holborn 
London, W.C. 



vm 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[August i, i8qi 



TO ETHNOLOGISTS AND OTHERS. 



FOR SALE. 

Twenty finely farved At; dws and 1 Bow from New Guinea 

Price 20s. 

African Ehinoceros War Club Price 30s. 

Three distinct Zulu War Clubs, made of iron wood and very 
nicely carved Price 30s. each. 

Pagaie from New Guinea, made of palm tree Price 30s. 

Magnificent Gold Antiquity from Panama, representing what 
appears to be Musicians, two large figures in the centre and 
six small ones round. It weighs G oz. 187 grammes. It is 
quite unique, and no Museum in the world possesses anything 
like it Price £50. 

A great variety of American Antiquities, chiefly from Central 
America, in hardstone, agathe, Idols, Vases, etc. from 5s. 

» 

Modern pottery from Mexico and Central America 

from 6d. 

Statuettes- representing the Indians of Mexico and Guatemala 

from 3s. 

Rats, Baslcets, Mats and vaiious Objects made with palm 
leaves and various textile plauts, from Central America, Mada- 
gascar, New Guinea, etc. from 6d. 

Samples of Textile Fibres, Seeds, Gums, Resins, Medicinal 
Plan* s , etc. from Mexico and Central America from 6d. 

Old and. Modern Coins from Mexico from Is. 

Etc., etc., etc. 





ARTIFICIAL EYES.. 




Wholesale Price. 






Black Coloured 


Cornered 


Cornered 

& Veined 




•per gross 


per doz. pairs 


per doz. pair s 


No. 1 to 4 6d. Is. 6d. 


No. 4 to 6 3s. 6d. 


4s. 6d. 


„ 5 „ 8 8d. 2s. 6d. 


„ 7 „ 8 5s. Od. 


6s. Od. 


„ 9 „ 10 ls.Od. 4s. Od. 


„ 9 6s. Od. 


8s- Od. 


„ 11 


2s.0d. 5s. 6d. 


„ 10 7s. Od. 


9s. Od. 


,, 12 


2s. 3d. 7s. 0d. 


„ 11 8s. Od. 


10s. Od. 


„ 13 


2s. 6d. 10s. Od. 

doz. of pairs 


„ 12 9s. Od. 


lis. Od. 


„ 14 


3s. Od. Is. 6d. 


„ 13 10s. Od. 


12s. Od. 


„ 15 


3s. 6d. 2s. 6d. 


„ 14 lis. Od. 


13s. Od. 


,, 16 


4s. Od. 2s. 6d. 


„ 15 13s- Od. 


15s. Od. 


„ 17 


8s. Od. 3s. Od. 


Larger sizes can be made 


„ 18 


12s. Od. 4s. Od. 


to order. 



Nr. 1 to 4 are good for humming birds and others up to 
the size of Tanagers. 

No. 5 to 8 Tanagers to Maepies. 

No. 9 to 10 Magpies to Gulls, 

No. 11 to 12 Pheasants, etc. 

No. 13 to 18 Hawks, Owls, Herons, etc. 



Priced List of Utensils necessary for 
the collecting of Mammals and Birds 
Skins, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, Shells, 

&c, &c. 



Bicarbolic Acid ... 




quart 2/- 


Rectified Benzoline 


. . . 


» 2 A 


Boucard's Insecticide ... 


... 


lb. 4/- 


Ammonia 




4/- 


Collecting corked Box. ... 


from 


1/- to 5/- each. 


Pocket corked Box, 


. , . 


... from 1/- 


Corked Box for Museums 




24/- doz. 



Pin box, for 12 grosses of different sizes... 1/6 
„ with looo pins... ... ... 3/- 

Sea compass, ... ... from 2/- to 50/- 

Collectting bottles with large opening from 6d. 
Boucard's tin collecting box with two partitions 2/- 
Straight Scissors ... ... ... from 2/- 

Curved „ ... ... ... ... ,, 2/- 

Taxidermist knifes ... ... ... „ 1/6 

Long Forceps ... ... ... „ 3/- 

Small „ ,, 1/- 

Insects' Nippers, ... ... ... „ 1/6 

Sieve ... ... ... ... ,, 27- 

Blowpipe for cleaning eggs ... ... ,, 2/- 

Digger „ 2/- & 4/- 

Folding ditto .. . ... ... ... „ 6/- 

InsectPins, English, French orGermanfromi/6 per 1000 
Steel Pins for setting butterflies ... ,, 4/- per 1000 
Setting Boards ... ... ... i/-to3/-each 

Butterfly Nets complete ... ...from 1/6 to 6/- 

Sweeping and Water Nets ... ... ,, 2/6 

Cork in sheets ... ... ... „ 3/- doz. 

Magnifying Glasses ... ... ... ,, 1/- to 5/- 

Hammers ... ... ... ... „ 1/6 to 5/- 

Napthaline ... ... ... ... ,, 4/- per lb. 

Botanical Grey paper... ... ... ,, 6/- ream. 

Folding Umbrella for collecting Insects „ 10/- 
Steel Perforator for making holes in eggs ,, 1/- 
Cutting pliers ... ... ... „ 2/- 

Flat „ „ 1/- 

Arsenical Soap „ 2/- per lb. 

Glass Tubes for small Insects and shells ,, 1/- doz. 

Pill boxes for ditto „ 4/- gross. 

Flax ... ... „ 6d. per lb 

Cotton wading per sheet ... ... „ 6d 

Fishing rods with accessories from ,, 2/- 
Dredge for collecting shells, &c. ... ,, 40/- 

Taxidermists Case, containing 1 Pair of Scissors 
2 Knives, 1 Lime, 1 Grater, 2 Pliers, 1 Ham- 
mer, 1 pair of Forceps, 1 Brush, 3 Gimlets, 
etc., complete ... ... ...from 12/- to 40/- 

Shell-empting with handle ... ... „ 1 l'- 
Ail other Utensils for Naturalists can be had at a 
short notice, 225, High Holborn, London, W. C. 
by ordering at the Naturalist's Agency. 



Botanical 



, and glazed, splendid make. 36/- 

Larger sizes can b^ Ftipplie 
bo ... ... from 2/0 to 6/- each. 



FOR SALE. 

One of the most magnificent Collections of Marine, 
Fluviatile and Terrestrial Shells formed during the 
last forty years. 

It contains 9,761 soecies by 37,686 specimens, all 
of them in the most perfect condition. 

Species Specimens. 
Marine and Fresh Univalves 5238 21,314 
Bivalve, Marine and Freshwater 1850 5,900 

Foreign Land Shells 2673 j 9,44 2 

European „ 950 



Rare Shells in glass Cases 



80 



9,761 37,686 

Very nearly all the rare species known aie repre. 
sented in the Collection and sometimes by several 
specimens. 

For further informations and price, apply to Mr. 
A. Boucard 225, High Holborn, London, W. C. 



/ LONDOÏ1 : Publiihed by A. BOUOARD, at 225, High Holborn, W.O. ; and Printed at J. S. LEVIN'S Printing Work», 76, Leadenhall Street, E.O. 

AuguH 1, 1891. 




Zbc 




Ifoumming JStrb 

A MONTHLY SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC, AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW. 



GUARANTEED CIRCULATION, 5000. 



VOL I., NO. 9. 



September 1, 1891. 



PRICE SIXPENCE, 



Annual Subscription: United .Kingdom, Post free, 4 shillings ; all countries included in the Postal Union, 5 shillings. 

All other countries, 6 shillings. 




CX^uyyxCcxy J2k>vtccuvdi^ 



EDITED UNDER THE DIRECTION 

OF 

MR. ADOLPHE BOUCARD, 

NATURALIST, 

Officier d'Académie, 1878; Knight of the Royal Military Order of the Conception, 1881 ; 
Knight Officer of the Royal Order of Cambodje, 1889; Knight Commander of the Royal Order of Isabelle la Catholique, 1882; 

Corresponding Member of the Zoological Society, London, 1865; 

de la Mission scientifique française au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale, 1866; of the Royal Museum of Madrid, 1881; 

Commissioner for the Republic of Guatemala in the Paris International Exhibitions of 1878 and 1889 ; 

Member of the International Jury, Paris, 1889 ; Member of many scientific societies; 

etc. etc. etc. etc. 



CONTENTS OF No. 9. -SEPTEMBER 1, 1891. 



The Pilgrim Locust. 

A Visit to the British Museum. Natural History 

Department. 
Recommendations for the Prevention of Damage by 



some common Insects of the Farm, the Orchard, 

and the Garden. 
Water Rent in London. 
Review of Scientific Books. 
Obituary. 



&. 




[Entered at Stationers' Hall.] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



\September i, 1891 



FOR SALE.— Shells. 

Private Collection of Mr. Boucard. 
Land, Fluviatile and Marine Shells. 

Glandinidse, is. each. Helicidse, 6d. each. Bulimidae 
is. each. Achatinidse, is. each. Chlindrellidse, is. 6d. 
each. ClausilidEe, 3d. each. Ampularidœ, 6d. each. 
Lymmea, Physa, and Planorbis, 3d. each. Cyclosto- 
nidse, 6d. each. Helicinidse, 3d. each. Unio, 
Anodonta, and Ostrea, 6d. each. 

Marine Shells — All the Collection including 
Argonyuta, Murex, Fusus, Triton, Ranella, Nassa, 
Oliva, Marginella, Harpa, Terebra, Conus, Sfrombus, 
Cypraea, Neritina, Patella, Chiton, Haliotis, Turbo, 
Venus, Cardium, &c, 6d. each. 

Can be divided if required. 

AH applications to be made at the Journal's Office. 



FOR SALE. 

One of the most magnificent Collections of Marine, 
Fluviatile and Terrestrial Shells formed during the 
last forty years. 

It contains 9,761 species by 37,686 specimens, all 
of them in the most perfect condition. 

Species Specimens. 
Marine and Fresh Univalves 5238 21,314 
Bivalve, Marine and Freshwater 1850 5,900 

Foreign Land Shells 2673 j 9,442 

European „ j 950 

Rare Shells in glass Cases 80 



9,761 37,686 

Very nearly all the rare species known are repre- 
sented in the Collection and sometimes by several 
specimens. 

For further informations and price, apply to Mr. 
A. Boucard 225, High Holborn, London, W. C. 



TO ETHNOLOGISTS AND OTHERS. 



FOR SALE. 

Twenty finely carved Ar: ows and 1 Bow from New Guinea 

Price 20s. 

African Rhinoceros War Club Price 30s. 

Three distinct Zulu War Clubs, made of iron wood and very 
nicely carved Price 30s. each. 

Pagaie from New Guinea, made of palm tree Price 30s. 

Magnificent Gold Antiquity from Panama, representing what 
appears to be Musicians, two large figures in the centre and 
six small ones round. It weighs 6 oz. 187 grammes. It is 
quite unique, and no Museum in the world possesses anything 
like it Price £50. 

A great variety of American Antiquities, chiefly from Central 
America, in hardstone, agathe, Idols, Vases, etc. from 5s. 

Modern pottery from Mexico and Central America 

from 6d. 
Statuettes representing the Indians of Mexico and Guatemala 

from 3s. 
Hats, Baskets, Mats and various Objects made with palm 
leaves and various textile plants, from Central America, Mada- 
gascar, New Guinea, etc. from 6d. 

Samples of Textile Fibres, Seeds, Gums, Resins, Medicinal 
Plants, etc. from Mexico and Central America from 6d. 

Old and Modern Coins from Mexico from la. 

Etc., etc., etc. 



Priced List of Utensils necessary for 
the collecting of Mammals and Birds 
Skins, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, Shells. 

Bicarbolic Acid... ... ... quart 2/- 

Rectified Benzoline ... ... „ 2/- 

Boucard's Insecticide lb. 4/- 

Ammonia ... ... ... }J 4/- 

Collecting corked Box. ... from ij- to 5/- each. 

Pocket corked Box, ... from 1/- 

Corked Box for Museums ... ... 24/- doz. 

„ „ and glazed, splendid make. 36/- „ 

Larger sizes can be supplied. 

Botanical box from 2/6 to 6/- each. 

Pin box, for 12 grosses of different sizes ... 1/6 
„ with 1000 pins... ... ... 3/- 

Sea compass, ... .... from 2/- to 50/- 

Collectting bottles with large opening from 6d. 
Boucard's tin collecting box with two partitions 2/- 

Straight Scissors ... from 2/- 

Curyed „ „ 2/- 

Taxidermist knifes ... ... ... „ 1/6 

Long Forceps ... „ 3/- 

Small „ „ 1/- 

Insects' Nippers, „ 1/6 

Sieve _ ' „ 2 /- 

Blowpipe for cleaning eggs ... ... ,, 2/- 

Digger „ 2/- & 4/- 

Folding ditto „ 6/- 

InsectPins,English, French orGermanfromi/6 per 1000 
Steel Pins for setting butterflies .... „ 4/- per 1000 

Setting Boards ... 1/- to 3/- each 

Butterfly Nets complete ..from 1/6 to 6/- 

Sweeping and Water Nets ,, 2/6 

Cork in sheets „ 3/- doz. 

Magnifying Glasses „ 1/- to 5/- 

Hammers „ 1/6 to 5/- 

Napthaline „ 4/- per lb. 

Botanical Grey paper ,, 6/- ream. 

Folding Umbrella for collecting Insects „ 10/- 
Steel Perforator for making holes in eggs „ 1/- 
Cutting pliers ... ... ... „ 2/- 

Flat „ „ 1/- 

Arsenical Soap „ 2/- per lb. 

Glass Tubes for small Insects and shells ,, 1/- doz. 
Pill boxes for ditto ... ... ... „ 4/- gross. 

Flax >} 6 d. per lb 

Cotton wading per sheet ... ... ,, 6d 

Fishing rods with accessories from „ 2/- 
Dredge for collecting shells, &c. ... ,, 40/- 

Taxidermists Case, containing 1 Pair of Scissors 
2 Knives, 1 Lime, 1 Grater, 2 Pliers, 1 Ham- 
mer, 1 pair of Forceps, 1 Brush, 3 Gimlets, 

etc., complete from 12/- to 40/- 

Shell-empting with handle ... ... „ 1/- 

All other Utensils for Naturalists can be had at a 
short notice, 225, High Holborn, London, W. C. 
by ordering at the Naturalist's Agency. 

STANDS, N KW STYLE. 

Wholesale Price. 
No. 1 for Humming birds and Small birds at 20s. per hundred 
,, 2 ,, Small birds up to TanagerB at 24s. „ 

,, 3 „ Tanagers up to Magpies at 28s. „ 

. ,, 4 „ Magpies up to Crows or Small 

Hawks at 32s. ,, 

„ 5 ,, Small Hawks to Large Hawks 

and Owls at 40s. ,, 



September i, 1S91] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



111 



ARTIFICIAL EYES. 

Wholesale Price. 



Black 


Coloured 




Cornered 


Cornered 

& Veined 


per qross 




per 


doz. pairs 


per doz. pairs 


No. 1 to 4 6d. 


Is. 6d. 


No. 4 to 6 


3s. 6d. 


4s. 6d. 


„5„ 8 8d. 


2s. 6d. 


,, 7„ 8 


5s. Od. 


6s. Od. 


„ 9 „ 10 ls.Od. 


4s. Od. 


» 9 


6s. Od. 


8s- Od. 


„ 11 2s. Od. 


5s. 6d. 


., 10 


7s. Od. 


9s. Od. 


„ 12 2s. 3d. 


7s. Od. 


» 11 


8s. Od. 


10s. Od. • 


„ 13 2s. 6d. 


10s. Od. 


,, 12 


9s. Od. 


lis. Od. 


doz. of pairs 








„ 14 3s. Od. 


Is. 6d. 


., 13 


10s. Od. 


12s. Od. 


„ 15 3s. 6d. 


2s. 6d. 


» 14 


lis. Od. 


13s. Od. 


„ 16 4s. Od. 


2s. 6d. 


» 15 


13s- Od. 


15s. Od. 


„ 17 8s. Od. 


3s. Od. 


Lar 


ger sizes can be made 


„ 18 12s. Od. 


4s. Od. 




to order. 



Nr. 1 to 4 are good for humming birds and others up to 
the size of Tanagers. 

No. 5 to 8 Tanagers to Maepies. 

No. 9 to 10 Magpies to Gulls, 

No. 11 to 12 Pheasants, etc. 

No. 13 to 18 Hawks, Owls, Herons, etc. 



Postage Stamps 
FOR SALE. 

A large variety of rare Stamps and New Issues from all parts 
of the World. For prices &c. apply to Naturalists Agency, 

225, High Holborn, W.C. 



to 



WANTED TO BUY. 

Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwards 
which none have been added since the last 20 years. 

Old stamps on their original letter sheet or envelope, especi 
ally Colonials and old German states. 

Mulready Wrappers and Envelopes. 

Old unused English and Colonials. 

Old works on stamps. 

Proofs of stamps, etc. etc. 

TO ORNITHOLOGISTS. 



FOE SALE. 

Fine mounted specimen of AI 01 wipennis, the Great Auk, 
(extinct species). Pedigree from date of capture, 1836, will 
be given to buyer. 

Fine male specimen of the exceedingly rare new genus of 
bird Reinhardtia, ocellata Bp., the greatest discovery of the 
century. Price £50 

FOR SALE. — From Kina Balu {Borneo). 
Calyplomena whitehead^ male, 100s. A magnifi- 
cent bird, discovered lately by Mr. Whitehead in the 
interior of Borneo. Many other species from the 
same collector (magnificent skins). 

FOR SALE. 

A magnificent Collection of Woods from all parts 
of the world. 2,000 varieties. Fifty years work. 
Will be sold at a bargain. 

Fourteen species of Carabus from Chili. In the 
most perfect condition. 23 specimens, at 5s. each. 



FOR SALE. 
Books on Natural History, etc. 

Atlas d'Ornithologie ou Collection choisie d'Oiseaux 
les plus connus dessinés d'après nature par 
Martinet, Paris, 1784. 
1 Vol. grand in folio, in magnificent condition. 
Contents : Epitre à Buffon, Tableau général 
du classement des Oiseaux divisés d'après 
Buffon en neuf Ordres et cent un Genres ou 
Familles. 150 splendid coloured plates par 
Martinet. Exceedingly rare, perhaps uni- 
que. £$0. 

Agassiz — Nomenclator Zoologicus, Soloduri, 1842- 
1846, gros vol. in 4to. ... ... 40s. 

— Nomencîatoris Zoologici index universalis Solo- 

duri, 1848, ini2mo ... ... ... ios. 

— De l'espèce et des classifications en Zoologie, 

1 vol. in 8vo ... ... ... ... 4s. 

America, by John Ogilby, Esq., London, 167 1. 
Grand in folio, 675 pages, 121 splendid 
Engravings and Maps. j£io- 

Boucard, A. — Catalogius Avium ; contenant 2,456 
genres et 1.1,030 espèces, avec une nouvelle 
classification systématique. Londres, 1876, 
1 vol. in 8vo... ... ... ... 10s. 

— Monographie List of the Genus Plusiotis, with 

description of new species. (From the Pro- 
ceedings of the Zoological Society of London), 
1874. Brochure in 8vo, avec planche 
coloriée ... ... ... ... 4s. 

— La même, planche noire * ... ... 2s. 



— Notes sur les Trochilidés du Mexique (Extrait 

des Annales delà Société linnéenne de Lyon), 
1 brochure in 8vo, Lyon, 1875 ... is. 

— Notes sur quelques Trochilidés, ditto, 

1873 is. 

— Catalogue des collections d'Histoire na- 

turelle, récoltées au Mexique, par Mr. A. 
Boucard, avec le prix de chaque espèce 6d. 

— Catalogue de Mammifères, Oiseaux, Reptiles, 

Poissons et Coquilles, de la Californie, de la 
Louisiane, du Mexique, et de l'Uruguay, 
1,328 espèces, avec prix... ... 6d. 

— Catalogue de Coléoptères (Carabidœ), et Colé- 

optères divers 1,477 espèces, avec prix 6d. 

— Catalogue de Coléoptères Héteromères et de 

Curculionides, 2,242 espèces, avec prix 6d. 

— Catalogue d'Oiseaux, Reptiles, et Poissons, 1,157 

espèces, avec prix ... ... ... is. 

— Liste de Coléoptères exotiques, 2,636 espèces, 

avec prix ... ... ... ... is. 

— Guide pour collecter, préparer et expédier des 

collections d'histoire naturelle ... 6d. 

— Le même en espagnol ... ... 6d. 

British Museum — Catalogue of the specimens 

and Drawings of Mammals, Birds, Reptiles and 
Fishes of Nepal and Thibet. Presented by 
B. H. Hodgson, Esq., to the British Museum, 
by John Edward Gray, second edition. 2s. 3d. 

— Report on the Zoological Collections made in 

the Indo-Pacific Ocean during the voyage of 
H.M.S. Albert 1881-2. Pp. XXV., 684, 54 
plates, 1884, 8vo. ... ... ... 30s. 

— Catalogue of the bones of Mammils in the 

Collection of the British Museum, by E. 
Gerrard. Pp. IV: 296, 1862, 8vo. ... 5s. 



IV 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[September i, 1891 



Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats in the Collection of the British Museum 
by Dr. J. E. Gray, Pp. VIII. 137, 21 Wood- 
cuts. 1870, 8vo. ... ... ... 4s. 

Catalogue of Carnivorous, Pachydermatous and 
Edentate Mammalia in the British Museum 
by John Edward Gray, Pp. VII. 398, 47 
Woodcuts, 1869, 8vo. ... ... 6s. 6d. 

Hand List of Seals, Morses, Sea Lions and 
Sea Bears in the British Museum, by Dr. 
J. E. Gray, Pp. 43, 30 plates of skulls. 1874, 
8vo. ... ... ... ... ... 12s. 6d. 

Catalogue of Seals and Whales in the British 
Museum, by John E. Gray, second edition, 
Pp. VII ; 402. 101 Woodcuts. 1866. 8vo. 8s. 

Supplement by John E. Gray, Pp. VI. 163. 
II Woodcuts. 187 1, 8vo. ... ... 2s. 6d. 

List of the specimens of Cetacea in the Zoo- 
logical Department of the British Museum, 
by William Henry Flower, Pp. IV ; 36. 1885, 
8vo. ... ... ... ... ... is. 6d. 

Catalogue of Ruminant Mammalia {Pecora 
linnœus) in the British Museum, by John 
Edward Gray, Pp. VIII. 102, 4 plates, 1872, 
8vo. ... ... ... ... ... 3s. 6d. 

Hand List of Edentate, Thick skinned and 
Ruminant Mammals in the British Museum, 
by Dr. J. E. Gray. Pp. VII. 176. 42 plates 
of skulls, etc. 1873, 8vo. ... ... 12s. 

Catalogue of the Marsupialia and Monotremeta 
in the Collection of the British Museum, by 
Oldfield Thomas. Pp. XIII. 401, 4 coloured 
and 24 plain plates, 1888, 8vo ... 28s 

Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum 
Vol. 1. {put of print) Accipitres or diurnal 
Birds of prey, by R. Bowdler Sharpe, 480 
pages. Woodcuts and 14 coloured plates, 
(Systematic and Alphabetical Index). 1874, 
8vo. ... ... ... ... ... 50s. 

Vol. II. {put of print) Striges or Nocturnal 
Birds of prey, by R. Bowdler Sharpe. 326 
pages, Woodcuts and 14 coloured plates. 
1875, 8vo 50s. 

Vol. III. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. Colio- 
morphœ containing the families, Corvidae, 
Paradiseidae, Oriolidae, Dicruridae and Prion- 
opidas, by R. Bowdler Sharpe, Pp. XIII; 363. 
Woodcuts and 14 coloured plates. 1879, 8vo, 
... ... ... ... 17s. 

Vol. IV. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. Ciclo- 
morphœ Part 1 containing the families Campe- 
phagidae and Muscicapidae, by R. Bowdler 
Sharpe, Pp. XVI ; 494. Woodcuts and 14 
coloured plates, 1879, 8vo. ... ... 20s. 

Vol. V. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Cichlomorphœ : Part II. containing the families 
Turdidae (Warblers and Thrushes), by Henry 
Seebohm, Pp. XVI ; 426. Woodcuts and 18 
coloured plates. 1881, 8vo. ... ... 20s. 

Vol. VI. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Ciclomorphœ : Part III. containing the first 
portion of the family Timelidae (Babling 
Thrushes), by R. Bowdler Sharpe. Pp. XIII ; 



420. Woodcuts and 14 coloured plates 1881 
8vo. 20s. 

Vol. VII. Passeriformes or Perching Birds 
Ciclomorphœ : Part IV. containing the conclu- 
ding portion of the family Timelidae, by R. 
Bowdler Sharpe Pp. XVI ; 698. Woodcuts and 
15 coloured plates, 1883, 8vo. ... 26s. 

Vol. VIII. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Cichlomorphœ ; Part V. containing the families 
Paridae and Laniidse (Titmice and Shrikes) and 
Certhiomorphœ (Creepers and Nuthatches), by 
Hans Gadow, Pp. XIII, 386 Woodcuts and 
9 coloured plates. 1883, 8vo. ... 17s. 

Vol. IX. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Cynnirimorphœ, containing the families Nec- 
tariniidae and Meliphagidae (Sun birds and 
Honey eaters), by Hans Gadow. Pp. XII, 310. 
Woodcuts and 7 col. plates. 1884, 8vo. 14s. 

Vol. X. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Frinçilliformes ; Part I, containing the fami- 
lies Dicaeidae, Hirundinidae, Ampelidae Mnio- 
tiltidse, and Motacillidae, by R. Bowdler Sharpe, 
Pp. XIII, 687. Woodcuts and 12 coloured 
plates, 1885, 8vo ... ... ... 22s. 

Vol. XI. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Fringillif ormes : Part II, containing the families 
Coerebidse, Tanagridae and Icteridae by Philip 
Lutley Sclater, Pp. XVII ; 431. Woodcuts 
and 18 coloured plates, 1886, 8vo. ... 20s. 

Vol. XII. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Frinigilliformes ; Part III; containing the 
family Fringillidae, by R. Bowdler Sharpe Pp. 
XV, 871, Woodcuts and 16 coloured plates, 
1888, 8vo 28s. 

Vol. XIII. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Sturniformes containing the families Artamidae. 
Stumidae, Ploceidae, and Alaudidae. Also 
the families Atrichiidae and Menuridae, 
by R. Bowdler Sharpe, Pp. XVI; 701 Wood- 
cuts and 15 coloured plates, 1890. 8vo. ... 28s. 

Vol. XIV. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Oligomyodœ or the families Tyrannidae, Oxyram- 
phidae, Pipridae, Cotingidae, Phytotomidas, 
Philepittidae, Pittidae, Xenicidaa, and Eurylae- 
midas, by Philip Lutley Sclater, Pp. XIX, 
424Woodcuts, and 26 coloured plates. 1888, 
8vo. ... ... ... 24s. 

Vol. XV. Passiformes, or Perching Birds. 
Tracheophonœ : or the families of Deudroco- 
laptidae, Formicariidae, Conopophagidae, and 
Pteroptochidae, by Philip Lutley Sclater. Pp. 
XVII. ; 371. Woodcuts and 20 coloured 
plates. 1890, 8vo ... ... ... 20s. 

Vol. XVIII. Picarias Scansores containing the 
lamily of Picidae, by Edward Hargitt. Pp. 
XV., 527. Woodcuts and 15 coloured plates, 
1890, 8vo ... ... ... ... 26s. 

Vol. XIX. Picarias, Scansores and Coccyges, 
containing the families Ramphastidae Gal- 
bulidae and Bucconida;, by Fhilip Lutley 
Sclater and the families Indicatoridae, Capi- 
tonidae, Cuculidae, and Musophagidae, by G.E. 

. Shelley. 484 pages. Woodcuts and 13 coloured 
plates, 1891, 8vo ... ... ... 25s. 

— Catalogue of the Tortoises, Crocodiles and 
Amphisbaenians in the Collection of the British 



September i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



67 



C \t Humming |5trb\ 



The Pilgrim Locust. 



Continued from page 52. 

Since the publication of my first notice on the 
Pilgrim Locust (" Humming Bird," pp. 51-52) great 
havoc of property has been made by these insects in 
Algeria, Tunis, and Morocco. The French Parliament 
has voted large sums of money for their destruction. 
The Paris Museum of Natural History has sent in 
Algeria Mr. Brongniart, with the special mission to 
study the invasion of these insects and the means to 
destroy them. It appears that Mr. Brongniart has 
been successful so far in the mission entrusted to him. 

He has discovered in a field, covered with dead 
bodies of locusts, a parasitic mushroom which de- 
stroys them, and which develops itself with the same 
rapidity as these acridian insects. 

It is to be hoped that Mr. Brougniart's process of 
procreating this parasitic mushroom in immense 
numbers will be successful, and will be the means to 
check their propagation ; but I am still of opinion 
that an agreement should be entered at once by 
France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, and other countries for 
the protection of the birds mentioned on page 52, viz. : 
Merops apiaster, or Bee Eater; Sturnus vulgaris, or 
Starling ; all species of Crows, and Magpies, Quails, 
etc. 

It is only by employing all the means at their com- 
mand that this plague will be successfully stopped, or, 
at least, abated. 

Now I don't see why it should not be possible to 
derive a benefit of such large numbers of insects for 
industrial purposes. 

In this century of wonderful discoveries, when 
chemistry is such a powerful agent for all purposes, I 
think it would be quite easy to discover several means 
of employing the said insects, either as manure, food, 
etc. 

As manure, it is quite an easy thing, and I believe 
that they have already been used for that purpose, 
and there are no reasons why it could not be employed 
with good results for other purposes. It only requires 
to be analysed by competent chemists, so as to apply 
it where wanted. As food, it is well known that the 
negroes and the Arabs of the desert don't consider the 
coming of the locusts as a plague, but the contrary. 
They consider them as a manna sent to them by the 
Almighty. They feed largely on them, boiled or 
fried, and it is a perpetual festival during the time of 
the invasion. They also make provisions of them for 
future needs. For that purpose they gather as many 
as they can, and bake or dry them in the sun. Well 
dried, they keep for a long time. In America the 
Indians eat the young and say that they are delicious. 

All sorts of animals feed on them, and I have often 
seen dogs and fowls hunting and devouring them. 

Now I will suggest to the industrious one of my 
ideas about them, and it is that I am certain that a 



very good food for poultry and other birds, and 
probably also for dogs and other domesticated 
animals, can be made with them, by gathering as 
many of the young (and possibly also the mature 
Insects), drying or baking them, and when so pre- 
pared, to reduce them to powderin a special mill, and 
mix it with farinaceous substances, so as to make a 
paste easy to keep. 

I am satisfied that such a paste would be a very 
acceptable food for many species of animals, and 
would pay well to manufacture. 

There is an illimited field to explore in that direc- 
tion ; as the Insects could be mad<* into a variety of 
pastes, by mixing with different farinaceous sub- 
stances, according to the use required. 

Here is a sure remedy which would cost nothing to 
the Governments, and probably in a few years time 
the arrival of locusts would be hailed with shouts of 
joy, instead of shouts of imprecations as at present. 

I think that millions of money can be made with 
this new Industry, and it only requires a small capital. 
I am quite willing to help with my advice and my 
share in money, any Society willing to undertake the 
manufacture of Animal food and all other products, 
which can be extracted from locusts. 

It will not be the first time that fortunes will be 
made with my suggestions. I remember that in 1878, 
I published a small pamphlet on the Objects exhibited 
by myself in the Guatemala Section, Paris Interna- 
tional Exhibition 1878, and in it I called the attention 
of the public on the seeds of the Coyol Palm Trees, 
Bactris viniferas and other species found in very large 
quantities in all the tropical countries of Central and 
South America, and since then, a great trade has been 
made with these nuts for the excellent quality of their 
oil which is much used as a condiment, and also for 
superior soap making. 

This reminds me that a Chemist has also made use 
of locusts for the manufacture of a good soap ; but I 
am not aware if he has been able to get as many of 
the Insects as he wanted. 

Probably the locusts could be used for many other 
industrial purposes. Surely they must contain some 
new Acids, susceptible of applications in Industry. 

We must always remember that every living being 
has been created for a special purpose, and it is very 
likely that some reasons exist for the periodical inva- 
sions of locusts, and it would be well that scientific 
International Commissions should be sent to study 
these Insects, the countries where they come from, 
the reasons of these invasions, etc. etc., and the best 
methods to destroy them, if really injurious ; as all 
Countries are greatly interested in the solution of such 
problems. 

These Insects are to-day invading Tunisia, 
Algeria and Morocco, but to-morrow they may pene- 
trate on all the Continent, in India, China, Japan, 
Australia, South Africa, etc., as they have done before ; 
especially in Cyprus, Russia, France and Spain. 

In Cyprus, the number of locusts is constantly 
increasing, and in 1882 they were so abundant that 
the English Government did all he could to stop 
that plague by offering from one half-penny to three 
half pence, per pound of eggs. 

From July 1881 to February 1882, 1,329 tons of 



68 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



\ September i, 1891 



eggs were brought to the authorities of the Island. It 
is impossible to imagine what number of eggs it 
represent. 

Notwithstanding this large destruction of eggs the 
locusts have not disappeared. Very likely the eggs 
could also be mixed with farinaceous substances and 
made into a paste, suitable for animal food, and also 
used raw for all sorts of Songsters. It ought to be 
preserved easily. 

The increase of locusts in Cyprus is attributed to 
the destruction of the forests, leaving the soil where 
such forests existed useless for culture and favourable 
to the production of Insects. The probable remedy 
should be in making new forests, by planting as many 
trees as possible. During the last years Georgia was 
also invaded by locusts. In the district of Adjeakoor, 
Lieut. -Colonel Serafinoff had three thousand men 
with him, with whom he exterminated the Insects in 
two hundred different places. 

In Dagheraman, province of Ellesavetopol, such a 
large number of locusts arrived in May that it 
occupied several hundred miles. Five thousand men 
were requested to fight this formidable invasion. 
They destroyed about 200,000 pounds of Insects 
every day. 

In 1886 Spain was also invaded by an immense 
number of locusts. They alighted near Ciudad Real 
and destroyed all vegetation. 

The 1 2th of August, in the suburb of St. Maria, 
the sky was darkened during one hour by a throng of 
locusts, which alighted in that locality. It was re- 
solved to put fire to the invaded fields by means of 
gazoline. This remedy was effectual ; but more than 
twenty towns and villages lost entirely their crops. 

In the province of Cuenca, the territory of fifty- 
eight villages was invaded by locusts in such numbers 
that in places they formed a layer one yard thick. A 
child left alone in the field died stifled under these 
Insects. The running of trains was interrupted for 
several hours. 

In 1888 the locusts have again appeared in the 
province of Murcia. 

In France, several years back, a large quantity of 
these Insects in one day destroyed all the vegetation 
from Saint Denis to Saint Michel-de-Bannières, in 
Dordogne. When all was devoured they took their 
flight for unknown regions, leaving misery and ruin 
after them. 

In 1888 they appeared in the suburbs of Figeac. 
They alighted at Gourdon and Gramat. A large 
potato field was destroyed in several hours. 

Besides the birds mentioned before as natural 
enemies of the locusts, there are also myriads of 
wasps, Ichneumons, which kill and bury the locusts 
after introducing their eggs in the bodies of their 
victims, which in due time will serve of nourishment 
to their progéniture. 

I shall be happy if this poor contribution of mine 
will help in one way or another to the disappearance 
of this fearful plague, the cause of so much ruin and 
misery. 

A. Boucard. 

The following extract from a letter, dated Rawal 
Pindi, 25th May, -1891, will be read with interest, 
says the British Medical Journal : — "The Punjab has 



this year had a terrible visitation of locusts, the worst 
there has been for many a year. An army, about ten 
miles wide, of unfledged locusts, was passing through 
the station for five days. Millions I should say of 
these insects have been destroyed in the station, so 
that in many cases the smell from the dead bodies is 
very bad. The trains have several times been de- 
layed for some hours by the inability to make way 
over the greasy masses of locusts crushed on the 
rails." 



A Visit to the British Museum. 
Natural History Department. 



Continued from page 55. 

CORAL GALLERY. 

Parallel with the Bird Gallery, to the north side, is a 
long narrow gallery, containing the collection of 
corals, sponges, and allied forms. 

Commencing at the eastern end, some of the lowest 
forms of animal life are exhibited. They belong to 
the group Foraminifera, and for the greater part are 
so minute that they can only be studied with the 
microscope. Their structure is illustrated by models 
and figures. The next divisions are occupied by 
sponges. Most conspicuous among them is a series 
showing the variations of the common bath sponge, 
of which a great trade is done in the Mediterranean, 
chiefly at Tunis and Tripoli. 

Some species are also gathered in Florida and in 
the West Indies. 

Close to the common sponge can be seen some fine 
specimens of the charming Euplectella, or Venus' 
flower basket, the Japanese Hyalonema, or glass rope 
sponge, Case 3, and the gigantic Rhapiophora, or 
Neptune's goblet. Nearly the whole of the remainder 
of the gallery is given up to Corals, showing the im- 
mense variety of form and colour of these animals, 
some presenting a marvellous resemblance to vege- 
table growths. The precious Coral, Corallium, 
usually of a bright red colour, is common in the 
Mediterranean, where is also found the pink variety, 
which is more valuable. Opposite Cases 8 and 10 
are the Madrepore Corals, amongst which can be seen 
a large fragment of a reef, entirely formed by a small 
kind of Madrepore. These reefs, when raised above 
the surface of the water, constitute the base of 
thousands of islands in the Indo-Pacific Ocean and 
West Indies, one of the marvels of creation. With 
time these islands, formed at first exclusively of 
corals, aided by the action of volcanic submarine 
eruptions, and also by detritus brought over by mari- 
time currents, acquire a great development. 

The small group of animals known as Polyzoa, 
nearly related to Mollusia, are exhibited on two 
table-cases at the western end of the gallery. 

In the corridor which leads from the Bird Gallery 
into the Fish Gallery, a selection of the most impor- 
tant forms of Batrachians with or without tails, such 
as Salamanders, Newts, Frogs and Toads, is exhibited. 



September I, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



69 



FISH GALLERY. 

The Fish Gallery, which is nearest to the Central 
Hall, contains stuffed examples and skeletons of all 
the most remarkable members of the Class. 

Cases (1 — 5), Percidae, or Perch family, of which 
the common Freshwater Perch is the best known 
example. In Case 5 are the Mullidae or Red Mullets. 
The European Mullet (Mullus barbatus) was prized 
by the ancient Romans above any other fish. 
Case 6 contains the Sparidae or Sea Breams. 
In Case 7 are the Squamipinnes or Coral Fishes, 
inhabitants of the tropical seas and abounding chiefly 
in the neighbourhood of coral reefs. 

In Case 11 are the remarkable Sucking Fishes 
Echeneis which have the spinous dorsal fin modified 
into an adhesive disk, which occupies the upper side 
of the head and neck. By means of this disk, these 
fishes- are enabled to attach themselves to any flat 
surface. When at sea we used to fish sharks and I 
never saw one taken without several of these fishes 
attached to its body, as also the Pilot-fish ( Naucrates 
ductor) always seen a few yards from the Shark. This 
last fish is exhibited in Case 12. In Case 13 are 
exhibited various species of Sword-fishes. A piece of 
a two-inch plank of a whale boat pierced by a Sword- 
fish, in which the broken sword still remains, can be 
seen in the same Case ; also a good series of Fishing- 
frogs (Lophius) also called Anglers or Sea-Devils. 

Case 14 contains the well-known Stickleback and 
its curious Nest. It is an inhabitant of the British 
Isles. In Case 18 are exhibited two very curious 
species ; the Electric Cat-Fish ( Malapterurus) from 
tropical Africa, and the Callichtys from British 
Guiana. 

Case 20 contains the Scombresocidœ, chiefly marine. 
The most curious members of this family are the 
Flying-Fishes ( Exocetus ), inhabitants of the tropical 
and sub-tropical seas, where they are constantly seen 
in large numbers flying over the water. It is one of 
the most extraordinary sights to be seen. Sometimes 
they fall on, board of vessels, in which case they 
are immediately secured, cooked and served on the 
table at meal's time. 

In separate table-cases are exhibited several speci- 
mens of the rare Arapaima gigas from Brazil and 
Guiana, highly esteemed as an article of food. It is 
the largest freshwater Teleostean known, exceeding a 
length of 15 feet and a weight of 400 lb. 

In Case 22 are specimens of Gymnotus electricus, 
the electric Eel of South America. The electric 
shock may be of sufficient strength to temporarily 
paralyse a man. I have been told that the Indians 
of Guiana have a very curious way of catching these 
fishes. They drive a horse in the river where electric 
Eels are found, and after the discharge of several 
electric shocks on the horse they easily secure them. 

The Eels, Murœnidœ, are exhibited in Cases 23 and 
24. Murœna Helena, a Mediterranean species, is the 
type or the Genus. It attains the length of five feet 
and upwards, and its smooth skin is beautifully 
irarbled with yellow subangular markings on a rich 
brown ground. It was highly prized by the ancient 
Romans, who had special ponds (vivaria) built for 
the fattening of these fishes. They were in the habit 



of introducing them, in crystal vases, ori the table, be- 
fore being cooked, that the guests might admire their 
variegated skin. 

Vaedius Pollio of Rome, caused his offending 
slaves to be flung alive in the pond to feed his 
Marsense. 

Other fishes worthy of mention are the Globe 
Fish, Diodon maculatus, in Case 25 ; the Sun fishes, 
Orthagoriscus mola and truncatus, in a separate case ; 
the Polypterus from tropical Africa ; also Protopterus 
annecteus, common in tropical Africa ; and the most 
extraordinary Barramanda ( Ceratodus) from Queens- 
land, known by the name of Burnett or Dawson 
Salmon. Protopterus lives in shallow waters, which 
periodically dry up. During the dry season they form 
a cavity in the mud, the inside of which is lined with 
a capsule of mucus, and from which they emerge 
again when the rains refill the pools inhabited by 
them. The balls of clay containing the fishes in a 
torpid condition are brought to Europe, where they 
can be bought at a reasonable price. Put in a basin 
with lukewarm water, the fish emerge from the ball 
after a little time, and can be transferred in a proper 
aquarium. 

The series of Sharks and Rays is also very good, 
and with that of the Lampreys and the Lancelet 
(Branchiostoma or Amphioxus) completes the col- 
lection of Fishes exhibited to the Public. It is a very 
interesting and valuable collection. Unfortunately, 
I cannot say the same of the collections exhibited in 
the Insect Gallery, which is close to it. It is true 
that fears have been entertained that exposure to the 
light would deteriorate the colours of many of the 
species ; but this is a very poor reason ; as I know by 
experience that if they are properly exhibited, they 
will not deteriorate quicker than those of Birds, Corals 
Crustacea, etc., etc., and I call the attention of the 
Authorities of the British Museum to that part of the 
Museum which is quite inadequate. 

To be continued. 



Recommendations for the Prevention of 
Damage by some Common Insect of 
the Farm, the Orchard, and the Garden. 

By James' Fletcher, 

Entomologist a?id Botanist to Dominion Experimental 
Farms, Ottawa, Canada. 



The frequent enquiries for information concerning 
even the commonest and most injurious enemies of 
cultivated crops and fruits render it advisable to issue, 
in concise form for reference, an account of some of 
the more important of these, together with approved 
remedies and convenient methods of applying the 
latter. The insects treated of are those which have 



7o 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[September i, i8gi 



been most frequently enquired about by my corres- 
pondents during the last two seasons. Where pos- 
sible, illustrations are given, so that those concerned 
may not only know the latest remedies, but at the 
same time may become familiar with the appearance 
of their enemies. 

^Economic Entomology is the name given to a 
special study of the habits of Insects with the view of 
finding out and protecting such as are beneficial, and 
of destroying those which are injurious. 

As year by year larger areas of land are brought 
under cultivation the various injurious insects which 
attack special crops will become more and more 
numerous as the cultivation of their favourite food- 
plant is extended. It is estimated that there is no 
crop grown which is not diminished by an average of 
at least one-tenth, by the depredations of insect 
enemies, and this loss in some years runs up to one- 
fourth or one-half of the whole crop. Of this loss 
there is no doubt that a large proportion can be saved 
by the adoption of simple methods founded on 
general principles, with which all can easily become 
acquainted. For the effective use of remedies to 
destroy injurious insects a certain amount of know- 
ledge of their structure and habits is highly desirable, 
so that the most appropriate remedy may be adopted, 
and also that it may be used at the period when the 
enemy is most susceptible to injury. 
|jjj$The lives of insects are divided into four well 
marked periods. These are: — i. The egg; 2. The 
caterpillar or larval stage, during which, as a rule, they 
are most injurious ; 3. The pupa or quiescent stage, 
in which, except in a few orders, they lie quiet, and 
are without the power of motion ; and 4. The perfect 
Insect. Some insects are injurious in three of their 
stages ; but the larger number in one only, so that 
unless we try to know them in all their forms we may 
lose the best opportunities ot destroying them. It is 
clear that in this warfare the one who possesses this 
information has a great advantage over those who do 
not. 

Insects may be divided into two classes by the 
nature of their mouth parts. In the first or larger 
division, Biting Insects, they are furnished with man- 
dibles or biting jaws, by means of which they consume 
the substance of their food, as with caterpillars, 
beetles, etc. In the second class, Sucking Insects, 
they have instead of mandibles a beak or tube, by 
means of which they suck up their food in a liquid 
form from beneath the surface, as with the true bugs, 
plant-lice and flies. It is evident that with the insects 
)f the first class all that is necessary is to place some 
oisonous substance on the food-plant, which they 
ill eat together with their food. With the second 
[ass, however, this would be useless, for they would 
ush their beaks through the poisonous covering on 
ie outside of their food-plant, and would extract the 
} lices upon which they live from the interior. For 
this class, therefore, some substance must be used 
which will kill by mere contact with their bodies. 
Now, for both of these classes of Insects we have 
cheap and available remedies, of which I will speak 
further on. 

Remedies for injurious Insects are either Preventive 
or Active, and must be applied in accordance with 



the circumstances of the case and the habits of the 
attacking Insects. 

PREVENTIVE REMEDIES. 

These are of two kinds : — 1. Agricultural ; and 
2. Deterrent. 

1. Agricultural. — These consist chiefly in the adop- 
tion of such agricultural methods as : — High Culture, 
which will stimulate a vigorous and healthy growth of 
the crop and push it on to maturity as soon as pos- 
sible ; Clean Farming, by which all weeds are kept 
down and rubbish is prevented from accumulating ; 
Early or late seeding, so that a crop liable to attack 
is presented to its enemies, at the time they make 
their appearance, in such a condition that they cannot 
injure it ; Rotation of Crops, by which the insects 
attracted to a locality by a certain crop will not have, 
in that place, the same crop to feed on the following 
year. 

2. Deterrent. — Under this head come such opera- 
tions as painting the trunks of fruit trees with poison- 
ous, alkaline, or other obnoxious washes to keep out 
borers, by deterring the female insects from depositing 
their eggs upon the bark ; the placing of mechanical 
contrivances on trees to prevent the ascent of insects, 
as climbing cut-worms, or the wingless female canker- 
worm moths, which leave the ground in autumn and 
spring and crawl up the trunks of trees to lay their 
eggs. 

Destroying or masking the natural odour of some 
vegetables by scattering amongst them substances 
possessed of a stronger or disagreeable odour, as gas 
lime, or carbolic acid. 

ACTIVE REMEDIES. 

Under this head comes the practising of such 
methods as may be called generally " hand-picking," 
or the seeking out of insects in their different stages 
and destroying them. These methods can be best 
explained under the several insects for which they are 
useful. The most important active remedies, however, 
comprise the application of the various insecticides or 
poisonous substances which are now so largely used 
for destroying insects, and which are treated of sepa- 
rately further on. Before passing on to a considera- 
tion of these it may be well to devote a few lines to 
the different methods and apparatus for applying 
insecticides. 

APPARATUS. 

Nearly all of the insecticides may be used both as 
a dry powder and as a wet mixture. In the case of 
the arsenical poisons it is necessary to mix them with 
some other substance as a diluent, on account of their 
caustic action upon tender vegetation, also for con- 
venience of distribution, and to economise the material 
in use. For dry applications suitable diluents will be 
found in flour, land-plaster, air-slaked lime, and finely 
sifted ashes or road-dust. It is of the utmost impor- 
tance that these should be perfectly dry and in a very 
fine state of division, so as to mix thoroughly with the 
insecticide used and to allow of being distributed 
evenly over the plants as a very fine powder. The 
proper quantity of the diluents to be used with the 



September i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



7i 



different insecticides will vary with the insects to be 
treated and the plants to which they are applied. 

There are several instruments for distributing dry 
poisons, such as bellows, insect-guns, dusting-boxes, 
etc. Any operation requiring the body to be kept for 
a long time in a stooping posture while walking soon 
becomes extremely tiresome. It is therefore necessary 
for field application to devise some means for distri- 
buting the poison, so as to waste as little as possible 
of the material and yet allow the body to be kept in 
its natural position. This is best done by placing the 
powder to be distributed in a small bag of very fine 
muslin (two thicknesses, if necessary), and then tying 
this to the end of a short stick so that it swings freely. 
It will be found that by tapping the bag lightly with 
another stick held in the other hand that the operator 
can walk erect, and do much better work than by 
stooping along over his crop with an aching back. 
Prof. Lintner recommends " a tin box of a convenient 
size (half a pint), with a cover, and having the bottom 
covered with wire gauze — the box to be fastened to a 
stick about three feet long. With this a person can 
walk along the plants to be dusted, and by gently 
striking the handle with another s nail stick the pow- 
der can be uniformly distributed with the greatest 
care." Dry mixtures should be applied when plants 
are wet with dew or in still weather. It is found by 
experience, however, that during the spring months, 
when insecticides are most needed, there are of:en 
periods of several days when these conditions do not 
occur. It therefore becomes necessary to apply the 
poisons in some other way, so that the material may 
be evenly distributed over the plants to be protected, 
and not blown away by tie wind. For this purpose 
mixing with water and spraying is the most convenient 
plan, and there are a great many kinds of pumps and 
other appliances for the purpose. After considerable 
experience I have come to the conclusion that it will 
repay anyone who has to apply insecticides to go to 
the expense of procuring a pair of proper bellows for 
dry mixtures and a force pump for liquid applications. 
Such make-shift contrivances as ordinary watering 
cans, whisks, whisps of hay, or bunches of leaves, 
which are frequently used, actually cost far more in 
wasted time and materials than would pay for the 
best special instruments ; added to which, when the 
woik is done it is neither satisfactory nor effective. 

PUMPS AND OTHER DISTRIBUTORS. 

For dry applications the " Woodason bellows." 
made by Thomas Woodason, 451, East Cambria 
Street, Philadelphia, is one of the most highly recom- 
mended. It is made in two sizes, which sell at $1 
and $2 respectively. The same firm also manufactures 
the " Woodason atomizer," for the application of a 
liquid spray upon a small scale. For more extensive 
operations force pumps of various sizes are necessary. 
These can be procured at prices ranging from $2 to 
$5 for small hand pumps. These are obtainable from 
most of our Canadian seedsmen. Very useful 
machines are the " Knapsack " sprayers, consisting of 
a tank of 4 or 5 gallons capacity, with a force-pump 
and spraying nozzle attached. They are carried on 
the back, and are very convenient for the treatment 



of low-growing crops, as cabbages, turnips, etc., as 
well as for small fruits. Of these the most highly 
spoken of are the " Galloway Sprayer," manufactured 
by Albinson and Trusheim, 2,026, Fourteenth Street, 
Washington, D.C. Cost, $14. Another machine 
which is highly approved is the " Knapsack," manu- 
factured by the Field Force-pump Co., of Lockport, 
N.Y., which sells for the same price. An excellent 
but more expensive machine is the "Eureka," made 
by Adam Weaber, Vineland, NJ. Cost, $21. All 
of these are supplied with the " Vermorel " nozzle 
mentioned further on. 

For field work larger machines are necessary, and 
there are several in the market. The Field Force- 
pump Co. manufacture for $12 the "Perfection" 
pump which can be attached to a barrel. This pump 
has an extra discharge hose by which the poison is 
kept constantly stirred up in the barrel, a most im- 
portant thing with Paris Green and London Purple 
mixtures. Gould's Manufacturing Co., of Seneca 
Falls, N.Y., also send out a machine which has given 
great satisfaction, called the " Standard Double-acting 
Spray Pump." This also may be fitted to the top or 
side of a barrell, and has two discharge tubes. It 
costs about $14 complete. The Nixon Nozzle and 
Machine Co., of Dayton, Ohio, make two machines 
which are highly praised by all who have tried them. 
The larger, the " Little Giant," consists of a square 
metal tank with force-pump, and is mounted on 
wheels. It can be drawn or pushed by means of a 
handle and driving wheel ; but for use in an orchard, 
the tank can be taken off the wheels and mounted in 
a waggon. Cost, $35. The same company also 
makes a smaller machine, the " Climax Tripod 
No. 2," which sells for $15. It is very convenient, 
and can be taken apart and shipped in a very small 
box. It can be attached to any kind of vessel or tank 
by means of brass connections, which are supplied 
with it, as well as 20 feet of hose and 2 nozzles. I 
am so frequently asked where pumps and spraying 
apparatus are to be obtained that I have given the 
addresses of the above firms who have sent me their 
catalogues. A good pump, called the " Orchard 
and Garden Force Pump," is made by W. Robertson, 
Oakville, Ont. I do not know of any other Canadian 
firms manufacturing these special forms of apparatus. 
Anyone intending to buy a spraying outfit would do 
well to send for catalogues before deciding on pur- 
chasing any particular machine, so as to procure the 
most suitable. 

NOZZLES. 

Of equal importance with a proper force-pump in 
the distribution of poisonous applications is a proper 
nozzle, by means of which the liquid is distributed 
evenly. Prof. Riley says "the desiderata in a spray 
nozzle are ready regulation of the volume to be 
thrown, greatest atomizing power with least tendency 
to clog ; facility of cleansing, or ready separation of its 
component parts; cheapness, simplicity and adjust- 
ability to any angle." 

There are a great many spraying nozzles in the 
market — some gooji, some decidedly otherwise. The 
best of these are the Riley or Cyclone, with 



72 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[September i, 189 1 



its various modifications, and the Nixon. Prof. 
J. B. Smith says (Bui. 75, N. J. Ag. Col. Exper't. 
Station) : — " The Cyclone, with the ' Vermorel ' 
modification for clearing the nozzle of obstructions, is 
the most widely applicable for spraying low plants 
and bushes, like cabbages, pumpkins, currants, black- 
berry and others. This projects a fine spray in an 
eddy from a central discharge orifice, and makes a 
perfect and, for a short distance, forcible spray. 
Fastened to a rod of convenient length, and set at an 
angle with the rod, all parts of the cabbage can be 
thoroughly wet in a few seconds. All who have ever 
used this nozzle are delighted with it. It is manu- 
factured by the Field Force-pump Co., Lockport, 
N.Y." 

The Nixon nozzle is equally valuable for a some- 
what different range of work. The stream is projected 
through a small central nipple against a screen at the 
end of a brass cylinder, and is broken there into a fine 
spray, retaining considerable force. This is furnished 
by the Nixon Nozzle and Machine Co., and is an 
excellent nozzle for orchard use. 

The question of elevating the spray, so as to reach 
the tops of trees, is merely one of attaching the dis- 
charge pipe of the pump to one end of a small brass 
or rubber tube, bearing the nozzle at the other end, 
and running it through (or lashing it to the side of) a 
bamboo or other light pole of the required length. A 
wedge-shaped washer, cut out of thick sole leather, 
placed just below the nozzle, will prevent the drip 
from trickling down the pole upon the operator. 

REMEDIES. 

For convenience of reference in the latter part of this 
Bulletin, I append a short statement concerning each 
of the best known remedies, which will be referred to 
by the numbers which precede them : — 

I. The Arsenites. — The best known of thess are 
Paris Green (Arsenite of copper) and London Purple, 
(chiefly Arsenite of lime). The former is in more 
general use in Canada, and from my own experience 
and that of my correspondents I consider it the safer 
of the two to use on vegetation. The latter, however, 
is highly praised by some who have used it, and it 
will probably be found more useful than Paris Green, 
on account of the lime it contains, for mixing with 
Bordeaux mixture and other fungicides for the com- 
bined treatment of insects and fungi. Paris green is 
a sure remedy for all mandibulate or biting insects ; 
but is also very poisonous to man and the domestic 
animals. Care must, therefore, be taken to keep it 
out of the reach of children, ignorant people and 
animals. 

If applied too strong to the foliage of plants it is 
also very destructive. Some plants are much more 
easily injured by the arsenites than others, it therefore 
becomes necessary to use them with caution until the 
quantity that may be applied to a certain plant is 
known. For apple trees, a mixture containing \ lb. 
of Paris green to 50 gallons of water may be used ; 
for plums and cherries about the same strength ; but 
as some va.ieties are tenderer than others, the effect 
of the application should be watched and the strength 
reduced if necessary. For peach trees it should not 



be used stronger than 1 lb. to 300 gallons of water, 
and even then there will be considerable risk of 
injury. Whereat is necessary to spray two or three 
times in the season later applications of the poison 
should be reduced in strength. 

In mixing Paris green it should first be made into 
a pas.te with a small quantity of warm water, and the 
paste subsequently mixed with tne larger amount of 
water required. 

In spraying foliage the spray must be forcibly 
applied, so as to reach every part ; but should be 
shifted from place to place as soon as the liquid begins 
to drip from the leaves. 

To lessen the corrosive injury of the arsenites, Prof. 
Riley advises the addition of a quart of common 
flour to every 12 gallons of water. He says (5th Rep., 
U. S., Entom. Com., p. 33) : " The flour seems to 
keep the poison from taking effect on the leaf, pre- 
venting, to some extent, the corrosive injury which 
otherwise obtains when the poison is coarsely sprinkled 
or too strong." 

The effects of Paris green, strange as it may seem, 
are often less severe upon young foliage than upon 
that which is mature. In applying liquid washes of 
Paris green and other insecticides it will be found 
difficult to make them adhere to some plants, such as 
cabbage, Swede turnips, etc. This difficulty can be 
overcome by mixing a little soap with the water used. 
For dry applications, Paris green may be mixed with 
100 times its weight of perfectly dry land-plaster, air- 
slaked lime, flour or sifted wood ashes, etc. 

II. Kerosene Emulsions. — Next in importance to 
the arsenites are the emulsions of kerosene. These 
are particularly valuable against such insects as plant- 
lice, scale insects and animal parasites. The best 
formula as recommended by Prof. Riley, is : 

Kerosene (coal oil) 2 gallons. 

Rain water, 1 gallon. 

Soap, \ lb. 
Boil the soap in the water till all is dissolved ; then, 
while boiling hot, turn it into the kerosene, and churn 
it constantly and forcibly with a syringe or force pump 
for five minutes, when it will be of a smooth, creamy 
nature. If the emulsion be perfect it will adhere to 
the surface of glass without oiliness. As it cools it 
thickens into a jelly-like mass. This gives the stock 
emulsion, which must be diluted with nine times its 
measure of warm water before using on vegetation. 
The above quantity of 3 gallons of emulsion will 
make 30 gallons of wash. Insects breathe through 
small openings along their sides. The effect of 
kerosene emulsion is to suffocate them, by stopping 
up these breathing pores. 

III. White Hellebore. — This is a vegetable poison — 
the finely powdered roots of Veratrum album. It is 
very useful for the leaf-eating insects of small fruits, 
especially saw-fly larvae. Although very poisonous to 
insects, it can be safely used where the arsenites 
would be dangerous. It can be applied as a dry 
powder or as a liquid mixture, 1 oz. to 2 gallons of 
water. 

IV. Insect Powder, ( Pyrethrum, Buhach.) — This is 
another vegetable insecticide of special value, from 
the fact that although it is extremely active in its 
effects upon nearly all insects, it is practically harmless 



September i, 1891 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



73 



to human beings and the higher animals. It is the 
pulverised flowers of some plants belonging to the 
genus Pyrethrum, It is useful for many household 
pests, as flies, mosquitoes and wasps, all of which are 
quickly affected, either by having a small quantity 
thrown into the air of a room by means of an insect- 
gun or small bellows, or by a small quantity, (a tea- 
spoonful,) being ignited and allowed to smoulder. It 
seems to have a marked effect upon the breathing 
organs of insects. Where practicable, a dry applica- 
tion gives the best results. If mixed with four times 
its weight of common flour, and then kept in a tightly 
closed vessel for twenty-four hours, the mixture will 
kill nearly all caterpillars it is applied to, and in this 
strength becomes the best remedy for the caterpillar 
of the Imported Cabbage Butterfly. It can also be 
used mixed with water, 1 oz. to 2 gallons of water. 

V. Alkaline Washes. — A wash largely used in 
Canada is that noted by Prof. Saunders in his " Insects 
Injurious to Fruits," and consists of " soft soap 
reduced to the consistence of thick paint by the 
addition of a strong solution of washing soda in water. 
If applied during the morning of a warm day this will 
dry in a few hours, and form a tenacious coating not 
easily dissolved by rain." 

Soap-suds made from whale-oil soap, ilb. to 8 
gallons of water is a useful remedy for the destruction 
of plant lice. 

VI. Carbolic Acid. — I have not found this substance 
so generally useful as I anticipated from its powerful 
odour. Prof. A. J. Cook, however, has experimented 
extensively with it and claims that no fruit-grower or 
lover of shade trees can afford to be ignorant of 
the Carbolic Acid Emulsion. He says : " I make it 
just as I do the kerosene emulsion, only stronger, one 
part of carbolic acid — I use the crude material — to 
from 5 to 7 parts of the soap solution ( 1 quart soft 
soap, or 1 lb. hard soap, in 2 gallons of water) is of 
the proper strength. This is the best preparation I 
know of to protect against the apple-tree bark-lice and 
apple-tree borers." 

It is applied to the trunks and larger limbs by 
means of a stiff brush or cloth about 20 days after the 
trees blossom. 

Carbolic Acid Wash. — Prof. Cook also recommends 
for radish maggots a preparation made by adding 2 
quarts of soft soap to 2 gallons of water, to which, 
when heated to the boiling point, 1 pint of crude 
carbolic acid is turned in. For use, one part of this 
mixture is mixed with 50 of water and sprinkled 
directly upon the plants once a week from the time 
they appear above the ground. 

Carbolized Plaster. — This is simply one pint of 
crude carbolic acid well mixed with 50 lbs. land 
plaster. It is said to be very efficient as a deterrent 
remedy for flea-beetles. 

VII. Tobacco. — This has been used for a long time for 
fumigating greenhouses ; but from recent experiments 
it seems to be worthy of wider application. Prof. J. B. 
Smith found that a very useful decoction could be made 
by boiling down 1 lb. of tobacco until 1 pint of liquid 
contained all that could be extracted from it. This 
was diluted with 1 gallon of water, and was very 
effective in killing plant-lice, flea-beetles and other 
insects. 



Tobacco has also been used as a wash for freeing 
stock of vermin, and is very effective ; but is inferior, 
for this purpose, to kerosene emulsion. 

To be continued. 



Water Rent. 



The 15 th of July I received from the collector a 
notice to pay the rent due to the New River Company 
for two quarters, "January to July," 1891. I was 
quite surprised to see that the rent had been increased 
from jQ 1 8s. to jQi 12s. 7d. per quarter, in conse- 
quence of the new assessment on Poor Rates and 
General Rate taxes in the parishes of St. Giles-in- 
the-Fields and St. George, Bloomsbury. I can see 
in the notice sent the following paragraph : — " By the 
Water Rate Definition Act (1885) the annual value is 
declared to be {within the Metropolis only) the rateable 
value as settled by the Local Authority." 

This is all very well, but what has the water rent to 
do with the rateable value as settled by the local 
authority, I should like to know ! I always thought, 
and am still of the same opinion, that water was paid 
according to quantity required; but it seems that I 
was all wrong. If any of my readers can tell me why 
it is that I must pay a higher rent for water, although 
I don't require more than I have always had, and 
enlighten me on this subject, I will be very thankful, 
as I cannot see what the water rent has to do with 
the assessment settled by the local authorities. 

The Editor. 



Review of Scientific Books. 



The Ibis, A quarterly Journal of Ornitho- 
logy. No. XI. July 1 89 1. Price 6 Shillings. 
This fine work maintains its high reputation 

amongst the best Ornithological publications. The 

contents of this part are : — 

Ornithological results of an Expedition to the 

Philippine Islands in 1887 and 1888, by J. B. Steere. 

(Plates VIL— VIII.) 

On the Birds of the Lower Yantsee Basin. Part 1. 

by T. W. Styan. 

Notes on some of the rarer Western Palaeartic 

Birds, by H. E. Dresser. 

On a Collection of Birds from Western Szechuen, 

by Henry Seebohm. 

On British Fossil Birds, by R. Lydekker. 
Note on the Collared Petrel Oestrelata torquata re- 
cently reported to have been killed on the Welsh Coast, 

by Osbert Salvin. 

Remarks on Macgregor Paradise Bird Cnemophilu s 

Macgregori, by Ph. L. Sclater. 



74 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[September i, 1891 



On the Birds of Madagascar, and their connection 
with Native Folk-lore, Proverbs and Superstitions, by 
the Rev. James Sibree, 

Diagnoses of new species of Birds from Central 
East Africa, by R. Bowdler Sharpe. 

Notices of recent Ornithological Publications, 
Letters, Extracts, Notices, etc. 

Four species of Birds are figured. They are : — 
Ptilocickla basilanica, Irena ellae, male and female, 
Oestrelata torquata, and C Hemophilus macgregori, a 
very curious new genus of Paradise Bird, allied to 
Xanthomelus. 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of 
London, 1,891, Part II. 1 3 1 pages of text, 13 black 
and coloured plates. Price, 12 Shillings. 

The species figured are : — Otomis jacksoni. New 
Butterflits from British East Africa, Lacerta simonyi, 
New Dragonflies from Ceylon, Ammodorcas clarkei- 
Skull of Ammodorcas clarkei, Bathybiaster rexilifer, 
Pimelodus nigribarbis and cottoides, Otocinclus nigri, 
cauda, Chaetostomus cirrhosus, Bunocephalus iheringi, 
Trichomycterus minutus and New Asiatic Butterflies. 

Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France, 
Avril 1 89 1. 

The West American Scientist, the Nautilus, Feuille 
des jeunes Naturalistes, the Canadian Entomologist, 
the Kansas City Scientist, etc. 



Obituary. 



HENRY EDWARDS. 

This well-known and highly esteemed entomologist 
died at his home, in New York City, on the 9th of 
June, 1 89 1. His death was caused by dropsy and 
other complicated troubles which affected the heart. 

In him the world has lost an earnest devotee to 
science and art, and those who knew him a kind- 
hearted, generous, true, and sympathising friend. In 
his death, entomological science has lost one of its 
most active and energetic workers, and his loss is 
deeply felt and deplored by all who knew him, and he 
has passed out of his earthly domain with the affec- 
tionate regret of many grateful and loving friends. 
Mr. Edwards was born in Ross, Herefordshire, Eng- 
land, August 27th, 1830, and was destined by his 
father to become a lawyer. After studying for some 
time without evincing any particular aptitude for the 
profession, he entered a London counting house, and 
frequently appeared in amateur theatricals, for which 
he had much talent. He finally decided, much 
against the wish of his parents, to adopt the pro- 
fessional stage. In 1853 he embarked for Australia, 
where he made his first appearance as an actor, and 
where he passed many prosperous years. From 
Australia he drifted to Peru and Panama, and in 1867 
he reached San Francisco, California. In about 1877 
he made his first appearance in the East, at Boston, 
and finally, in 1879, he came to New York. In 
1889-90 he again visited his old home in Australia, 
from where he returned last year. During all these 



years he was connected with the stage, until only a 
short time previous to his decease, when he was com- 
pelled to retire on account of his illness. At the time 
of his death he had just returned from a trip to the 
Catskill Mountains, where he was staying for his 
health, and thiee and a half hours later he entered 
into rest and the everlasting silence. 

As an entomologist Mr. Edwards was world-known, 
and was considered one of the greatest authorities of 
the science to which he was attached ever since his 
boyhood's days. He was chiefly known by his excel- 
lent papers on the Pacific Coast Lepidoptera, which 
contain the descriptions of many new and interesting 
species from that region. He was also known by his 
articles on North American Aegeridae, of which 
family he described nearly all our American species. 
Besides these papers he has also written many other 
articles on descriptions of new species and transform- 
ations of Lepidoptera. 

He also edited three volumes of the journal 
Papilio. The last large work he published was his 
Bibliographical Catalogue of the described transforma- 
tions of North Amei'ican Lepidoptera; which is now 
in the hands of all our working entomologists. Mr. 
Edwards spent much money for the increase of his 
collection of Insects, and devoted all his leisure time 
to his favourite study. His travels afforded him many 
rare opportunities for collecting material for his collec- 
tion and writings. The collection consists of about 
300,000 specimens of Insects of all the orders from all 
parts of the globe. It contains the types of all the 
species he described, about four hundred and fifty, 
except a few which are in other collections. It also 
contains a number of Grote's types of Noctuidae and 
Pyralidse, and many of Fish's types of Pterophoridae, 
and types of other writers. It contains also the 
unique pair of Oniticellus californicus, and many other 
uniques, oddities and rareties of considerable value. 
The collection is one of the largest private collections 
in the world. His library consists of about five 
hundred volumes of entomological works, and about 
double the number of pamphlets, and about two 
thousand volumes on travel and other topics. 

Mr. Edwards belonged to many scientific and other 
Societies. He was for some time Vice-President of 
the California Academy of Sciences, Life-member 
Brooklyn Entomological Society, Member of the 
Torrey Botanical Club, Players Club of New York, 
Bohemian Club of San Francisco. Corresponding 
member of the Boston Natural History Society, 
Microscopical Society of San Francisco, Natural 
History Society of San Diego, Belgium Natural 
History Society, etc. 

He leaves a widow who deeply mourns his loss, and 
we would here add our condolence and sympathy and 
heart-felt regret to her irreparable bereavement. 

Wm. Beutenmuller. 
New York, June 15th, 1891. 

Henry de la Cuisine, Dijon, Côtes d'Or, whose 
death I have recorded in the July number of The 
Humming Bird, has left all his valuable collections of 
Insects to the town of Dijon. 



September i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



Museum, by Dr. J. E. Gray, Pp. VIII. 80. 
1844, 8vo. ... ... ... ... is. 

Catalogue of the Chelonians, Rhynocephalians. 
and Crocodiles in the British Museum. 
New Edition, by George Alfred Boulanger. 
Pp. X. 311. 73 woodcuts and 6 plates, 1889, 
8vo ... ... ... ... ... 15s. 

Gigantic Land Tortoises (living and extinct) in 
the Collection of the British Museum. By 
Albert C. L. G. Gunther. Pp. IX, 96, 55 
plates and 2 Charts of the Aldabra group 
of Islands, north west of Madagascar (with a 
Systematic Synopsis of the Extinct and Living 
Gigantic Land Tortoises) 1877, 4to 30s. 

Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum. 
Second Edition, by George Albert Boulenger, 
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Pygopodidse, Agamidae. Pp. XII. 436. 32 
plates 1885, 8vo ... ... ... 20s. 

Vol. II. Iguanidae, Xenosauridse, Zoniiridae, An- 
guidae, Anniellidaa, Helodermatidse, Varanidae, 
Xantusiidse, Teiidae, Amphisbaenidae. Pp. 
XIII. 497, 24plates ; 1885, 8vo ... 20s. 

Vol. III. Lacertudae, Gerrhosauridae, Scincidse, 
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Pp. XII. 575. 40 plates, 1887, 8vo. 26s. 

Catalogue of Colubrine Snakes in the Collection 
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Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia in the Col- 
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Catalogue of the Batrachia, Salientia, s. Ecaudata 
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Second edition, by George Albert Boulenger. 
Pp. XVI. 503. Woodcuts and 30 plates, 
1882, 8vo. ... ... .. ... 30s. 

Catalogue of the Batrachia, Gradientia, s. Gra- 
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Catalogue of the Fishes in the Collection of the 
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Vol. II. Squamipinnes, Cirrhitidaa, Triglidae, to 
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Vol. VI. Salmonidae, Percopsidae to Cyprinodon- 
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Vol. VII Heterophygi, Cyprinidae to Halosauri. 
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Vol. VIII Gymnotidae, Symbranchidae to Lep- 
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Guide to the Systematic Distribution of Mollusca 
in the British Museum. Part 1, by John Ed- 
ward Gray. Pp. XII, 320. 121 Woodcuts, 
1857, 8vo 5s. 



— Catalogue of the Collection of Mazatlan Shells in 

the British Museum, collected by Frederick 
Reigne, by Philip P. Carpenter. Pp. XVI, 552, 
1847, 8vo 8s. 

— Catalogue of the specimens of Amphipodous 

Crustacea in the collection of the British 
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plates, 1862, 8vo 25s. 

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— Lépidoptères duirnes, par M. Boisduval, Tome 1 

avec 2 livr. planches noires ... us. 6d. 

Ditto ditto coloriées ... ... 17s. 

— Lépidoptères nocturnes, par Mess. Boisduval 

et Gûenée, Tome I avec une livraison de 
planches, Tome V à X avec 5 livr. de 
planches noires ... ... ... 58s. 

Ditto ditto coloriées ... ... 65s. 

— Névroptères, par M. Rambur, 1 vol. et 1 livr. 

de planches noires ... ... ... 8s. 6d. 

Ditto ditto coloriées ... 12s. 

— Hyménoptères, 4 vol. et 4 livr. de planches 

noires par Mess, de St.Fargeau et Brullé 34s. 
Ditto ditto coloriées... ... ... 45s 

— Diptères, par M. Macquart, 2 vol. et 2 livr. de. 

planches noires ... ... ... 17s. 

Ditto ditto coloriées ... ... 28s. 

— Aptères, par MM. Walckenaer et Gervais, 4 vol. 

et 5 livr. de planches noires... ... 38s. 

Ditto ditto coloriées ... ... ... 32s. 

— Crustacés, par Mr. Milne Edwards, 3 vol. et 4 

livr. de planches noires ... ... 30s. 

Ditto ditto coloriées ... 40s. 



VI 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[September i, 1891 



Boisduval — Lépidoptères de la Californie, Bruxelles, 
1869, br. in 8vo ... ... ... 4s. 

Bonaparte — Conspectus generum avium, 1850-1857. 
2 vol. ... ... ... ... ... 50s. 

— Geographical and Comparative list of the birds 

of Europe and North America, 8vo... 6s. 

Clara y Sucinta Exposicion del pequeno Catecismo 
impreso en el idioma Mexicano, por un 
Sacerdote devoto de la Madré santissima de 
la Luz, etc. Puebla, 1819. 1 Vol., 67 double 
pages, one side in Mexican, the other in 
Spanish ... ... ... ... 40s. 

Candèze — Histoire des métamorphoses de quelques 
coléoptères exotiques, Liège, 1861, 1 vol. in 
8vo, 6 planches noires ... ... 2s. 6d. 

— Monographie des Elatérides, Liège, 185 7-1 863, 

4 vol. in 8vo, 25 pi. noires ... ... 32s. 

— Elatérides nouveaux (Complément à la mono- 

graphie), Brux. 1864, in 8vo, br. ... is. 6d. 

Castelnau et Blanchard — Histoire naturelle des In- 
sectes, avec une introduction par Brullé, 3 vol. 
in 8vo... ... . ... ... 40s. 

Catalogue des Coléoptères d'Europe (extrait du 
Généra des Coléoptères d'Europe de Jacquelin 
du Val et Fairmaire) vol. in 6 ... 3s. 6d. 

Catalogue of Coleopterous Insects in the collection of 
the British Museum, with descriptions of new 
species. 

— Longicornia, Part I. et IL, par Adam White, 

2 vol. in 8vo ... ... ... ... 8s. 

— Cassididae, par Boheman, 1 vol. in 8vo... 5s. 

— Cucujidse, par J. Ed. Gray ,, „ ... is. 

— Cleridae, par Adam White ,, „ ... 2s. 6d. 

— Passalidae, Buprestidse, par Smith, 1 vol. 

in 8vo... ... ... ... ... is. 

Chenu — Leçons élémentaires sur l'histoire naturelle, 
Conchyologie, Paris, 1847, 1 vol. gr. in 8vo, 
planches coloriées ... ... ... 20s. 

— Manuel de Conchyologie et Paléontologie con- 

chyologique contenant la description et la 
représentation de près de 5,000 coquilles. 
Paris, 1862, 2 vol. in 4to, planches noires et 
coloriées ... ... ... ... 30s. 

— Encyclopédie d'histoire naturelle, ou Traité com- 

plet de cette science :— Mammifères, 5 vol. ; 
Oiseaux, 6 vol. ; Reptiles et Poissons, 1 vol. ; 
Coléoptères, 3 vol. ; Lépidoptères, 2 vol. ; 
Crustacés, Mollusques, et Zoophytes, 1 vol. ; 
Annelés, 1 vol. ; Botanique, 2 vol. ; Miné- 
ralogie, Géologie, Races humaines, 1 vol. Le 
tout complet ... ... ... ... 100s. 

chaque volume séparément ... ... 5s, 

Crotch — Synopsis coleopterum europae et confinium. 
London, 1871, in 8vo ... ... 2s. 

— Check List of the Coleoptera of America, north 

of Mexico, Salem, Mass., in 8vo ... 6s. 

— Catecismo y Declaracion de la Doctrina Chris- 

tiana en lengua Otomi, con un Vocabulario 
del mismo idioma, por el R. P. Joaquin Lopez 
Yepes, Mexico, 1826. 1 Vol. in 4to, 254 
pages ... ... ... ... 60s. 

Degland et Gerbe — Ornithologie européenne, 2 eme édi- 
tion, Paris, 1867 ... ... ... 24s. 



Deyrolle, Henri, Description des Buprestides de la 
Malaisie, recueillis par Wallace, 1865, 1 vol. 
in 8vo, 4 planches coloriées ... ... 12s. 

Diagrams of Natural History, edited by A. Boucard. 
20 sheets, 18-in. by 24-in., comprising 166 
Diagrams of Animals and Plants, life size, 
beautifully printed in colours, and 37 Natural 
specimens of Woods and Minerals, all neatly 
mounted on very stout cardboard, the set 
complete, with Manual ... ... 40s. 

{Quite indispensable for a school.) 
Duponchel — -Catalogue méthodique des Lépidoptères 
d'Europe, Fort vol. in 8vo, de 523 pages 
broché... ... ... ... ... 6s. 

Duponchel et Guénée — Iconographie et histoire natu- 
relle des chenilles d'Europe, avec 93 magnifi- 
ques planches gravées et coloriées, nouvelle 
édition, publiée en 40 livraisons à if. Les 2 vol., 
reliés maroquin rouge, tranche dorée . 40s. 
Entomologist's Annual 1855-1891, foolscap, chaque 
année... ... ... ... ... 3s. 

{En cours de publication.) 
Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, Nos. 1-86, chaque 
numéro ... ... ... ... is. 

(En cours de publication.) 

Etiquettes pour Insectes, Coquilles, etc. — Grande 

feuille 16x20 contenant 1326 étiquettes, 

avec le nom de tous les pays explorés par les 

voyageurs naturalistes. Chaque feuille est 

divisée en cinq parties: Europa, Asia, Africa, 

America, Australia, etc., et chaque partie est 

arrangée par ordre alphabétique. Un espace 

blanc a été réservé sur chaque étiquette de 

façon à pouvoir y mettre le nom scientifique de 

l'espèce, et le nom du collecteur, la feuille ... 3d. 

(Une grande réduction sera faite aux personnes 

qui commanderont plus de 100 feuilles à la fois. ) 

Felder — Lepidopterologische Fragmente, Wien, 1859, 

in 4to, 1 1 pi. n. ... ... ... 15s. 

Felder G. et R., Diagnoses lepidopterologicœ, Wien, 
1 vol. in 8vo, 240 pages ... ... 10s. 

Gemminger et Harold — Catalogus Coleopterum: — 
Vol. 1 — Cicindelida3,Carabidae ... ... 15s. 

Vol. 2 — Dytiscidae Gyrinidas, Hydrophilidae Sta- 
phylinidas à Scaphiidae, inclus... ... us. 

Vol. 3 — Histeridas à Lucanidae, inclus ... 7s. 
Vol. 4 — Scarabaeidae ... ... ... 12s. 

Vol. s — Buprestidae, Elateridae à Cebrionidae, 
inclus ... ... ... ... 9s. 

Vol. 6 — Rhypidoceridse Malacodermidae à 
Cioidae, inclus .. ... ... 7s. 

Vol. 7- — Tenebrionidae à Oedemeridas, inclus 14s. 
Vol. 8 — Curculionidas ... ... ... 15s. 

Vol. 9 — Scolytidse à Cerambycida? (Prionini, 
Cerambycini) ... ... ... 13s. 

Vol. 10 — Cerambycidae Bruchida; ... 12s. 

Vol. 11 — Chrysomelidae ... ... ... 12s. 

(Cet ouvrage est tout à fait indespensable pour un 

entomologiste.) 

Grose Smith and Kirby, Rhopalocera exotica, being 

illustrations of new, rare, or unfigured species 

of Butterflies, ^ with coloured drawings and 

descriptions, £ folio, Part 1 to 14 inclusive £4, 



each, part published at 



7s. 6d. 



September i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



vu 



Godart et Duponchel — Histoire naturelle des Lépi- 
doptères, d'Europe, 18 vol., in 8vo, 548 plan- 
ches col. ... ... ,£20 

Gurney — Catalogue of Raptorial Birds, Parts I. in 
8vo 6s. 

Harting — The Birds of Middlesex, 8vo ... 9s. 

Historia de la Conquista de Mexico, etc., by Don 
Antonio Solis Brusselas, 1741 
1 Vol. in folio, 276 pages, 13 Engravings and 
Maps. Pages 1 to 9 slightly stained... £\o. 

Historia General des las Cosas de Nueva Espana, by 
Rev. Bernardino de Sahagun, con notas y su- 
plementos, por Carlos Maria de Bustamente, 
Mexico, 1829. 4 vols, in 4to., uncut... £5. 

Historia de las Conquistas de Hernando Cortez, por 
Francisco Lopez de Gomara, con varias notas 
y addiciones, por Carlos Maria de Busta- 
mante, Mexico, 1826. 1 vol. in 4to, 315 

P-P £*• 

Ibis — A Quarterly Journal of Ornithology, each 
part ... ... ... ... ... 6s. 

En cours de publication. f {Très recommandé.) 

Insecta^ saundersiana, Part 1-8, 8vo, sewed, each 
part ... ... ... ... ... 3s. 

Ditto ditto. Part 9 3s. 

Jacquelin Du Val et Fairmaire. Genera des Coléop- 
tères d'Europe, représentant plus de 1,500 
types d'après nature et coloriés avec le plus 
grand soin, 4 vol. cartonnés, 303 pi. col. (mag- 
nifique ouvrage) ... ... ... ;£l2. 

Jekel — Catalogus Curculionidum, 1 vol. in i2mo. 2s. 

— Insecta Saundersiana Curculionides, Part I. 154 

pages ... ... ... ... ... 5s. 

— Ditto ditto ditto Part II. 225 5s. 
Kirby, W. F. — European Butterflies and Moths, 

1 Vol. \ folio, 427 pages, 61 coloured plates. 
London, 1882... ... ... ... 32a. 

— Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera, 1870, 1 vol. 

in 8vo. 690 pages ... ... ... 24s. 

Kampuysens Stichtelyke Rymen, by M. Mathieu, 

Rotterdam 1688. 1 Vol. in 8vo., 680 Pp. £i. 
Lacordaire (Th.) — Monographie des Coléoptères sub- 

pentamères Phytophages, 2 vol. gr in 8vo. 

Liège, 1848 ... ... ... ... 20s. 

— Généra des Coléoptères, Tome I-XII. en 14 vol. 

in 8vo. et 13 livr. de planches noires ... £6. 

— Coloriées. Ouvrage complet ... ... £8. 

Latreille — Cours d'entomologie, 1 gros vol. in 8vo. 

et un atlas de 24 planches ... ... 15s. 

Manual of Natural History, with many illustrations, 
edited by A. Boucard ; second edition, 1 vol. 

in 8vo., London, 1876 ... ... 4s. 

Milne Edwards — Eléments de Zoologie, 2ème édition, 

Paris, 1840 — 1843, 1 vol. in 8vo ... 16s. 

— Histoire naturelle des Crustacés, Paris, 1837 — •■ 

1840, 3 vol. in 8vo, avec 42 planches 30s. 

— Coloriées ... ... ... ... 40s. 

— Zoologie, 1 vol ... ... ... ... " 6s. 

Mulsant (É.) — Lettres à Julie sur l'entomologie, 

Lyon, 1830, 2 vol. in 8vo. 15 planches 
coloriées ... ... ... ... 30s. 

Mulsant (E.) — Essai d'une classification méthodique 
des Trochilidés ou Oiseaux Mouches, 1 vol. in 

8vO. 98 p. ... ... ... ... 2S. 



Mulsant et Verreaux. — Histoire naturelle des Oiseaux. 
Mouches ou Colibris constituant la famille des 
Trochilidés. ... ... ... ;£i6 

Marseuil l'Abeille— Journal d'Entomologie, spéciale 
ment consacré aux Coléoptères, iere Série, 
1864 — 1867, tomes I. à VI ... ... 75s. 

chaque volume séparément ... ... 15s. 

2eme. Série, 1870 ... ... ... 15s. 

— Catalogus Coleopterum Europae, 1 vol. in 8vo. 2s. 
Murray— On the geographical distribution of Mam- 
mals, 103 coloured plates and maps, 1 large 
vol. in 4to ... ... ... ... 50s. 

Nauman A. Nauman's Naturgeschichte der Vogel 
Deutschlands ; 13 vol. in 4 , 391 coloured 
plates, a magnificent copy, rare ... ^25 

Pouchet — Zoologie classique, 2 vol. in 8vo, 1,300 
pages, atlas de 44 planches et 5 grands tableaux 
gravés sur acier, figures noires ... 20s. 

Ditto ditto coloriées ... 25 s. 

Saunders, E. — Catalogus buprestidarum synonymi- 
cus et systematicus. Londres, 187 1, vol. 
in 8vo... ... ... ... ... 8s. 

Sclater et Salvin — Nomenclator Avium neotropi- 
calum ... ... ... ... ... 1 6s. 

Thomson, T. — Arcana Naturae. Grand in folio, Paris, 
1859, pi. noires 40s., coloriées ... 60s. 

— Archives entomologiques ou illustrations d'ln 

sectes, nouveaux et rares, grand in 8vo, 
2 vol., Paris, 1857-1858, pi. noires, 40s., 
coloriées ... ... ... ... 60s. 

— Essai d'une classification de la famille des Céram- 

bycides, grand in 8vo, 412 pages, 3 planches, 
Paris, i860 ... ... ... ... 24s. 

Thomson, T. — Monographie du genre Batocera, 
grand in folio, 3 pi. noires ... ... 12s. 

— Monographie de la famille des Cicindélides, 1857, 

grand in 4to, n planches noires, 20s., 
coloriées ... ... ... ... 24s. 

— Monographie de la famille des Monomides, i860, 

grand in 8vo, avec 3 planches coloriées 12s. 

— Monographie de la famille des Nilionides, in 8vo, 

4 pi. n 8s. 

— Monographie du genre Spheniscus, grand in folio, 

2pl.n.... ... ... ios. 

Tezcoco en los ultimos tiempos de sus antiguos 
Reyes. Tomada de los manuscritos ineditos 
de Boturini y redactados por el Lie. Mariano 
Veytia, Mexico, 1826. 1 vol. iômo, 276 
pages 40s. 

Various Calendarios Mexicanos, 1830 to i860, is. 
and 2s. each. 

Zoological Report, 8vo, 30s. annually (1864 — 1891 
published) chaque volume ... ... 21s. 

{Ouvrage indispensable pour un zoologiste.) 

Zoological Society of London, Transactions, of pub- 
lished in four parts annually (57 vol. published) 
each part un-coloured, 3s., coloured 12s. 

{Price of each volume sent on application.') 

The Naturalist's Agency will procure to his 
Customers all the Scientific Works published in 
London at publisher's prices. 

Apply at Naturalist's Agency, 225, High Holborn, 
London, W.C. 



Vlll 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[September i, 1891 



BOUCARD, POTTIER & CO., 

NATURALISTS AND FEATHER MERCHANTS, 

S^S, lîi^bL Holtooi^rt., London, W.C, EiML^lanxL 



COMMISSION. 



EXPORTATION 



Messes. BOUCAKD, POTTIER & CO. offer to sell on commission all kinds of Objects of Natural 
History, Collections of Mammal and Bird Skins, Skeletons, Human and Animal Skulls, Insects of all 
orders pinned and set, or in papers ; Marine, Fresh Water, and Land Shells ; Reptiles and Pishes in spirit ; 
Crustacese and Arachnid» in spirit ; Ethnological collections from all parts ; Showy Bird Skins and 
Feathers for Plumassiers and Naturalists; Mammal Skins for Furriers; Bright species of Insects for 
Artificial Florists ; Rare old Stamps, used and unused; Curios of all sorts, Pictures and Works of Art, etc., 
etc., etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting Messrs. Boucard. Pottiei 
& Co., who having a large connection with Amateurs in all parts of the world, are able to get the very best 
prices for them. 

Messrs. Boucard, Pottier & Co. beg to advise Directors of Museums and private Amateurs that they 
undertake to stuff from a Humming Bird to a Whale at very reasonable prices. Only experienced and 
scientific Taxidermists are employed by the hour for that work, which will always be of the best class. 

An inspection of their Galleries, where a large number of specimens are always on show, is solicited. 

Special fabrication of Mammals and Birds Eyes at wholesale prices which defy all competition, either 
as quality or price. See special Advertisement. 

New Stands fob. Birds, suitable for Museums and Scientific Institutions. No one should be without 
them. The appearance of the Birds on these stands is unequalled, and everyone should adopt them and 
renovate the old ones. See Advertisement. 



TO BE LET OK SOLD 

SEVERAL PROPERTIES 

AT SAN-REMO, 

The celebrated Winter Resort on the Riviera, 
£0 minutes from Monte Carlo. 



1° VILLA MARIA LUIGIA. 

A charming residence, standing in its own ground, situated 
Cobso Levante on one side and the Beach on the other, at 
about 15 minutes' walk from the centre of the town and 20 
from the station. Splendid view in all directions, beautiful 
garden of about 2,000 mètres, in which a large space has been 
laid purposely for lawn tennis and other games. 

Carriage and private entrances. 

Gymnastic, Summer Houses, Aviary, Bathing Cabin, Sçc. 

Excellent water. 

Ground Floor. — Three fine rooms, full south, with 7 bay 
windows opening on the Garden, Kitchen, Offices, Cellar, &c. 

First Floor. — Three large and fine rooms, full south, two on 
the north side, all of them communicating. Magnificent for 
Receptions, Soirées, &c. Cloak Room. 

Second Floor. — Four large rooms, full south, one of them 
with dressing-room, three fine rooms on the north side. Cloak 
Room. Corridor in the middle. 

Size of Villa : length 18 metres, width 10 metres. 
Ppice francs 60,000 

LETTING. 

Unfurnished francs 3,500 

Furnished, Winter season, 6 months „ 2,500 

More the letting of the furniture according to the value of 

same required. 

Furnished, Summer season, 3 months. Price to agree. 



2° VILLAS RONDO 25, 27. 

Two semi-detached Villas, full south, standing in their own 
ground of 1,000 mètres, situated on the Coeso Gababaldi, (the 
most pleasant walk of the town) hardly at 10 minutes walk 
from the central part of the town and 15 of the station. 

No. 25. — Ground Floor.— Three fine rooms, Kitchen, Office, 
and Cellar. 

First Floor. — Six comfortable rooms. 

No. 27 — Exactly the same, more Underground floor with 
kitchen and two large rooms. Front and back gardens. 

Price for the two villas francs 45,000 

Separately. 

No. 25 francs 25,000 

No. 27 francs 30,000 

LETTING. 

No. 25. — Unfurnished francs 1,000 

Furnished, winter season ... — 2,000 

— summer season ... — 1,000 
No. 27. — Unfurnished francs 1,250 

Furnished, winter season ... — 2,500 

— summer season ... — 1,250 

Separate floors can also be let with or without furniture. 



3° A PIECE OF LAN), about 380 metres. 

Full south, on the Cobso Mezzogioeno, two minutes from 
the station and the port, in the central part of the town. 

Price francs 15,000 

Letting francs 800 



Exchange oould be made for property situated in England. 



For further information, apply to — 

M. A. BOUCARD, 
225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 



LONDON : Published by A. BOUCARD, at 226, High Holborn, W.C. ; and Printed at J. S. LEVIN'S Printing Works, 75, Leadenhall Street, E.G. 

September 1, 1891. 




£be 



Ibumming 




A MONTHLY SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC, AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW. 



GUARANTEED CIRCULATION, 5000. 



VOL L NO. 10. 



October 1, 1891. 



PRICE SIXPENCE. 



Annual Subscription: United Kingdom, Post free, 4 shillings ; all countries included in the Postal Union, 5 shillings. 

All other countries, 6 shillings. 




Qi/lASYXAAXs JQ4MAjUX>U& 



EDITED UNDER THE DIRECTION 

OF 

MR. ADOLPHE BOUCARD, 

NATURALIST, 

Officier d'Académie, 1878; Knight of the Royal Military Order of the Conception, 1881 ; 
Knight Officer of the Royal Order of Cambodje, 1889; Knight Commander of the Royal Order of Isabelle la Catholique, 1882; 

Corresponding Member of the Zoological Society, London, 1815; 

de la Mission scientifique française au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale, 1866; of the Royal Museum of Madrid, 1881; 

Commissioner for the Republic of Guatemala in the Paris International Exhibitions of 1878 and 1889 ; 

Member of the International Jury, Paris, 1889 ; Member of many scientific societies; 

etc. etc. etc. etc. 



CONTENTS OF No. 10.— OCTOBER 1, 1891. 

La Vie Champêtre — La Destruction de la Larve du Hanneton. 

Recommendations for the Prevention of Damage by some common Insects of 

the Farm, the Orchard, and the Garden. 

A Visit to the British Museum. Natural History Department. 

t 





[Entered at Stationers' Hall.] 



u 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[October i, 1 89 1 



FOR SALE.— Shells. 

Private Collection of Mr. Boucard. 
Land, Fluviatile and Marine Shells. 

Glandinidse, is. each. Helicidse, 6d. each. Bulimidse 
1 s. each. Achatinidse, is. each. Chlindrellidse, is.6d. 
each. Clausilidse, 3d. each. Ampularidse, 6d. each. 
Lymmea, Physa, and Planorbis, 3d. each. Cyclosto- 
nidse, 6d. each. Helicinidae, 3d. each. Unio, 
Anodonta, and Ostrea, 6d. each. 

Marine Shells — All the Collection including 
Argonyuta, Murex, Fusus, Triton, Ranella, Nassa, 
Oliva, Marginella, Harpa, Terebra, Conus, Strombus, 
Cypraea, Neritina, Patella, Chiton, Haliotis, Turbo, 
Venus, Cardium, &c, 6d. each. 

Can be divided if required. 

All applications to be made at the Journal's Office. 

FOR SALE. 

One of the most magnificent Collections of Marine, 
Fluviatile and Terrestrial Shells formed during the 
last forty years. 

It contains 9,761 species by 37,686 specimens, all 
of them in the most perfect condition. 

Species Specimens. 
Marine and Fresh Univalves 5238 21,314 
Bivalve, Marine and Freshwater 1850 5j9oo 

Foreign Land Shells 2673 ) 9,442 

European „ j 950 

Rare Shells in glass Cases 80 



Priced List of Utensils necessary for 
the collecting of Mammals and Birds 
Skins, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, Shells. 



9,761 37,686 

Very nearly all the rare species known are repre- 
sented in the Collection and sometimes by several 
specimens. 

For further informations and price, apply to Mr. 
A. Boucard 225, High Holborn, London, W. C. 



TO ETHNOLOGISTS AND OTHERS 



FOB SALE. 

Twenty finely carved An ows and 1 Bow from New Guinea 

Price 20s. 

African Bhinoceros War Club Price 30s. 

Three distinct Zulu War Clubs, made of iron wood and very 
nicely carved Price 30s. each. 

Pagaie from New Guinea, made of palm tree Price 30s. 

Magnificent Gold Antiquity from Panama, representing what 
appears to be Musicians, two large figures in the centre and 
six small ones round. It weighs 6 oz. 187 grammes. It is 
quite unique, and no Museum in the world possesses anything 
like it Price £50. 

A great variety of American Antiquities, chiefly from Central 
America, in hardstone, agathe, Idols, Vases, etc. from 5s. 

Modern pottery from Mexico and Central America 

from 6d. 
Statuettes representing the Indians of Mexico and Guatemala 

from 3s. 
Hats, Baskets, Mat* and various Objects made with palm 
leaves and various textile plants, from Central America, Mada- 
gascar, New Guinea, etc. from 6d. 

Samples of Textile Fibres, Seeds, Gums, Resins, Medirinal 
fiants, etc. from Mexico and Central Amerioa from 6d. 

Old and Modern Coins from Mexico from la. 

Etc., etc., etc. 



Bicarbolic Acid ... 

Rectified Benzoline 

Boucard's Insecticide ... 

Ammonia 

Collecting corked Box. . . . 

Pocket corked Box, 

Corked Box for Museums 



quart 2/- 

„ 2/- 

lb. 4/- 

4/- 

from 1/- to 5/- each. 

. . . from 1 /- 

24/- doz. 

36/- „ 



„ ,, and glazed, splendid make. 

Larger sizes can be supplied 
Botanical box ... ... from 2/6 to 6/- each. 

Pin box, for 1 2 grosses of different sizes ... 1/6 
„ with 1000 pins... ... ... 3/- 

Sea compass, ... ... from 2/- to 50/- 

Collectting bottles with large opening from 6d. 
Boucard's tin collecting box with two partitions 2/- 
Straight Scissors ... ... ... from 2/- 

Curved „ ... „ 2/- 

Taxidermist knifes ... ... ... „ 1/6 

Long Forceps „ 3/- 

Small „ „ 1/- 

Insects' Nippers, „ 1/6 

Sieve „ 2/- 

Blowpipe for cleaning eggs ... ... „ 2/- 

Digger „ 2/- & 4/- 

Folding ditto ... ... ... ... „ 6/- 

InsectPins, English, French orGermanfromi/6 per 100c 



Steel Pins for setting butterflies 

Setting Boards 

Butterfly Nets complete 

Sweeping and Water Nets ... ... , 

Cork in sheets ... ... ... ,, 

Magnifying Glasses ... .!. ... „ 

Hammers .., ...' ... ... „ 

Napthaline ... ... ... ... ,. 

Botanical Grey paper... ... ... , 

Folding Umbrella for collecting Insects , 
Steel Perforator for making holes in eggs , 
Cutting pliers ... ... ... ,, 

Flat „ „ 

Arsenical Soap ... ... ... „ 

Glass Tubes for small Insects and shells ,, 
Pill boxes for ditto ... ... ... „ 

Flax „ 

Cotton wading per sheet ... ... ,, 

Fishing rods with accessories from ,, 
Dredge for collecting shells, &c. ... ,, 

Taxidermists Case, containing 1 Pair of Scissors 
• 2 Knives, 1 Lime, 1 Grater, 2 Pliers, 1 Ham- 
mer, 1 pair of Forceps, 1 Brush, 3 Gimlets, 
etc., complete ... ... ... from 12/- to 40/- 

Shell-empting with handle ... ... „ 1/- 

All other Utensils for Naturalists can be had at a 
short notice, 225, High Holborn, London, W. C. 
by orde/ing at the Naturalist's Agency. 

NT41NDK. f% * IV SÏÏLK. 

Wholesale Price. 
No. 1 for Humming birds and Small birds at 20s. per hundred 
,, 2 ,, Small birds up to Tanagers at 24s. ,, 

,, 3 ,, Tanagers up to Magpies at 28s. ,, 

,, 4 ,, Magpies up to Crows or Small 

Hawks at 32s. ,, 

„ 5 „ Small Hawks to Large Hawks 

and Owls at 40b. ,, 



„ 4/- per 1000 
... 1 /-to 3/- each 
.. from 1/6 to 6/- 
.. „ 2/6 
.. „ 3/- doz. 

• „ 1/- to 5/- 

• „ 1/6 to 5/- 
. „ 4/- per lb. 

,, 6/- ream. 
10/- 

1/- 
»/- 
1/- 
2/- per lb. 

1/- doz. 

4/- gross- 
ed, per lb 

6d 

»/- 

40/- 



October i, 1S91] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



111 



ARTIFICIAL ETES. 

Wholesale Price. 



No. 1 to 4 

5„ 8 



Black Coloured 

per gross 



Cornered 



6d. 

8d. 



9 „ 10 ls.Od. 



11 
12 
13 

14 
15 
16 
17 
18 



Is. 6d. 

2s. 6d. 

4s. Od. 
. 5s. 6d. 
. 7s. Od. 
. 10s. Od. 
doz. of pairs 
3s.0d. Is. 6d. 
. 2s. 6d. 
. 2s. 6d. 
. 3s. Od. 
. 4s. Od. 



per doz. pairs 
No. 4 to 6 3s. 6d. 
)> 7 „ 8 
„ 9 



2s. Od 
2s. 3d 
2s. 6d 



3s. 6d 

4s. Od 

8s. Od 

12s. Od 



10 
11 
12 

13 
14 
15 



5s. Od. 
6s. Od. 
7s. Od. 
8s. Od. 
9s. Od. 

10s. Od. 
lis. Od. 
13s- Od. 



Cornered 

& Veined 

per doz. pair s 

4s. 6d. 

6s. Od. 

8s- Od. 

9s. Od. 
10s. Od. 
lis. Od. 

12s. Od. 
13s. Od. 
15s. Od. 



Larger sizes can be made 
to order. 



Nr. 1 to 4 are good for humming birds and others up to 
the size of Tanagers. 

No. 5 to 8 Tanagers to Magpies. 

No. 9 to 10 Magpies to Gulls, 

No. 11 to 12 Pheasants, etc. 

No. 13 to 18 Hawks, Owls, Herons, etc. 



Postage Stamps 
FOR SALE. 

A large variety of rare Stamps and New Issues from all parts 
of the World. For prices &c. apply to Naturalists Ajiencj, 

225, High Holborn.W.C. 



WANTED TO BUY. 

Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwards, to 
which none have been added since the last 20 years. 

Old stamps on their original letter sheet or envelope, especi- 
ally Colonials and old German states. 

Mulready Wrappers and Envelopes. 

Old unused English and Colonials. 

Old works on stamps. 

Proofs of stamps, etc. etc. 

TO ORNITHOLOGISTS. 



FOR SALE. 

Fine mounted specimen of Alca tmpennis, the Great Auk, 
(extinct species). Pedigree from date of capture, 1836, will 
be given to buyer. 

Fine male specimen of the exceedingly rare new genus of 
bird tiemhardtia oaellato Bp., the greatest discovery of the 
century. Price £50 

FOR SALE. — From Kina Balu {Borneo'). 
Calyptomena whiteheadi, male, 100s. A magnifi- 
cent bird, discovered lately by Mr. Whitehead* in the 
interior, of Borneo. Many other species from the 
same collector (magnificent skins). 

FOR SALE. 

A magnificent Collection of Woods from all parts 
of *"he world. 2,000 varieties. Fifty years work. 
Will be sold at a bargain. 

Fourteen species of Carabus from Chili. In the 
most perfect condition. 23 specimens, at 5s. each. 



FOR SALE. 
Books on Natural History, etc. 

Atlas d'Ornithologie ou Collection choisie d'Oiseaux 
les plus connus dessinés d'après nature par 
Martinet, Paris, 1784. 
1 Vol. grand in folio, in magnificent condition. 
Contents : Epitre à Buffon, Tableau général 
du classement des Oiseaux divisés d'après 
Buffon en neuf Ordres et cent un Genres ou 
Familles. 150 splendid coloured plates par 
Martinet. Exceedingly rare, perhaps uni- 
que. £$Q. 

Agassiz — Nomenclator Zoologicus, Soloduri, 1842- 
1846, gros vol. in 4to. ... ... 40s. 

— Nomenciatoris Zoologici index universalis Solo- 

duri, 1848, ini2mo ... ... ... ios. 

— De l'espèce et des classifications en Zoologie, 

1 vol. in 8vo ... ... ... ... 4s. 

America, by John Ogilby, Esq., London, 167 1. 
Grand in folio, 675 pages, 121 splendid 
Engravings and Maps. £> l °- 

Boucard, A. — Catalogius Avium ; contenant 2,456 
genres et 11,030 espèces, avec une nouvelle 
classification systématique. Londres, 1876, 
1 vol. in 8vo... ... ... ... 10s. 

— Monographie List of the Genus Plusiotis, with 

description of new species. (From the Pro- 
ceedings of the Zoological Society of London), 
1874. Brochure in 8vo, avec planche 
coloriée ... ... ••• ••• 4s. 

— La même, planche noire 2s. 



— Notes sur les Trochilidés du Mexique (Extrait 

des Annales delà Société linnéenne de Lyon), 
1 brochure in 8vo, Lyon, 1875 ... is. 

— Notes sur quelques Trochilidés, ditto, 

1873 is. 

— Catalogue des collections d'Histoire na- 

turelle, récoltées au Mexique, par Mr. A. 
Boucard, avec le prix de chaque espèce 6d. 

— Catalogue de Marr mifères, Oiseaux, Reptiles, 

Poissons et Coquilles, de la Californie, de la 
Louisiane, du Mexique, et de l'Uruguay, 
1,328 espèces, avec prix ... ... 6d. 

— Catalogue de Coléoptères (Carabidse), et Colé- 

optères divers 1,477 espèces, avec prix 6d. 

— Catalogue de Coléoptères Héteromères et de 

Curculionides, 2,242 espèces, avec prix 6d. 

— Catalogue d'Oiseaux, Reptiles, et Poissons, 1,157 

espèces, avec prix ... ... ... is. 

— Liste de Coléoptères exotiques, 2,636 espèces, 

avec prix ... ... ... ... is. 

— Guide pour collecter, préparer et expédier des 

collections d'histoire naturelle ... 6d. 

— Le même en espagnol ... ... 6d. 

British Museum — Catalogue of the specimens 

and Drawings of Mammals, Birds, Reptiles and 
Fishes of Nepal and Thibet. Presented by 
B. H. Hodgson, Esq , to the British Museum, 
by John Edward Gray, second edition. 2s. 3d. 

— Report on the Zoological Collections made in 

the Indo-Pacific Ocean during the voyage of 
H.M.S. Albert 1881-2. Pp. XXV., 684, 54 
plates, 1884, 8vo. ... ... ... 30s. 

— Catalogue of the bones of Mammals in the 

Collection of the British Museum, by E. 
Gerrard. Pp. IV ; 296, 1862, 8vo — 5s. 



IV 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[October i, 189 1 



Catalogue of Monkeys, Lemurs and Fruit-eating 
Bats in the Collection of the British Museum 
by Dr. J. E. Gray, Pp. VIIT. 137, 21 Wood- 
cuts. 1870, Svo. ... ... ... 4s. 

Catalogue of Carnivorous, Pachydermatous and 
Edentate Mammalia in the British Museum 
by John Edward Gray, Pp. VII. 398, 47 
Woodcuts, 1869, 8vo. ... ... 6s. 6d. 

Hand List of Seals, Morses, Sea Lions and 
Sea Bears in the British Museum, by Dr^ 
J. E. Gray, Pp. 43, 30 plates of skulls. 1874, 
8vo. ... ... ... ... ... 12s. 6d. 

Catalogue of Seals and Whales in the British 
Museum, by John E. Gray, second edition, 
Pp. VII ; 402. 101 Woodcuts. 1866. 8vo. 8s. 

Supplement by John E. Gray, Pp. VI. 163. 
II Woodcuts. 187 1, 8vo. ... ... 2s. 6d. 

List of the specimens of Cetacea in the Zoo- 
logical Department of the British Museum, 
by William Henry Flower, Pp. IV ; 36. 1885, 
8vo is. 6d. 

Catalogue of Ruminant Mammalia (Pecora 
linnœus) in the British Museum, by John 
Edward Gray, Pp. VIII. 102, 4 plates, 1872, 
8vo. ... ... ... ... ... 3s. 6d. 

Hand List of Edentate, Thick skinned and 
Ruminant Mammals in the British Museum, 
by Dr. J. E. Gray. Pp. VII. 176. 42 plates 
of skulls, etc. 1873, Svo. ... ... 12s. 

Catalogue of the Marsupialia and Monotremeta 
in the Collection of the British Museum, by 
Oldfield Thomas. Pp. XIII. 401, 4 coloured 
and 24 plain plates, 1888, 8vo ... 28s 

Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum 
Vol. 1. [put of print) Accipitres or diurnal 
Birds of prey, by R. Bowdler Sharpe, 480 
pages. Woodcuts and 14 coloured plates, 
(Systematic and Alphabetical Index). 1874, 
8vo. ... ... ... ... ... 50s. 

Vol. II. {out of print) Striges or Nocturnal 
Birds of prey, by R. Bowdler Sharpe. 326 
pages, Woodcuts and 14 coloured plates. 
1875, 8vo 50s. 

Vol. III. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. Colio- 
morphœ containing the families, Corvidae, 
Paradiseidas, Oriolidae, Dicruridse and Prion- 
opidae, by R. Bowdler Sharpe, Pp.XIII;363. 
Woodcuts and 14 coloured plates. 1879, 8vo, 
17s- 

Vol. IV. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. Ciclo- 
morphœ Part 1 containing the families Campe- 
phagidae and Muscicapidsa, by R. Bowdler 
Sharpe, Pp. XVI ; 494. Woodcuts and 14 
coloured plates, 1879, 8vo. ... ... 20s. 

Vol. V. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Cichlomorphœ : Part II. containing the families 
Turdidae (Warblers and Thrushes), by Henry 
Seebohm, Pp. XVI ; 426. Woodcuts and 18 
coloured plates. 1881, 8vo. ... ... 20s. 

Vol. VI. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Ciclomorphce : Part III. containing the first 
portion of the family Timelidae (Babling 
Thrushes), by R. Bowdler Sharpe. Pp. XIII ; 



420. Woodcuts and 14 coloured plates 1881 
8vo. ... 20s. 

Vol. VII. Passeriformes or Perching Birds 
Ciclomorphce. : Part IV. containing the conclu- 
ding portion of the family Timelidse, by R. 
Bowdler Sharpe Pp. XVI ; 698. Woodcuts and 
. 15 coloured plates, 1883, 8vo. ... 26s. 

Vol. VIII. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Cichlomorphœ ; Part V. containing the families 
Paridae and Laniidae (Titmice and Shrikes) and 
Certhio7norphce (Creepers and Nuthatches), by 
Hans Gadow, Pp. XIII, 386 Woodcuts and 
9 coloured plates. 1883, 8vo. ... 17s. 

Vol. IX. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Cynnirimorphœ, containing the families Nec- 
tariniidae and Meliphagidae (Sun birds and 
Honey eaters), by Hans Gadow. Pp. XII, 310. 
Woodcuts and 7 col. plates. 1884, 8vo. 14s. 

Vol. X. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Fringi lliforme s ; Part I, containing the fami- 
lies Dicaeidse, Hirundinidae, Ampelidae Mnio- 
tiltidae. and Motacillidae, by R. Bowdler Sharpe, 
Pp. XIII, 68?. Woodcuts and 12 coloured 
plates, 1885, 8vo ... ... ... 22s. 

Vol. XL Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Fringillif ormes : Part II, containing the families 
Coerebidae, Tanagridae and Icteridae by Philip 
Lutley Sclater, Pp. XVII ; 431. Woodcuts 
and 18 coloured plates, 1886, 8vo. ... 20s. 

Vol. XII. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Frinigilliformes ; Part III; containing the 
family Fringillidae, by R. Bowdler Sharpe Pp. 
XV, 871, Woodcuts and 16 coloured plates, 
1888, 8vo 28s. 

Vol. XIII. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Sturniformes containing the families Arfamidae. 
Sturnidae, Ploceidae, and Alaudidae. Also 
the families Atrichiidae and Menuridae, 
by R. Bowdler Sharpe, Pp. XVI; 701 Wood- 
cuts and 15 coloured plates, 1890. 8vo. ... 28s. 

Vol. XIV. Passeriformes or Perching Birds. 
Oligomyodœ or the familiesTyrannidae, Oxyram- 
phidae, Pipridse, Cotingidae, Phytotomidae, 
Philepittidae, Pittidas, Xenicidse, and Eurylae- 
midae, by Philip Lutley Sclater, Pp. XIX, 
424Woodcuts, and 26 coloured plates. 1888, 
8vo. ... ... ... 24s. 

Vol. XV. Passiformes, or Perching Birds. 
Tracheophonœ : or the families of Deudroco- 
laptidae, Formicariidae. Conopophagidae, and 
Pteroptochidae, by Philip Lutley Sclater. Pp. 
XVII. ; 371. Woodcuts and 20 coloured 
plates. 1890, 8vo ... ... .;. 20s. 

Vol. XVIII. Picariae Scansores containing the 
family of Picidae, by Edward Hargitt. Pp. 
XV., 527. Woodcuts and 15 coloured plates, 
1890, 8vo ... ... ... ... 26s. 

Vol. XIX. Picariae, Scansores and Coccyges, 
containing the families Ramphastidae Gal- 
bulidae and Bucconidss, by Fhilip Lutley 
Sclater and the families Indicatoridae, Capi- 
tonidae, Cuculidae, and Musophagidae, by G.E. 
Shelley. 484 pages. Woodcuts and 13 coloured 
plates, 1891, 8vo ... ... ... 25s. 

- Catalogue of the Tortoises, Crocodiles and 
Amphisbaenians in the Collection of the British 



October i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



75 



Ï ^e jamming $îrïr. 

La Vie Champêtre. 

From The Petit Journal, 26th July, 1891. 



LA DESTRUCTION DE LA LARVE DU HANNETON. 

Tous les insectes de la création (et il y en a près de 
300,000 espèces) sont actuellement dans la jubilation ; 
ils ont chaud et trouvent des victuailles en abon- 
dance. 

Malheureusement ces victuailles, ce sont nos 
récoltes qu'ils dévorent à belles dents ! 

Mais ils ne jubileront pas toujours. Les vers blancs 
surtout ! On ne parle actuellement, en effet, dans le 
monde agricole, que de l'étonnante découverte de M. 
Leopold Le Moult, relative à la destruction radicale 
des larves du hanneton. 

On sait que ces larves éclosent en juillet, passent 
trois ans dans le sol à ronger les racines des arbustes 
et des plantes et causent à l'agriculture des dégâts in- 
calculables. 

Or M. Leopold Le Moult, conducteur des ponts et 
chaussées à Gorron (Mayenne), s'inspirant des dé- 
couvertes de M. Pasteur et des expériences récentes 
de deux savants russes, a conçu l'idée de commu- 
niquer aux vers blancs une maladie contagieuse 
analogue à la muscardine des vers à soie. 

Il prend quelques larves malades, momifiées par 
une sorte de moisissure produite par un champignon 
microscopique, et les enterre dans un champ, auprès 
de vers sains. La contagion se propage et tous les 
vers du champ se trouvent atteints de la même ma- 
ladie. 

C'est l'année dernière que M. Le Moult a com- 
mencé ses expériences et j'en ai alors entretenu mes 
lecteurs. 

Cette année, dès le mois de mars, il a pu suivre le 
développement du champignon parasite sur les vers 
malades. 

Dès les premiers jours d'avril, les moisissures com- 
mençaient à devenir abondantes puis vers les derniers 
jours du mois, autour de chaque ver, la terre était 
traversée de nombreux filaments dont quelques-uns 
étaient couverts d'une matière farineuse qui, examinée 
au microscope, lui a paru composée de spores 
(semences) de champignons. 

Pendant que M. Le Moult faisait en petit des 
essais d'infestation, la nature qpérait de son côté, 
mais bien plus rapidement et bien plus efficacement 
qu'il ne pouvait le faire, le vent se chargeant de 
transporter les spores dans toutes les directions. 

" Comme nous assistions, dit-il, aux labours faits 
dans un champ distant de 140 mètres de la prairie 
où nous avions découvert la maladie, quelle n'a pas 
été notre surprise de voir la charrue ramener à la 
surface un nombre considérable de vers momifiés, à 
tel point que la terre paraissait avoir été récemment 
chaulée ! Or ce champ ne contenait au mois de 
novembre que des vers absolument sains. 



" Les fouilles que nous avons faites dans la 
prairie ont donc seules pu occasionner une aussi 
rapide propagation de la maladie, ces travaux ayant 
eu pour effet de découvrir les spores que le vent a 
certainement emportées en nombre très considérable 
et à des distances probablement très grandes. 

" Plus tard, en effet, nous avons constaté l'infesta- 
tion plus ou moins avancée de champs reconnus 
autrefois comme ne renfermant que des vers sains." 

Toutefois, ajoute M. Le Moult, l'action de la 
nature, si rapide qu'elle soit, ne l'est pas assez pour 
-débarrasser à bref délai l'agriculture française de ce 
terrible fléau et on doit l'aider dans son action, non 
seulement en transportant d'un terrain dans un autre 
des vers momifiés, mais surtout en produisant 
artificiellement et en grandes quantités les spores du 
champignon destructeur de façon à pouvoir les 
expédier dans toute la France. 

Il faut souvent se défier de l'enthousiasme des 
inventeurs, car ils voient tout en beau ; mais voici les 
observations plus calmes du professeur d'agriculture 
de la Mayenne, M. Leizour qui confirment complète- 
ment les étonnants résultats obtenus par M. Le Moult. 

M. Leizour, dans un récent rapport, vient de si- 
gnaler la disparition presque totale du ver blanc dans 
l'arrondissement de Mayenne, sous l'influence du cham- 
pignon découvert par M. Le Moult. 

" Nous touchons, dit-il, enfin a la destruction com- 
plète de ces larves qui, depuis si longtemps, désolaient 
les cultivateurs. 

" L'œuvre est à peu près accomplie dans tout l'ar- 
rondissement de Mayenne, que nous avons récemment 
parcouru et sur les divers points .duquel nous avons 
eu la satisfaction de constater, en même temps que la 
préseuce du champignon destructeur, l'arrêt complet 
des ravages occasionnés par la larve du hanneton." 

Partout cette larve travaillait encore activement il 
n'y a pas plut; de trois semaines, et beaucoup de 
champs d'orge et de sarrasin ont eu à en souffrir ; puis 
tout à coup on a vu les récoltes atteintes reverdir ; les 
vers avaient disparu comme par enchantement ! Cette 
disparition, attribuée d'abord à une descente pro- 
voquée par les pluies et l'abaissement très grand de la 
température du mois dernier, n'a été, au contraire, 
que la conséquence de la dissémination du champi- 
gnon parasite et de la contamination des insectes. 

On les trouve aujourd'hui à des profondeurs vari- 
ables, morts et entourés de la moisissure caractéri- 
stique ou mourants et présentant tous les caractères 
des vers atteints par le bienheureux champignon. 

Des essais exécutés en pleine terre à la fin de juin 
permettent d'affirmer qu'il suffit d'introduire quelques 
larves malades dans les champs infestés du ver blanc, 
en ayant soin de les mettre en contact immédiat avec 
quelques vers sains pour obtenir rapidement la destruc- 
tion de tous ceux qui existent dans le champ. 

On voit que la portée de cette découverte est con- 
sidérable. Le grand avantage de ce procédé c'est 
qu'il pourra peut-être s'appliquer à une foule d autres 
insectes qui causent également de grands ravages dans 
nos récoltes. 

D'après un rapport présenté au Sénat les dégâts 
causés par les insectes s'élèvent en France à plus de 
300 millions de francs. Et tout le monda sait 
qu'avant de se séparer, les Chambres ont été obligées 



7 6 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[October i, 1891 



de voter un nouveau crédit de 1,500,000 francs pour 
combattre les sauterelles d'Algérie. 

Cette multiplication effrayante des insectes dt toute 
nature vient surtout de l'aveuglement avec lequel on 
laisse détruire dans nos campagnes les petits oiseaux 
insectivores, qui seraient pour nous des auxiliaires 
bien précieux. 

Malheureusement, ces petits oiseaux sont excellents 
à manger. Alors le ventre avant tout ! Et on les 
mange. 

Un de nos confrères, M. Mégnien, attribuait récem- 
ment à la destruction insensée du gibier et surtout 
des cailles d'Afrique, la recrudescence du fléau des 
sauterel'es. 

Une caille consomme, dit-il, de 50 à 60 grammes 
de nourriture par jour. Des criquets qui viennent de 
naître sont du volume d'un grain de chènevis, et il en 
faut une vingtaine pour faire un gramme ; c'est donc 
un millier de ces insectes qu'une caille détruit dans sa 
journée; et de 20 à 25,000 pendant la période où le 
criquet est assez petit pour être absorbé par l'oiseau. 
Les chasseurs tunisiens qui pour satisfaire la cupidité 
des marchands de volailles ont embarqué le 8 mai 
50,000 cailles pour la France, ont donc empêché 
l'anéantissement de 150 millions de criquets. 

En France, la destruction des petits oiseaux est 
encore plus acharnée, si c'est possible, et l'on ne peut 
ouvrir un journal d'agriculture sans y trouver des 
détails navrants à ce sujet. 

Voici entre autres, un mode de destruction très 
pratiqué en Provence, destruction autorisée même 
sans permis, sous le fallacieux prétexte que c'est un 
gagne-pain indispensable pour les localités où on la 
pratique, et cette sorte de chasse ne s'adresse qu'à 
des oiseaux insectivores, c'est-à-dire à des petits 
oiseaux à becs fins. 

Je veux parler de la chasse avec des pièges en 
laiton système des anciennes ratières à ressort. Sur 
le littoral même et dans l'intérieur des terres, les 
habitants ont des centaines de ces pièges qu'ils 
amorcent avec des vers ou des fourmis ailées (arudes 
en provençal) et les pièges sont tendus plusieurs fois 
dans les jours de passage ; c'est-à-dire que c'est par 
milliers que ces petits oiseaux sont détruits. 

Une guerre d'extermination semblable est pra- 
tiquée au printemps le long des ruisseaux et on détruit 
ainsi avant la chasse des nichées tout entières. Plus 
tard c'est aux rossignols, puis aux rouges-gorges qu'on 
s'en prend ; et il en échappe fort peu. 

Tout cela est profondément regrettable. Il serait 
bien temps de nous montrer un peu plus intelligents 
et de faire cesser de tels abus. 

Un Rural. 

I agree entirely with the author of the preceeding 
article, and I will never cease to repeat, that it is quite 
time that something should be done by all Govern- 
ments for the protection of the songsters, thrushes, 
etc., which are the most useful auxilliaries of agricul- 
turists. 

What he says about France can be applied as well 
to all Europe. When residing in Italy, I was offered 
nearly every day, during the season, strings of 
warblers, redbreasts, and allied species of songsters, 
at halfpenny a piece ; and this was done in countries 



where those birds are badly wanted for the destruction 
of several insects, which cause great havoc in the 
olive-tree plantations. I called the attention of the 
authorities to the subject, and I believe that a 
short time after, a law was edicted about it ; but I 
do not know with what effect. 

What he says about the destruction of the larvae 
of the Maybug (Melolontha vulgaris) is also very 
interesting, and it is possible that a judicious 
employment of the infested larvœ will be the means 
of destroying partially or completely the injurious 
insects. 

It is the same procedure employed by Mr. 
Brongniart and others against the locusts, all of 
them inspired by the discoveries of the celebrated 
and well known Pasteur. 

The Editor. 



Recommendations for the Prevention of 
Damage by some Common Insect of 
the Farm, the Orchard, and the Garden. 

By James Fletcher, 

Entomologist and Botanist to Dominion Expérimentât 
Farms, Ottawa, Canada. 

♦ 

( Con tinned from page 73.) 

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO GRAIN AND 
FORAGE CROPS. 

1. The American Frit Fly. (Oscinis variabilis, 
Loew). — This is an insect which has only been 
recently noticed as a serious crop pest. Its life 
history has not yet been carefully worked out ; but it 
seems to be very similar to those of the Hessian fly 
and Wheat-stem Maggot. It is known that as a small 
yellowish-white maggot, one-twelfth of an inch in 
length, it attacks severely spring wheat and many 
grasses at the base of the stem, just beneath the sur- 
face of the ground, and also that it passes the winter 
in the same situation upon winter wheat and grasses, 
and may be found in the spring as a pale brown pupa 
one-tweltth of an inch in length. 

Remedies. — Until more is known definitely about 
the number of broods there are of this insect during 
the year, I would suggest the following : (i) Late 
sowing of winter-wheat ; (ii) Harrowing of stubble 
soon after the crop is carried, so as to start the volun- 
teer crop quickly, this latter to be ploughed in early 
in September ; (hi)' The application of a special 
fertilizer as a top-dressing when winter wheat is known 
to be attacked. This will help the injured plants 
to overcome the injury. 

2. Glover-seed Midge [Cecidomyia le gu minicola, 
Lintner).— The heavy loss from this insect in the 
clover-seed districts has awakened farmers to the 
necessity of practising the simple remedy advised by 
entomologists. This consists of feeding off or cut- 
ting clover before the end of June when the larva of 
the first brood matures and leaves the clover head 



Octobe 



r i. 



1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



77 



to enter the ground and complete its changes. The 
perfect insects, forming the second brood, emerge 
from the ground just as the second crop of clover is 
coming into flower, and the females lay their eggs 
amongst the forming blossoms. From these eggs 
hatch minute, pink, legless maggots, which penetrate 
the pod and destroy the seed. About the time the 
seed is ripe they leave the clover and enter the ground, 
to pass the winter and emerge again the next spring 
just at the same time the clover comes into flower. 

3. Hessian Fly (Cecidomyia destructor, Say). — 
Two or three small whitish maggots embedded in the 
crown of winter wheat, or, in summer, just above the 
first or second joint. When full grown these maggots 
harden and turn brown, when they resemble small 
flax seeds. These change to small smoky-winged 
gnats, which appear in spring and autumn. The vast 
losses due to this insect are too well known to farmers, 
and even then there is no doubt that only a small 
proportion of the damage is recognised as caused by it. 

Remedies. — (i.) Delay sowing winter wheat until 
after the third week in September, so that it does not 
come up until after the last brood of the Hessian Fly 
has disappeared ; (ii.) Burn all rubbish from the 
threshing machine : in this way many of the flax seeds 
or pupse will be destroyed as well as many weed seeds ; 
(iii 1 Harrow the stubble directly the crop is carried, 
so as to start a volunteer crop for the flies to lay their 
eggs upon — this latter to be ploughed in early in 
September; (iv.) Apply special fertilizers in spring to 
help a weak or injured crop to overcome the injury. 

4. The Pea Weevil (Bruchus fiisi, L.) — A small, 
brownish-grey, very active beetle, \ inch long, with 
two conspicuous black spots on the end of the body, 
which emerges from seed pease in autumn or in spring, 
leaving a small round hole. The egg is laid on the 
young pod and the grub eats its way into the pea, 
where it passes all ils stages, emerging the same 
autumn or the following spring. 

Remedies. — (i). Clean seed. Of great importance 
is sowing uninfested seed. When weevily pease are 
sown as seed the beetles emerge soon afterwards, and 
remain about the fields feeding on the plants until the 
young pods are formed. It is sometimes alleged that 
weevily pease are almost as good for seed as sound 
grain, and that the insect will not thrive in the colder 
parts of Canada. The use of weevily pease as seed 
is a great mistake, the germ of a very large proportion 
being, as a rule, destroyed, and those, which do ger- 
minate producing weak plants. Although I have 
found that extreme cold (below 15° below zero, Fah.) 
certainly killed the weevils in two samples of pease, it 
would be a most unjustifiable experiment to introduce 
infested seed into a district, trusting to the climate to 
destroy the weevils. In addition to this, the crop 
grown the first year from the infested seed would 
certainly be much injured. 

(ii.) Bisulphide of Carbon. — When seed is known 
to be infested there are several ways of destroying the 
contained insects. The remedy most widely used 
by seedsmen, who have all the conveniences, is to 
place the seed to be treated in some close vessel and 
subject it to the vapour of bisulphide of carbon. This 
chemical vaporises when exposed to the air, and the 
vapour is so much heavier than air that it will run 



down through the mass of any seed upon the top of 
which it has been placed, and will destroy all contai- 
ned insects. The quantity required is small, \ lb. 
being enough to disinfect 3 cwt. of pease. The 
method of using it is to place the grain in a perfectly 
tight bin or barrel, and then pour some of the bisul- 
phide into a shallow vessel and place it on the top, 
put on the cover and keep it tightly closed for 
forty-eight hours. The bisulphide does not injure 
the seed in any way, but it must be used with care, 
on account of its extreme inflammability. The seed 
must be emptied out, out of doors, and no light 
must be brought near it or an explosion will occur. 

(iii.) Warm Storage. — If seed pease are stored in a 
warm room, in bags of canvas or strong paper, 
during the winter the weevils will emerge and die 
before the seed is required for sowing. 

(iv.) Holding over Seed. — Pease can be held over 
until the second year after harvesting without injury, 
and the defective skin can be sorted out before 
sowing. 

(v.) Soaking. — If seed be found to contain weevils 
at the time of sowing, and it is inconvenient to hold 
it over, the weevils can be drowned by placing the 
seed in soak for twelve hours before sowing. It 
must, however, be sown or dried at once, when taken 
out of the water. 

5. Wheat Midge, "Weevil" {Diplosis tritici, 
Kirby). — Several small reddish maggots, \ inch long, 
crowding around the grains of wheat in the ear and 
causing them to shrivel. Some of these, when full 
grown, fall to the ground and pass the winter beneath 
the surface. Others remain in the ears of wheat and 
are harvested with the grain, 

Remedies. — (i.) Burn all rubbish and screenings 
from the threshing machine, particularly in localities 
where the midge is prevalent, (ii.) Deep ploughing 
as soon as the crop is carried. 

Wheat-stem Maggot (Meromyza Americana, 
Fitch). — A glassy-green, slender maggot, \ inch long, 
which attacks the base of the top joint of barley and 
wheat, causing the ear to turn white before the rest of 
the crop is ripe, also occurring in the root-shoots of 
winter wheat and rye and many grasses, where it passes 
the winter, to emerge the following spring as an 
active, yellowish-green fly, \ inch long, with shining 
green eyes and three dark stripes down the back. 

Remedies. — The same as recommended for No. 1, 
the American Frit-Fly. 

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO FRUITS. 

7. Apple Aphis {Aphis malt, Fabr.) — During the 
winter, small, shining black eggs may be found upon 
the twigst of apple trees. From these eggs, early in 
spring, emerge green plant-lice, which attack the 
leaves. 

Remedy. — Spray the trees, just before the buds 
burst, with kerosene emulsion. (Remedy II.) 
Apple Worm. — See Codling Moth. 

8. Beautiful Wood Nymph (Eudryas grata, 
Fabr). — On grape vines may be found, in the month 
of August, highly coloured caterpillars with the body 
blue, ringed with orange bands and fine black lines, 
head orange and the whole body dotted with black 



78 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[October i, 1891 



tubercles. These drop to the ground when full 
grown and turn to rough brown pupae beneath 
rubbish or near the surface of the ground. In the 
following spring the beautiful moth appears. The 
upper wings are creamy-white and seal-brown; the 
under wings, deep yellow, bordered with deep 
brown. 

Remedy. — Hand-picking is usually practicable. 
Where very numerous, spraying with white hellebore 
or Paris green may be used. (Remedies I. and III.) 

Borers (Apple) — See Nos. 12 and 25. 

9. Canker-Worms (Anisopteryx vernata, Peck, 
and A.pometararia, Harris). — There are two kinds of 
caterpillars which attack apple trees, and which are 
known as Canker-worms. Of one, the Spring 
Canker-worm, the wingless female moths appear 
chiefly in the spring and lay oval pearly-white eggs in 
irregular masses" beneath flakes of bark, etc. Of the 
other, the Autumn Canker-worm, most of the moths 
appear late in the season and lay eggs which are 
flattened at the top and laid regularly in clusters of 
about 100 or more on the outside of the bark. When 
full-grown the caterpillars of both are much alike, and 
are brownish-looking larvae, about an inch in length. 
The females of both kinds are spider-like, wingless 
creatures ; but the males are delicate moths, with 
gauzy gray wings. 

Remedy. — There are several mechanical con- 
trivances for keeping the females from ascending the 
trees to lay their eggs ; but none of these can com- 
pare for efficacy with spraying the trees in the spring 
time with Paris green, 1 pound to 200 gallons of 
water. If this be done immediately after the flowers 
have fallen both the Canker-worm and other leaf- 
eating insects, as well as the Codling Moth, will be 
killed at the same time. 

Cherry Slug. — See Pear-Tree Slug. 

10. Codling Moth., — (Carpocapsa pomonella, L.) 
— This is the destructive Apple-worm so well known 
to all growers and consumers of apples all over the 
world. The best remedy is spraying the trees once, 
immediately after the blossoms fall, with Paris green, 
at the rate of 1 pound to 200 gallons of water. 

CURRANT-WORM, GOOSEBERRY- WORM. See IM- 
PORTED Currant Saw-Fly. 

11. Fall Web-Worm (Hypantria cunea, Drury). — 
The unsightly webs made by colonies of this insect at 
the tops of branches upon fruit and shade-trees in 
the autumn are well known to everyone. 

Remedies. — The eggs are laid by the female moth 
during June, and the webs are generally noticeable 
in July. From the habit these caterpillars have of 
always remaining inside the web until a short time 
before they change to pupae, an easy way of dealing 
with this pest is to cut off the web and deStroy the 
contained caterpillars by crushing them under foot. 
If not attended to before they leave the web, of 
course, spraying the trees with Paris green will 
destroy this as well as all other leaf-eating insects. 

12. Flat-headed Apple-tree Borer [Chryso- 
bothris femorata. Fab.). — During June and July very 
active bronze beetles, about half an inch in length, 
may be found laying eggs upon the trunks and large 
limbs of apple, mountain ash and other trees. These 
eggs soon hatch into the curious flat-headed or horse- 



shoe-nail shaped grubs. These, after a time, eat into 
the trunk and bore broad and flat tunnels, which 
seriously injure the tree. 

Remedy. — Undoubtedly the best remedy for this 
and all other borers which, as a rule, confine their 
depredations to a certain part of a tree is of a 
preventive nature, and consists of applying an 
alkaline or poisonous wash to the trees just before 
the time the eggs are usually laid. For this purpose 
Remedy V. or VI. should be applied in the beginning 
and at the end of June. 

13. Grape-vine Flea-beetle {Graptodera chaly- 
bea, Illig). — At the time grape-vines are beginning to 
expand their buds a blue-black flea-beetle, J- inch 
long, is sometimes very abundant and injurious from 
destroying the buds and undeveloped flower-bunches. 

Remedies. — Spraying the vines with Paris green, 
\ lb. to 50 gallons of water, at the time the beetles 
appear, and clean culture in the autumn, by which all 
leaves and rubbish are destroyed, amongst which the 
mature beetles would pass the winter, are the best 
remedies. 

14. Grape-vine Leaf - hopper (Erythroneura 
vitis, Harris).- — This insect, generally known by the 
misleading name of "Thrip," is one of the worst 
enemies of the grape and ornamental Virginian 
creeper. Like the last-mentioned insect, it passes 
the winter in the perfect form beneath rubbish and 
clods of earth. Clean culture is therefore beneficial. 
When the insect is abundant its presence is indicated 
by the white and blotched appearance of the leaves. 
The most successful treatment is to syringe the vines, 
as soon as the leaf-hoppers are observed, with kerosine 
emulsion. (Remedy II.) 

15. Imported Currant-borer (Algeria tipuli' 
formis, L). — Early in June a beautiful little fly-like 

moth, with three bright yellow bands round the 
body, may be seen darting about among currant 
bushes. This is one of the most troublesome 
enemies of the different kinds of currants. In my 
experience it has been far more injurious to black 
currants ; but in some other parts of Canada it more 
generally affects the red and white varieties. The 
eggs are laid at a bud on the young wood, and the 
caterpillar when hatched eats its way into the cane 
and destroys the pith. It remains in the wood during 
the winter, and emerges the next June. 

Remedy. — The only remedy is close pruning, and 
whenever a hollow cane is detected in pruning, the 
caterpillar must be hunted out and destroyed. Indi- 
cations of the presence of the borer must also be 
looked for about the time the flowers are opening, 
when the leaves of unhealthy shoots have a less 
healthy appearance. 

16. Imported Currant Saw-fly (Nematus ribesii, 
Scop.). — Of all enemies to small fruits, there is not one 
perhaps which is more persistent than this insect. 
Soon after the leaves expand, early in May, the per- 
fect insects, which are a little larger than a house-fly, 
may be seen flying about beneath gooseberry and 
currant bushes. The eggs are laid in regular rows 
along the ribs beneath the lower leaves, and soon the 
well-known "Currant-worms " make their appearance. 

Remedies. — There are at least two broods in the 
season. The caterpillars of the first of these appear 



October i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



79 



in May, and for this first brood only a weak mixture of 
Paris green (J oz. to a pailful of water is sufficient) 
may be sprayed on the bushes, or a dry mixture of 
i oz. of Paris green to 6 lbs. flour, well mixed to- 
gether, may be dusted over the bushes after a shower, 
or when damp with dew. For the second brood of 
caterpillars, which appears just before the fruit ripens, 
Paris green must on no account be used, owing to its 
poisonous nature ; but instead of it white hellebore, 
dusted on dry or in water, i ox. to a pailful of water. 

17. Oyster-Shell Bark - Louse (Mytilaspis 
pomorum, Bouché).— Some might not at first 
recognise as insects the little roughnesses on the bark 
of apple trees. Such however they are, and extremely 
injurious insects too. Their life history is peculiar. 
About the 1st June minute white mite-like insects, 
with six legs, emerge from beneath the scales on the 
bark and for two or three days run about seeking for 
a suitable place to attach themselves. They then 
pierce the young bark with their beaks and live on 
the sap of the tree. They never move from that 
place again. The waxy scale is gradually secreted, 
and by August the insect has transformed itself into a 
scale covering a cluster of eggs. These remain un- 
changed through the winter, and the young do not 
hatch again until the next June. 

Remedies. — This insect, like many others, thrives 
most on unhealthy trees. When detected, therefore, 
measures should be adopted for inducing a vigorous 
growth, as well as for the removal of the scale insects. 
Spraying just before the buds open with kerosene 
emulsion (Remedy II.) will destroy many of the 
scales — and again at the time the young lice are 
active, for at this time they are most susceptible to 
injury. Scrubbing the trunks and branches of young 
trees with alkaline washes (Remedy V. and VI.) during 
the winter or early in spring will also keep down the 
numbers of this pernicious insect. 

18. Pear-tree Slug (Selandria cerasi, Peck). — 
In June and August slimy greenish-brown slug-like 
caterpillars, \ inch long, occur on the leaves of pear 
and cherry trees, feeding on the upper surface. 

Remedies. — The same as for No. 16. 

19. Plum Curculio {Conotrachelus nenuphar, 
Herbst.) — There is perhaps no insect so well known 
by name as the Plum Curculio. The perfect insect 
belongs to the family known as snout-beetles, from the 
shape of the head, which is elongated into a beak. It 
is a small, rough, grayish beetle about I inch long. 
The females lay their eggs in the young fruit of 
plums and cherries, frequently destroying the whole 
crop. 

Remedies. — The beetles are sluggish in the early 
morning, and drop from the trees if a sudden jar be 
given to the trunk. For this purpose a metal spike 
is driven into the trunk, which is struck sharply with 
an iron hammer. This gives the sharp jar necessary 
to dislodge beetles which fall on sheets or into 
receptacles placed beneath the trees. They are then 
collected and destroyed. 

Of late years abundant evidence has proved the 
efficacy of spraying the trees, as soon as the fruit has 
formed, with Paris green, 1 pound to 200 gallons of 
water, and ten days afterwards a second time with a 
weaker mixture, 1 pound to 300 gallons. Should 



heavy rains occur immediately after these sprayings 
they must be repeated. 

20. Raspberry Borer (Oberea bimaculata, Oliv). 
— Towards the end of June the tips of the young 
shoots of raspberries may frequently be seen to fade 
and droop. If these be examined there will be found, 
at the base of the faded portion, two rows of punctures 
half an inch apart, and between them a small hole 
leading into the heart of the cane, where one large 
yellow egg lies embedded. After a few days this egg 
hatches, and the young grub eats its way down the 
centre of the stem towards the root. It becomes full 
grown about August, when it is about f inch long. 
The perfect insect emerges the next June as a narrow 
black beetle, with long feelers, and the thorax or 
middle portion of the body yellow, and bearing 
three black spots. It also attacks the blackberry. 

Remedy. — This is simple, but requires prompt 
action. The faded shoots are quite conspicuous, and 
when seen should at once be picked off. They 
separate from the cane with a light touch, and when 
removed the girdled portion should be examined, to 
see that the grub has not hatched and bored down 
into the stem. 

21. Raspberry-cane Maggot (Anthomya?). — 
There is another pest which affects the young wood 
of raspberries similarly ; but does not produce the 
two rings of punctures. This is the maggot of a 
small black fly which lays a single egg in the axil of 
one of the upper leaves. The young maggot bores 
down the stem until full grown, and then changes to a 
brown puparium inside the stem. 

Remedy. — After a time the young cane turns black 
at the tip and must be cut down as soon as seen. 
This is a more injurious pest than the last, where it 
occurs, because it burrows further down the stem 
before the indications of its presence are visible. 

22. Raspberry Saw-fly {Selandria rubi, Harris). 
— About the time raspberries are in flower the leaves 
are noticed to be riddled with small holes. On 
examination this will be found to be the work of a 
green, bristly caterpillar. From the close resemblance 
in colour to the leaves on which they feed, these 
caterpillars are seldom recognized as the cause of the 
injury. They disappear from the canes before July, 
and form oval cocoons beneath the ground. From 
these the perfect insect, a small, dark, four-winged 
fly, \ inch long, appears the next May. 

Remedy. — Sprinkle the foliage as soon as the cater- 
pillar's work is detected with white hellebore, 1 oz. in 
a pailful of water. 

23. Raspberry Plume-moth. (Oxyptilus nigro- 
ciliatus, Zeller). — In June another small caterpillar, 
somewhat like the last, but with finer bristles and of 
a paler green colour, may be found injuring the foliage 
in a very similar manner to the last. This, however, 
turns to a very beautiful little moth, bronze, dotted 
with silvery white, which may be found flying about 
the canes in July. 

Remedy.— The same as for No. 22. 

24. Red-humped Caterpillar of the Apple 
[Oedemasia concinna, Sm. Ab.). — Late in summer large 
clusters of voracious waxy-looking, yellow, white and 
black caterpillars, with their heads and a hump on the 
fourth ring of the body of a bright red, are sometimes 



8o 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



\ October i, 1891 



found on young apple trees, to which, unless they are 
removed, they are very destructive. Late in autumn 
they leave the trees and spin close but thin cocoons 
amongst fallen leaves. The caterpillars remain in 
these unchanged until the next spring, and the small 
brown moths emerge during June and July. 

Remedy. — These catterpillars are nearly always 
found on young apple trees within reach from the 
ground. When this is the case the branch can be cut 
off and the caterpillars crushed under foot. When too 
high up for this a spraying with Paris green would 
dispose of them. 

25. Round-headed Apple Tree Borer (Saperda 
Candida, Fab.). — This borer nearly always works near 
the base of the tree it infests. The grub is much 
thicker than that of the flat-headed borer, and takes 
three years, instead of one, to complete its changes. 
The beetle is pale-brown with two white stripes down 
the body. It is shaped somewhat like No. 15, but is 
stouter and about f of an inch long. 

Remedies. — During the first year the grub lives 
just beneath the bark in the sap wood, hollowing out 
a chamber about an inch or more in diameter. The 
bark becomes discoloured in a characteristic way 
which is soon recognised. It is also betrayed to the 
experienced eye by the castings which it pushes out of 
its burrows. By cutting through the bark the grub 
can be destroyed. If it has penetrated into the wood 
it can be killed with a piece of stout wire. 

The best remedy, is undoubtedly, a regular treat- 
ment every June with deterrent washes. See 
Remedies V. and VI. 

26. Tent Caterpillars {Clisiocampa Americana, 
Harris, and C. disstria, Hubn.). — The caterpillars, 
which make the large, unsightly webs too often seen 
in the forks of branches of fruit and shade trees, hatch 
in May from rings of eggs which have been on the 
twigs of the trees all through the winter. They grow 
rapidly, and the perfect insect, an active brown moth, 
with two white bands across the wings, comes out in 
July. These insects are so well known that further 
description is unnecessary. 

Remedies. — Where apple trees are sprayed for 
coddling moth these caterpillars will also be des- 
troyed. Hand-picking of the eggs in winter, and 
cutting off the webs when first formed in May, and 
when, owing to the sparseness of the foliage, they are 
very conspicuous, are both practical remedies. 

INSECTS INJURIOUS TO ROOTS AND 
VEGETABLES. 

27. Cabbage Aphis {Aphis brassicœ, L.). — Grey 
plant-lice are frequently very troublesome during the 
summer on cabbages, and in August and September 
on smooth-leaved turnips. 

Remedies. — (i.) In years of only moderate attack 
good results have been obtained by picking off the 
first clusters of plant-lice by hand and destroying 
them. 

(ii.) The most satisfactory treatment, however, was 
upon a crop of heavily infested Swedish turnips with 
kerosene emulsion. This must be applied by means 
of a force-pump and spray-nozzle, so set that the 



spray may be thrown under the leaves where the 
plant-lice congregate. 

(iif.) Prof. J. B. Smith recommends very highly 
whale-oil soap, 1 lb. to 8 gallons of water for all 
plant-lice. 

28. Cabbage Maggot {Anthomyia brassicœ, 
Bouché). — From' one to many white maggots attack 
the roots of young cabbages as soon as pricked out. 
These are produced from eggs laid by small gray 
flies, one-third smaller than house flies. 

Remedies. — (i.) White hellebore, 2 oz. in a pailful 
of water, or (ii.) kerosene emulsion (Remedies II. and 
III.), syringed around the roots, and the earth kept 
well hoed up to the collar, have proved useful 
remedies ; (iii.) Nitrate of soda, 1 tablespoonful 
around each plant, is highly recommended. 

Cabbage Worm. — See Imported Cabbage Butter- 
fly. 

29. Colorado Potato Beetle (Doryphora 
10-lineata, Say). — In reply to frequent enquiries, I 
would state that for this insect no remedy can com- 
pare with Paris green, 1 lb. to 160 gallons of water 
( — 1 oz. to 10 gallons). It is at once the cheapest 
and easiest applied remedy known. 

30. Cucumber Flea-beetle {Epitrix cucwneris, 
Harris). — Very small black flea-beetles, with yellowish 
legs and feelers and covered with short, silky 
pubescence which eat a great many small holes in the 
leaves of cucumbers, potatoes, etc., etc. 

Remedies. — These can be easily controlled by 
dusting Paris green and flour, 1 part to 50 of the 
diluent (Remedy I), over the plants when the dew is 
on them. 

31. Cut-worms (Noctuidœ). — These troublesome 
pests, which are doubtless the cause of more loss 
to farmers in the spring months than any other 
insects, are the caterpillars of a number of different 
dull-coloured moths which fly at night. The worms 
are smooth greasy-looking dark caterpillars, ranging 
from about -J an inch to 2 inches in length at the 
time they injure crops. They feed at night and hide 
during the day time. The eggs of most species are 
laid in autumn, and the young caterpillars make 
about a quarter of their growth before winter sets in. 
They pass the winter in a torpid condition, and are 
ready in spring to attack the young crops as soon as 
they come up. The full growth of most species is 
completed by the first week in July, when the cater- 
pillar forms a cell in the earth and changes to a 
chrysalis, from which the moth appears about a month 
later. 

Remedies. — (i.) Clean Culture. As the young 
caterpillars of many species hatch in autumn, 
the removal of all vegetation from the ground 
as soon as possible in autumn deprives them of 
their food supply and also prevents the late- 
flying moth from laying their eggs in that locality. 
Fields or gardens which are allowed to become over- 
grown with weeds or other vegetatiou late in the 
autumn are almost sure to be troubled with cut- 
worms the next spring. 

(ii.) Traps. — Large numbers may be destroyed by 
placing between the rows of m infested crop, or at 
short distances apart on infested land, bundles of any 



October i, 189 1] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



81 



succulent weed or other vegetation which has been 
previously poisoned by dipping it, after tying in 
bundles, into a strong mixture of Paris green. The 
cut-worms eat the poisoned plants and bury them- 
selves and die. In hot, dry weather these bundles 
should be placed out after sun-down, and a shingle 
may he placed on each to keep it from fading. 

(iii.) Banding and Wrapping, (a.) It will be found 
to well repay the trouble and expense to place a band 
of tin around each cabbage or other plant at the time 
of setting out. These may very easily be made by 
taking pieces of tin 6 inches long and 2.\ wide and 
bending them around a spade or broom handle so as 
to form short tubes. In placing them around a plant 
the two ends can be sprung apart to admit the plant, 
and then the tube should be pressed about half an 
inch into the ground. I have found this a useful 
means of disposing of empty tomato and other cans. 
To prepare these easily they need only be thrown into 
a bonfire, when the tops and bottoms fall off and the 
sides become unsoldered. The central piece of tin 
can then be cut down the centre with a pair of shears, 
and forms two tubes. 

(£) Wrapping a piece of paper round the stems of 
plants when setting them out will also save a great 
many. 

(c.) Hand-picking or digging out the cut-worm 
whenever a plant is seen to be cut off should, of 
course, always be practised. 

Natural Enemies. — There are two enemies which 
deserve special notice, and, from the service they do, 
should be known by sight to every cultivator. They 
are the Fiery Ground-beetle, or Cut-worm Lion 
(Calosoma calidum, Fab.) and the Black Ground 
Wasp {Ammophila luctuosa). Both of these are 
desperate enemies of cut-worms, the former feeding 
on them in all of its stages, the latter digging them 
out and storing its nest with them as food for its 
young grubs. 

32. Imported Cabbage Butterfly (Pieris rapœ, 
L.). — The white butterflies which fly over cabbage 
beds during summer lay eggs on the leaves, from 
which are hatched the troublesome cabbage-worms. 

Remedies. — The best remedy for this insect is 
undoubtedly insect powder, diluted with four times its 
weight of common flour, as directed under Remedy 
IV. 

33. Onion Maggot {Phorbia ceparum, Meigen.) — 
Equalling in destructiveness and more difficult to deal 
with than the Cabbage and Radish Maggots, is the 
Onion Maggot. 

Remedies. — Rich, well-worked soil and early planting 
are advised. 

(i.) Kerosene emulsion watered along the rows 
when the onions are found to be infested has proved 
successful. 

(ii.) A sprinkling of gas-lime, sown broadcast over 
the beds every two weeks, was also found to protect 
the crops considerably, and was thought to act as a 
good fertilizer. 

Suggestion. — I would suggest the use of Nitrate of 
Soda, at the rate of 200 lbs. to the acre ; this is a 
valuable fertiliser, and has been found of marked use 
in checking the ravages of the Cabbage Maggot. 



34. Radish Maggot {Anthomyia radicum, Bouché). 
— The most serious pest of radishes is the root 
maggot. This is the larval form of a small fly closely 
resembling the fly of the Onion maggot. 

Remedies. — Early sowing and the use of new 
ground are recommended, but are by no means sure 
remedies. I have obtained the best results from 
using Prof. A. J. Cook's carbolic wash, Remedy IV. 
The use of salt and gas lime are also beneficial, but 
are not infallible remedies. 

35. Squash Bug (Anasa tristis, De Geer). — 
Numbers of large, ill-smelling, dark-brown bugs, paler 
beneath, 4 inch long, clustering round squash vines 
about the end of June and sucking the tops. The 
eggs are laid on the leaves, and the young are soon 
found with the full grown bugs. 

Remedies. — Constant hand-picking, from the vines 
when they first appear, and by placing shingles close 
to the hills beneath which the bugs hide during the 
day time, are generally effective. Coal oil and plaster 
scattered amongst the vines will drive away many. 

36. Striped Cucumber Beetle {Diabrotica 
vittata, Fab.). — As soon as squash, cucumber or 
melon plants appear above the ground they are 
attacked by small, yellow-striped beetles, which, if not 
noticed, will soon destroy the plants. 

Remedies. — Sifting dry ashes and Paris green (1 to 
50) over the vines is the best application to protect 
the vines. Ashes alone are also useful. A remedy 
much adopted in the United States is described by 
Dr. C. M. Weed in a Bulletin of the Ohio Agricul- 
tural Exper't. Station for September, 1889, and con- 
sists of covering the vines with a piece of gauze or 
cheesecloth, supported by two or three sticks stuck 
into the ground, and with the edges held down by a 
handful of earth on each side. 

37. Turnip Flea-beetle {Phyllotreta vittata,Ysb.). 
— There is, perhaps, no insect better known or more 
execrated by farmers than "the fly" or flea-beetle of 
the turnip. The perfect beetles, black, with white 
marks on the wings, pass the winter beneath rubbish 
or clods of earth, and appear on various plants of the 
cress family early in spring. As soon as the young 
turnips appear they attack the seed leaves, and very 
frequently destroy the whole crop. The grub state is 
passed underground on the roots of plants of the 
cress family. 

Remedies. — I have found the most successful treat- 
ment of this insect to be the sowing of perfectly dry 
land plaster or ashes, with 50 parts of which 1 part of 
Paris green had been mixed (Remedy I.) Other 
experimenters speak highly of a decoction of waste 
factory tobacco, 1 lb. in 2 or 3 gallons of water. This 
latter remedy is useful upon Garden Cress, where 
Paris green cannot be used. See also remedy for 
No. 36. 

I think that the publication in The Humming 
Bird of this very valuable and interesting notice, for 
which I congratulate sincerely the author, Mr. James 
Fletcher, will be of use to British farmers and others. 

The Editor. 



83 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[October i, 1891 



A Visit to the British Museum. 
Natural History Department. 



Continued from page 69. 

There are no reasons whatever why the Public 
Collections of Insects should not be as important as 
the others, especially so when so many thousands of 
duplicates, quite useless to the students, are stored 
in the cabinets in the Insect Room, to no purpose 
whatever. Even if they are to be lost by exposure, 
which is not the case, it would be very easy to 
renovate them from time to time at a very small cost. 

When it is considered that Insects are represented 
in nature by hundreds of thousands of species, and 
their great importance in agriculture, it is my opinion 
that they ought to be even more fully represented 
in the public galleries than any of the other sections. 

I am certain that extensive collections of all the 
insects, useful, neutral or injurious to agriculture, 
would draw a large number of visitors, and what 
could possibly be more instructive and interesting 
than such a collection? 

Also fine series of as many species of Insects 
Coleoptera (Beetles), Lepidoptera (Butterflies and 
Moths), Neuroptera (Dragon-flies), Orthoptera Grass- 
hoppers, Crickets, etc.), Hymenoptera (Bees, Wasps, 
etc.), Diptera (Flies), and all other orders, would be a 
great attraction for the public. 

In the last Paris International Exhibition, 1889, 
I exhibited in the Pavilion of Guatemala a collection 
of about 8,000 species of American Coleoptera 
(Beetles), and a few cases of rare and fine species of 
Butterflies, and, during all the time of the exhibition, 
thousands of visitors came daily to admire the said 
collection, and asking me no end of questions about 
the insects exhibited, showing the interest it had for 
them. 

From this I can conjecture that a really good col- 
lection from all parts of the world, including as many 
of the principal types and fine species as possible of 
all the orders of insects, should obtain an immense 
success, providing that the specimens exhibited 
should be the best of their kind. 

It is quite erroneous to believe that the public do 
not appreciate what is really fine, it is just the 
reverse. 

Actually what is exhibited is really very poor, and it 
is impossible to have any idea of what insects are with 
such an exhibition. 

During this year I have had the visit of several 
Entomologists from S. Africa, West Indies, India 
and other countries, and the first question asked was : 
" Where is the Public Collection of Insects of the 
British Museum?" They could riot believe that 
what they saw was the Public Collection. 

Of course, I told them that the Scientific Collec- 
tions were stored in the Insect Room and how they 
could get an entrance, but that did not satisfy 
them. 

It is a fact that many visitors will delight to go in 
a public museum where the entrance is free to all, 
but when it comes to ask for a favour, which they 



may or may not obtain, they do not like to run that 
risk, and it happens that they return to their coun- 
tries with a very false impression of what really are 
the collections of the British Museum. 

REPTILE GALLERY. 

In this gallery can be seen a fine collection of 
stuffed specimens and skeletons of Reptiles, including 
Crocodiles, Lizards, Snakes and Tortoises. It con- 
tains examples of all the forms of general interest. 

The series of Crocodilians (cases 1 to 10) is a very 
good one, it contains nearly all the species known. 
The true Crocodiles are represented by the African, 
Indian, Asiatic and Australian species, and the Alli- 
gators (with the exception of one species found in 
China) which are from America. 

Case 10 contains a series of Skulls. 

Case n contains the Order Rhvncocephalia, of 
which only one species has survived to our period. 
It is the Tatuera of the Maoris or Hatteria of 
Naturalists. 

It is the largest of the reptiles inhabiting New 
Zealand, but scarcely attains to a length of two feet. 
It is restricted to a few small islands of the Bay of 
Plenty, where it lives in holes, feeding on other small 
animals. An example of this interesting reptile with 
skeleton and skulls is exhibited. 

The Order Lacertilia, or Lizards, comprises over 
1600 species, many of which are exhibited in cases 
11 — 22, beginning with the Geckonidce, or Geckos, 
found in almost every part of the globe, between and 
near the tropics, frequenting houses, rocks and trees. 
In Vera Cruz, " Mexico " they affect particularly the 
lamp-posts, on which I have collected many at 
night. 

With few exceptions they are nocturnal, and feed 
largely on insects. They possess the faculty of 
ascending smooth surfaces, even glass. For this 
purpose the lower surface of their toes is provided 
with a series of moveable plates or discs, by the aid 
ot which they adhere to the surface over which they 
pass. 

In cases 11 — 17 are exhibited the Varanidae or 
Water- Lizards. A few Vara?zusgriseus, etc. are terrestrial, 
but the majority are semi-aquatic. The principal 
species exhibited are Varanus giganteus from N. 
Australia ; Varanus salvator from the Indian Archi- 
pelago ; Varanus bengalensis from India and Varanus 
niloticus from tropical Africa. 

Case 18 contains the remarkable Heloderma horri- 
dum from Western Mexico. It is the only lizard 
whose bite is poisonous. Its teeth are fang-like pro- 
vided with a deep groove as in some snakes, and the 
submaxillary gland is enormously developed and 
secretes the poisonous fluid. Another species Helo- 
derma suspectum has been discovered a few years ago. 
In the same case are exhibited several other rare 
species of lizards, Tupinambis teguexim and nigro- 
punctatus, attaining to a length of four feet ; the rare 
Dracaena guianensis from Guiana ; several specimens 
of Amphisbenidae, worm-like reptiles, Lacertidae, 
lizards proper, Anguidea or Blindworms ; the Pseudopus 
pallasii or Glass-Snake and many others. 

(To be continued.} 



October i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



Museum, by Dr. J. E. Gray, Pp. VIII. 80. 
1844, 8vo. ... ... ... ... is. 

Catalogue of the Chelonians, Rhynocephalians. 
and Crocodiles m the British Museum. 
New Edition, by George Alfred Boulanger. 
Pp. X. 311. 73 woodcuts and 6 plates, 1889, 
8vo ... ... ... ... ... 15s. 

Gigantic Land Tortoises (living and extinct) in 
the Collection of the British Museum. By 
Albert C. L. G. Gunther. Pp. IX, 96, 55 
plates and 2 Charts of the Aldabra group 
of Islands, north west of Madagascar (with a 
Systematic Synopsis of the Extinct and Living 
Gigantic Land Tortoises) 1877, 4to 30s. 

Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum. 
Second Edition, by George Albert Boulenger, 
Vol. I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, 
Pygopodidse, Agamidae. Pp. XII. 436. 32 
plates 1885, 8vo ... ... ... 20s. 

Vol. II. Iguanidae, Xenosauridee, Zoniiridae, An- 
guidae, Anniellidae, Helodermatidae, Varanidae, 
Xantusiidae, Teiidas, Amphisbaenidae. Pp. 
XIII. 497, 24plates ; 1885, 8vo ... 20s. 

Vol. III. Lacertiidae, Gerrhosauridae, Scincidae, 
Anelytropidas, Dibamidas, Chamaeleontidae. 
Pp. XII. 575. 40 plates, T887, 8vo. 26s. 

Catalogue of Colubrine Snakes in the Collection 
of the British Museum, by Dr. Albert 
Gunther. Pp. XVI. 281. 1858, i2mo. 4s. 

Catalogue of the Batrachia Salientia in the Col- 
lection of the British Museum, by Dr. Albert 
Gunther, Pp. XVI. 160. 12 plates. 1858, 8vo 6s. 

Catalogue of the Batrachia, Salientia, s. Ecaudata 
in the Collection of the British Museum. 
Second edition, by George Albert Boulenger. 
Pp. XVI. 503. Woodcuts and 30 plates, 
1882, 8vo. ... ... .. ... 30s. 

Catalogue of the Batrachia, Gradientia, s. Gra- 
dentia, s. Caudata and Batrachia Apoda in the 
Collection of the British Museum. Second 
Edition, by George Albert Boulenger. Pp. 
XIII; 127, 9 plates, 1882, 8vo ... 9s. 

Catalogue of the Fishes in the Collection of the 
British Museum, by Dr. Albert Gunther. 

Vol. II. Squamipinnes, Cirrhitidae, Triglidae, to 
Xiphiidae. Pp. XXL, 548. i860. 8vo... 8s. 6d. 

Vol. III. Gobiidae, Discoboli to Notacanthi. Pp. 
XXV ; 586. Woodcuts, 1861, 8vo ... 10s. 6d. 

Vol. IV. Acanthopterygi, Pharyngognathi Ana- 
canthini. Pp. XXI, 534, 1862. 8vo... 8s. 6d. 

Vol. V. Siluridaa, Characinidae to Stomiatidae. 
Pp. XXII, 455. Woodcuts, 1864, 8vo 8s. 

Vol. VI. Salmonidae, Percopsidae to Cyprinodon- 
tidae. Pp. XV, 368. Woodcuts, 1866, 
8vo ... ... ... ... ... 7s. 

Vol. VII Heterophygi, Cyprinidae to Halosauri. 
dae. Pp. XX, 512. Woodcuts, 1868, 8vo. 8s. 

Vol. VIII Gymnotidae, Symbranchidae to Lep- 
tocardu, Pp. XXV. 549. 1870 8vo ... Ss. 6d. 

Guide to the Systematic Distribution of Mollusca 
in the British Museum. Part 1, by John Ed- 
ward Gray. Pp. XII, 320, 121 Woodcuts, 
1857, 8vo ' 5 s. 



— Catalogue of the Collection of Mazatlan Shells in 

the British Museum, collected by Frederick 
Reigne, by Philip P. Carpenter, Pp. XVI, 552, 
1847, 8vo 8s. 

— Catalogue of the specimens of Amphipodous 

Crustacea in the collection of the British 
Museum by Spence Bate. Pp. IV, 399, 58 
plates, 1862, 8vo ... ... ... 25s. 

" For all the other publications of the British 
Museum, apply at Naturalist's Agency." 

Buffon (Suites à) — Zoologie générale, par M. Isidore 
Geoffroy, Saint Hilaire, 1 vol. in 8vo, avec 1 
livraison de planches figures noires ... 10s. 

Ditto ditto coloriées ... ... ... 14s. 

— Cétacés, Baleines Dauphins, etc., par M. Cuvier. 

1 vol. in 8vo, et 2 livraisons de planches 
noires ... ... ... ... ... 12s. 

Ditto ditto coloriées ... ... 18s. 

— Reptiles, Serpents, Lézards, Grenouilles, etc., 

par M. Duméril, 10 vol. in 8vo et 10 livrai- 
sons de planches noires ... ... 84s. 

Ditto ditto coloriées .. ... 132s. 

— Poissons, par M. A. Duméril, Tome I et II, en 

3 vol. et 2 livr. de planches, fig. noires 24s. 
Coloriées ... ... ... .. 30s. 

(En cours de publication.') 

— Introduction à l'entomologie, par M. Lacordaire, 

2 vol.,et 2 livraisons,de planches noires 17s. 
Ditto ditto coloriées ... ... 20s. 

— Insectes Coléoptères (appelé vulgairement. 

Genera Lacordaire), par Mess. Lacordaire et 
Chapuis, Tome I à XII, complet en 14 vol. 
et 13 livraisons de planches noires... 11 6s. 
Ditto ditto coloriées... ... ... 16 os 

{Livre indispensable pour un entomologiste.) 

— Orthoptères, par M. Serville, 1 vol. et 1 livr. 

deplanches noires ... ... . . 8s. 6d 

Ditto ditto coloriées ... ... 12s. 

— Hémiptères, par Mess. Amyot et Serville, 1 vol. 

et 1 livr. planches noires ... ... 8s. 6d. 

Ditto ditto coloriées ... ... ... 12s. 

— Lépidoptères duirnes, par M. Boisduval, Tome 1 

avec 2 livr. planches noires ... 11 s. 6d. 

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— ■ Lépidoptères nocturnes, par Mess. Boisduval 
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— Névroptères, par M. Rambur, r vol. et 1 livr. 

de planches noires ... ... ... 8s. 6d. 

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— Hyménoptères, 4 vol. et 4 livr. de planches 

noires par Mess, de St.Fargeau et Brullé 34s. 
Ditto ditto coloriées... ... ... 45s 

— Diptères, par M. Macquart, 2 vol. et 2 livr. de. 

planches noires ... .. ... 17s. 

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— Aptères, par MM. Walckenaer et Gervais, 4 vol. 

et 5 livr. de planches noires... ... 38s. 

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— Crustacés, par Mr. Milne Edwards, 3 vol. et 4 

livr. de planches noires ... ... 30s. 

Ditto ditto coloriées ... ... ... 40s. 



VI 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[October i, 1891 



Boisduval — Lépidoptères de la Californie, Bruxelles, 
1869, br. in 8vo ... ... ... 4s. 

Bonaparte — Conspectus generum avium, 1850-1857. 
2 vol. ... ... ... ... ... 50s. 

— Geographical and Comparative list of the birds 

of Europe and North America, 8vo... 6s. 

Clara y Sucinta Exposicion del pequeno Catecismo 
impreso en el idioma Mexicano, por un 
Sacerdote devoto de la Madré santissima de 
la Luz, etc. Puebla, 18 19. 1 Vol., 67 double 
pages, one side in Mexican, the other in 
Spanish ... ... ... ... 40s. 

Candèze — Histoire des métamorphoses de quelques 
coléoptères exotiques, Liège, 1861, 1 vol. in 
8vo, 6 planches noires ... ... 2s. 6d. 

— Monographie des Elatérides, Liège, 1857-1863, 

4 vol. in 8vo, 25 pi. noires ... ... 32s. 

— Elatérides nouveaux (Complément à la mono- 

graphie), Brux. 1864, in 8vo, br. ... is. 6d. 

Castelnau et Blanchard — Histoire naturelle des In- 
sectes, avec une introduction par Brullé, 3 vol. 
in 8vo... ... . ... ... 40s. 

Catalogue des Coléoptères d'Europe (extrait du 
Généra des Coléoptères d'Europe de Jacquelin 
du Val et Fairmaire) vol. in 6 ... 3s. 6d. 

Catalogue of Coleopterous Insects in the collection of 
the British Museum, with descriptions of new 
species. 

— Longicornia, Part I. et IL, par Adam White, 

2 vol. in 8vo ... ... ... ... 8s. 

— Cassididae, par Boheman, 1 vol. in 8vo... 5s. 

— Cucujidse, par J. Ed. Gray ,, ,, ... is. 

— Cleridse, par Adam White ,, ,, ... 2s. 6d. 

— Passalidse, Buprestidae, par Smith, 1 vol. 

in 8vo... ... ... ... ... is. 

Chenu — Leçons élémentaires sur l'histoire naturelle, 

. Conchyologie, Paris, 1847, 1 vol. gr. in 8vo, 

planches coloriées ... ... ... 20s. 

— Manuel de Conchyologie et Paléontologie con- 

chyologique contenant la description et la 
représentation de près de 5,000 coquilles. 
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coloriées ... ... ... ... 30s. 

— Encyclopédie d'histoire naturelle, ou Traité com- 

plet de cette science :— Mammifères, 5 vol. ; 
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Crustacés, Mollusques, et Zoophytes, 1 vol. ; 
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tout complet ... ... ... ... 100s. 

chaque volume séparément ... ... 5s, 

Crotch — Synopsis coleopterum europse et confinium. 
London, 1871, in 8vo ... ... 2s. 

— Check List of the Coleoptera of America, north 

of Mexico, Salem, Mass., in 8vo ... 6s. 

— Catecismo y Declaracion de la Doctrina Chris- 

tiana en lengua Otomi, con un Vocabulario 
del mismo idioma, por el R. P. Joaquin Lopez 
Yepes, Mexico, 1826. 1 Vol. in 4to, 254 
pages ••• ••■ ... ... 60s. 

Degland et Gerbe — Ornithologie européenne, 2 eme édi- 
tion, Paris, 1867 ... ... ... 24s. 



Deyrolle, Henri, Description des Buprestides de la 
Malaisie, recueillis par Wallace, 1865, 1 vol. 
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Diagrams of Natural History, edited by A. Boucard. 
20 sheets, 18-in. by 24-in., comprising 166 
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beautifully printed in colours, and 37 Natural 
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mounted on very stout cardboard, the set 
complete, with Manual ... ... 40s. 

{Quite indispensable for a school.} 
Duponchel — Catalogue méthodique des Lépidoptères 
d'Europe, Fort vol. in 8vo, de 523 pages 
broché... ... ... ... ... 6s. 

Duponchel et Guénée — Iconographie et histoire natu- 
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ques planches gravées et coloriées, nouvelle 
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Entomologist's Annual 1855-1891, foolscap, chaque 
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{En cours de publication.} 
Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, Nos. 1-86, chaque 
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(En cours de publication.) 

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arrangée par ordre alphabétique. Un espace 

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façon à pouvoir y mettre le nom scientifique de 

l'espèce, et le nom du collecteur, la feuille. . . 3d. 

(Une grande réduction sera laite aux personnes 

qui co?nmanderont plus de 100 feuilles à la fois.) 

Felder — Lepidopterologische Fragmente, Wien, 1859, 

in 4to, 1 1 pi. n. ... ... ... 15s. 

Felder G. et R., Diagnoses lepidopterologicse, Wien, 
1 vol. in 8vo, 240 pages ... ... 10s. 

Gemminger et Harold — Catalogus Coleopterum: — 
Vol. 1 — Cicindelidse,Carabid3e ... ... 15s. 

Vol. 2— Dytiscidae Gyrinidae, Hydrophilidae Sta- 
phylinidse à Scaphiidse, inclus... ... us. 

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Vol. 5 — Buprestidse, Elateridae à Cebrionidae, 
inclus ... ... ... ... 9s. 

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Vol. 7 — Tenebrionidse à Oedemeridse, inclus 14s. 
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Vol. 9 — Scolytidse à Cerambycidce (Prionini, 
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Vol. 10 — Cerambycidse Bruchidœ ... 12s. 

Vol. 11 — Chrysomelidee ... ... ... 12s. 

(Cet ouvrage est toutàfaitindespensablepourun 
entomologiste.) 
Grose Smith and Kirby, Rhopalocera exotica, being 
illustrations of new, rare, or unfigured species 
of Butterflies, \ with coloured drawings and 
descriptions,! folio, Part 1 to 14 inclusive ^4, 
each, part published at ... ... 7s. 6d. 



October i> 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



vu 



Godart et Duponchel — Histoire naturelle des Lépi- 
doptères, d'Europe, 18 vol. in 8vo, 548 plan- 
ches col. ,£20 

Gurney — Catalogue of Raptorial Birds, Parts I. in 
8vo 6s. 

Harting — The Birds of Middlesex, 8vo ... 9s. 

Historia de la Conquista de Mexico, etc., by Don 
Antonio Solis Brusselas, 1741 
1 Vol. in folio, 276 pages, 13 Engravings and 
Maps. Pages 1 to 9 slightly stained... £\o. 

Historia General des las Cosas de Nueva Espana, by 
Rev. Bernardino de Sahagun, con notas y su- 
plementos, por Carlos Maria de Bustamente, 
Mexico, 1829. 4 vols, in 4:0., uncut... ,£5. 

Historia de las Conquistas de Hernando Cortez, por 
Francisco Lopez de Gomara, con varias notas 
y addiciones, por Carlos Maria de Busta- 
mante, Mexico, 1826. 1 vol. in 4to, 315 

P-P- ••• £*• 

Ibis — A Quarterly Journal of Ornithology, each 

part ... 6s. 

En cours de publication. [(Très recommandé.) 
Insecta? saundersiana, Part 1-8, 8vo, sewed, each 

part 3s. 

Ditto ditto. Part 9 ... ... 3s. 

Jacquelin Du Val et Fairmaire. Genera des Coléop- 
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— Insecta Saundersiana Curculionides, Part I. 154 

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— Ditto ditto ditto Part IL 225 5s. 
Kirby, W. F. — European Butterflies and Moths, 

1 Vol. \ folio, 427 pages, 61 coloured plates. 
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— Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera, 1870, 1 vol. 

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Thomson, T. — Arcana Naturae. Grand in folio, Paris, 
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Tezcoco en los ultimos tiempos de sus antiguos 
Reyes. Tomada de los manuscritos ineditos 
de Boturini y redactados por el Lie. Mariano 
Veytia, Mexico, 1826. 1 vol. i6mo, 276 
pages ... ... ... ... ... 40s. 

Various Calendarios Mexicanos, 1830 to i860, is. 
and 2 s. each. 

Zoological Report, 8vo, 30s. annually (1864 — 1891 
published) chaque volume ... ... 21s. 

(Ouvrage indispensable pour un zoologiste.) 

Zoological Society of London, Transactions, of pub- 
lished in four parts annually (57 vol. published) 
each part un-coloured, 3s., coloured 12s. 

{Price of each volume sent on application.) 

The Naturalist's Agency will procure to his 
Customers all the Scientific Works published in 
London at publisher's prices. 

Apply at Naturalist's Agency, 225, High Holborn, 
London, W.C. 



V1U 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[October i, i8gi 



BOUCARD, POTTÏER & CO,, 

NATURALISTS AND FEATHER MERCHANTS, 

■.■ h tk. Hol!bo!?ift 9 London, 1tV«G* 9 I3jag£la,M.cl. 

COMMISSION. > EXPORTATION. 



Si22l3i» JioLJL 



Messrs. BOUCAED, POTTIER & CO. offer to sell on commission all kinds of Objects of Natural 
History, Collections of Mammal and Bird Skins, Skeletons, Human and Animal Skulls, Insects of all 
orders pinned and set, or in papers ; Marine, Fresh Water, and Land Shells ; Beptiles and Fishes in spirit ; 
Crustacea? and Arachnidse in spirit; Ethnological collections from all parts; Showy Bird Skins and 
Feathers for Plumassiers and Naturalists ; Mammal Skins for Furriers ; Bright species of Insects for 
Artificial Florists ; Rare old Stamps, used and unused; Curios of all sorts, Pictures and Works of Art, etc., 
3tc, etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting Messrs. Boucard, Pottier 
& Co., who having a large connection with Amateurs in all parts of the world, are able to get the very best 
prices for them. 

Messrs. Boucard, Pottier & Co. beg to advise Directors of Museums and private Amateurs that they 
undertake to stuff from a Humming Bird to a Whale at very reasonable prices. Only experienced and 
scientific Taxidermists are employed by the hour for that work, which will always be of the best class. 

An inspection of their Galleries, where a large number of specimens are always on show, is solicited. 

Special fabrication of Mammals and Birds Eyss at wholesale prices which defy all competition, either 
as quality or price. See special Advertisement. 

New Stands for Birds, suitable for Museums and Scientific Institutions. No one should be without 
them. The appearance of the Birds on these stands is unequalled, and everyone should adopt them and 
œnovate the old ones. See Advertisement. 



TO BE LET OK SOLD 

SEVERAL PROPERTIES 

AT SJLN - REMO, 

The celebrated Winter Resort on the Riviera, 
40 minutes from Monte £arlo. 



1° VILLA- MARIA LUIGIA. 

A charming residence, standing in its own ground, situated 
Cokso Levante on one side and the Beach on the other, at 
about 15 minutes' walk from the centre of the town and 20 
from the station. Splendid view in all directions, beautiful 
garden of about 2,000 mètres, in which a large space has been 
laid purposely for lawn tennis and other games. 

Carriage and private entranoes. 

Gymnastic, Summer Houses, Aviary, Bathing Cabin, $c. 

Excellent water. 

Ground Floor. — Three fine rooms, full south, with 7 bay 
windows opening on the Garden, Kitchen, Offices, Cellar, &c. 

First Fl,onr. — Three large and fine rooms, full south, two on 
the north side, all of them communicating. Magnificent for 
Receptions, Soirées, &c. Cloak Room. 

Second Floor. — Four large rooms, full south, one of them 
with dressing-room, three fine rooms on the north side. Cloak 
Boom. Corridor in the middle. 

Size of Villa : length 18 metres, width 10 metres. 
Price francs 60,000 

LETTING. 

Unfurnished francs 3,500 

Furnishe-', Winter season, 6 months ... „ 2,500 

More the letting of the furniture according to the value of 

same required. 

Furnished, Summer season, 3 months. Price to agree. 



2° VILLAS RONDO 25, 27. 

Two semi-detached Villas, full south, standing in their own 
ground of 1,000 mètres, situated on the Coeso Gaeabaldi, (the 
most pleasant walk of the town) hardly at 10 minutes walk 
from the central part of the town and 15 of the station. 

No. 25. — Ground Floor.— Three fine rooms, Kitchen, Office, 
and Cellar. 

First Floor. — Six comfortable rooms. 

No. 27 — Exactly the same, more Underground floor with 
kitchen and two large rooms. Front and back gardens. 

Price for the two villas francs 45,000 

Separately. 

No. 25 francs 25,000 

No. 27 francs 30,000 

LETTING. 

No. 25.— Unfurnished ... francs 1,000 

Furnished, winter season ... — 2,000 

— summer season ... — 1.000 
No. 27. — Unfurnished francs 1,250 

Furnished, winter season ... — 2,500 

— summer season ... — 1,250 
Separate floors can also be let with or without furniture. 



3° A PIECE OF LMD. ab.out 350 metres. 

Full south, on the Coeso Mezzogiorno, two minutes from 
the station and the port, in the central part of the town. 

Price francs 15.000 



Letting 



francs 800 



Exchange could be made for property situated in England. 



For further information, apply to - 

M. A, BOUCARD, 
225, High Holborn, London, W.C- 



LONDON : Published by A. BOTJOARD, at 225, High Holborn, W.O. ; and Priutad at J. S. LHVIN'S Printing Works, 76, Leadenhnll Street, E.C. 

Octebtr 1, 189L 




Zhc 



1bumm 





A MONTHLY SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC, AND INDUSTRIAL' REVIEW. 



GUARANTEED CIRCULATION, 5000. 



VOL L NO. 11. 



November 1, 1891. 



PRICE SIXPENCE. 



Annual Subscription: United Kingdom, Post free, 4 shillings ; all countries included in the Postal Union, 5 shillings. 

All other countries, 6 shillings. 




CL/XAsYXAXX/ JÙO^^COUXÙU 



EDITED UNDER THE DIRECTION 

OF 

MR. ADOLPHE BOUCARD, 

NATURALIST, 

Officier d'Académie, 1878; Knight of the Royal Military Order of the Conception, 1881 ; 
Knight Officer of the Royal Order of Cambodje, 1889; Knight Commander of the Royal Order of Isabelle la Catholique, 1882; 

Corresponding Member of the Zoological Society, London, 1865; 

de la Mission scientifique française au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale, 1866; of the Royal Museum of Madrid, 1881; 

Commissioner for the Republic of Guatemala in the Paris International Exhibitions of 1878 and 1889 ; 

Member of the International Jury, Paris, 1889 ; Member of many' scientific societies; 

etc. etc. etc. etc. 



CONTENTS OF No. 11.— NOVEMBER 1, 1891. 

Crocodile, Snake and Fish Skins for Industrial Purposes. 

A Visit to the British Museum. Natural History Department. 

"World's Columbian Exposition." — Bâtiment de TAdministration. 



[Entered at Stationers' Hall.] 




11 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[November i, 1891 



FOR SALE.-Shells. 

Private Collection of. Mr. Boucard. 
Land, Fluviatile and Marine Shells. 

Glandinidae, is. each. Helicidae, 6d. each. Bulimidse 
is. each. Achatinidse, is. each. Chlindrellidse, is. 6d. 
each. Clausilidae, 3d. each. Ampularidœ, 6d. each. 
Lymmea, Physa, and Planorbis, 3d. each. Cyclosto- 
nidse, 6d. each. Helicinidse, 3d. each. Unio, 
Anodonta, and Ostrea, 6d. each. 

Marine Shells — All the Collection including 
Argonyuta, Murex, Fusus, Triton, Ranella, Nassa, 
Oliva, Marginella, Harpa, Terebra, Conus, Sfrombus, 
Cypraea, Neritina, Patella, Chiton, Haliotis, Turbo, 
Venus, Cardium, &x., 6d. each. 

Can be divided if required. 

All applications to be made at the Journal's Office. 

FOR SALE. 

One of the most magnificent Collections of Marine, 
Fluviatile and Terrestrial Shells formed during the 
last forty years. 

It contains 9,761 species by 37,68b specimens, all 
of them in the most perfect condition. 

Species Specimens. 

Marine and Fresh Univalves 5238 21,314 

Bivalve , Marine and Freshwater 1850 5 , 900 

Foreign Land Shells 2673 | 9,442 
European „ 950 

Rare Shells in glass Cases 80 



9,761 37,686 

Very nearly all the rare species known aie repre- 
sented in the Collection and sometimes by several 
specimens. 

For further informations and price, apply to Mr. 
A. Boucard 225, High Holborn, London, W. C. 



TO ETHNOLOGISTS AND OTHERS. 



FOR SALE. 

Twenty finely carved Ar: ows and 1 Bow from New Guinea 

Price 20s. 

African Rhinoceros War Club Price 30s. 

Three distinct Zulu War Clubs, made of iron wood and very 
nicely carved Price 30s. each. 

Pagaie from New Uuinea, made of palm tree Price 30s. 

Magnificent Gold Antiquity from Panama, representing what 
appears to be Musicians, two large figures in the centre and 
six small ones round. It weighs 6 oz. 187 grammes. It is 
quite unique, aud no Museum in the world possesses anything 
like it Price £50. 

A great variety of Amerioan Antiquities, chiefly from Central 
America, in hardstone, agathe, Idols, Vases, etc. from 5s. 

Mo iern pottery from Mexico and Central America 

from ôd. 
Statuettes representing the Indians of Mexico and Ouatent ala 

from 3s. 
Huts, Basl-ets, Mat* and various Objects made with palm 
leaves and various textile plants, from Central America, Mada- 
gascar, New Guinea, etc. from 6d. 

Samples of Textile Fibres, Seeds, Gums, Resins, Medicinal 
Plants, etc. from Mexico and Central America from 6d. 

Old and Modern Coins from Mexico from It. 

Etc., etc., etc. 



Priced List of Utensils necessary for 
the collecting of Mammals and Birds 
Skins, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, Shells. 

Bicarbolic Acid ... ... ... quart 2/- 

Rectified Benzoline ... . 1. „ 2/- 

Boucard's Insecticide ... ... lb. 4/- 

Ammonia ... ... ... ,, 4/- 

Collecting corked Box. ... from 1/- to 5/- each. 

Pocket corked Box, ... ... ... from r/- 

Corked Box for Museums ... ... 24/- doz. 

„ „ and glazed, splendid make. 36/- „ 

Larger sizes can be supplied. 

Botanical box ... ... from 2/6 to 6/- each. 

Pin box, for 12 grosses of different sizes ... 1/6 
„ with 1000 pins... ... ... 3/- 

Sea compass, ... ... from 2/- to 50/- 

Collectting bottles with large opening from 6d. 
Boucard's tin collecting box with two partitions 2/- 
Straight Scissors ... ... ... from 2/- 

Curved „ ... ... ... ... „ 2/- 

Taxidermist knifes ... ... ... „ 1/6 

Long Forceps „ 3/- 

Small „ ...■ ,, 1/- 

Insects' Nippers, ... ... ... „ 1/6 

Sieve ... ... ... ... „ 2/- 

Blowpipe for cleaning eggs ... ... ,, 2/- 

Digger „ 2/- & 4/- 

Folding ditto „ 6/- 

InsectPins,English, French orGermanfromi/6 per 100c 
Steel Pins for setting butterflies ... „ 4/- per 1000 
Setting Boards ... .. ... 1/- to 3/- each 

Butterfly Nets complete from 1/6 to 6/- 

Sweeping and Water Nets ... ... ,, 2/6 

Cork in sheets ... ... ... ,, 3/- doz. 

Magnifying Glasses ... ... ... „ 1/- to 5/- 

Hammers ... ... ... ... „ 1/6 to 5/- 

Napthaline ... ... ... ... „ 4/- per lb. 

Botanical Grey paper... ... ... ,, 6/- ream. 

Folding Umbrella for collecting Insects,, 10/- 
Steel Perforator for making holes in eggs ,, 1/- 
Cutting pliers ... ... ... „ 2/- 

Flat „ „ 1/- 

Arsenical Soap ... ... ... „ 2/- per lb. 

Glass Tubes for small Insects and shells ,, 1/- doz. 
Pill boxes for ditto .. . ... ... „ 4/- gross. 

Flax ... „ 6d. per lb 

Cotton wading per sheet ... ... „ 6d 

Fishing rods with accessories from ,, 2/- 
Dredge for collecting shells, &c. ... ,, 40/- 

Taxidermists Case, containing 1 Pair of Scissors 
2 Knives, 1 Lime, 1 Grater, 2 Pliers, 1 Ham- 
mer, 1 pair of Forceps, 1 Brush, 3 Gimlets, 
etc., complete ... ... ... from 12/- to 40/- 

Shell-empting with handle ... ... „ 1/- 

All other Utensils for Naturalists can be had at a 
short notice, 225, High Holborn, London, W. C. 
by ordering at the Naturalist's Agency. 

STANDS, OW STYLE. 

Wholesale Priée. 
No. 1 for Humming birds and Small birds at 20s. per hundred 
,, 2 ,, Small birds up to Tanagers at 24s. „ 

,, 3 „ Tanagers up to Magpies at 28s. „ 

„ -4 „ Magpies up to Crows or Small 

Hawks at 32i. 

„ 5 „ Small Hawks to Large Hawks 

and Owls at 40i. „ 



November i, 1S91] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



111 



ARTIFICIAL. EYES. 

Wholesale Price. 





Black 


Coloured 






Cornered 


Cornered 
& Veined 




per gross 






per 


doz. pairs 


per doz. pairs 


No 


1 to 4 6d. 


Is. 6d. 


No. 4 i,.;»;; 


3s. 6d. 


4s. 6^. 




5 „ 8 8d. 


2s. 6d. 


?» 


7„ 8 


5s. Od. 


6s. Od. 




9 „ 10 ls.Od. 


4s. Od. 


»» 


9 


6s. Od. 


8s- Od. 




11 2s. Od. 


5s. 6d. 




10 


7s. Od. 


9s. Od. 




12 2s. 3d. 


7s. Od. 




11 


8s. Od. 


10s. Od. 




13 2s. 6d. 


10s. Od. 


)i 


12 


9s. Od. 


lis. Od. 




doe. of pairs 












14 3s. Od. 


Is. 6d. 




13 


10s. Od. 


12s. Od. 




15 3s. 6d. 


2s. 6d. 


ÏS 


14 


lis. Od. 


13s. Od. 




16 4s. Od. 


2s. 6d. 




15 


13s- Od. 


15s. Od. 




17 8s. Od. 


3s. Od. 




Larger sizes 


can be made 




18 12s. Od. 


4s. Od. 






to order. 



Nr. 1 to 4 are good for humming birds and others up to 
the size of Tanagers. 

No. 5 to 8 Tanagers to Maspies. 

No. 9 to 10 Magpies to Gulls. 

No. 11 to 12 Pheasants, etc. 

No. 13 to 18 Hawks, Owls, Herons, etc. 



Postage Stamps 
FOR SALE. 

A large variety of rare Stamps and New Issues from all parts 
of the World. For prices &c. apply to Naturalists Agencv, 

225, High Holborn,W.C. 



WANTED TO BUY. 



""to 



Old collections containing from 500 varieties upward» 
which none have been added since the last 20 years. 

Old stamps on their original letter sheet or envelope, especi 
ally Colonials and old German states. 

Mulready Wrappers and Envelopes. 

Old unused English and Colonials. 

Old works on stamps. 

Proofs of stamps, etc. etc. . 

TO ORNITHOLOGISTS. 



FOE SALE. 

Fine mounted specimen of Aha impennis, the Great Auk, 
(extinct species). Pedigree from date of capture, 1836, will 
be given to buyer. 

Fine male specimen of the exceedingly rare new genus of 
bird ticnhardtia oçcllato Bp., the greatest discovery of the 
century. Price £50 

FOR SALE. — From Kbia Balu (Borneo). 
Calyptomena whitehead^ male, 100s. A magnifi- 
cent bird, discovered lately by Mr. Whitehead in the 
interior of Borneo. Many other species from the 
same collector (magnificent skins). 

FOR SALE. 

A magnificent Collection of Woods from all parts 
of the world. 2,000 varieties. Fifty years work. 
Will be sold at a bargain. 

Fourteen species of Carabus from Chili. In the 
most perfect condition. 23 specimens, at 5s. each. 



NATURALISTS' AGENCY, 
225, High Holborn, 

London, W.C. 

5,000 Species of Bird Skins 
for Sale. 



APTERYGES. 
Apterix Oweni 

— australis 

— mantelli 
Tinamus robustus 

— subcristatus... 
Crypturus sallei 

Otis tarda — 
— tetrax 
Ocydromus australis ... 
Psophia crepitans 

— sp. 
Chauna chavaria 
Opisthocomus cristatus 
Penelope purpurascens 

— marail 
Pipile jacutinga 
Penelopina nigra ' ... 
Ortalida motmot 

— poliocephala.,. 
Chamaspetes goudoti . . . 

— unicolor 

Oreophasis derbiana ... 
Crax globicera 
Talegalus cuvieri 
Megacephalon, maleo 
Megapodius freycineti 
other species at 



and 



s. 

3° 
100 

100 

3° 

3° 
10 

40 

5 
15 

3° 

40 

60 
24 
16 
20 
20 
20 
10 
10 

3° 

3° 
80 

3° 
20 

3° 
10 



s. 

Pavo cristatus, from Japan ... 40 
Argusianus giganteus, male 

and female... ... ... 80 

Argusianus grayi, male and 

female ... ... ... 200 

Reinhardius ocellatus, fine male 1 000 

Phasianus versicolor ... ... 10 

Syrmaticus recvesi ... ... 50 

Graphephasianus sommeringi 1 2 

Euplocomus vieilloti ... ... 40 

Hierophasis swinhcei ... ... 40 

Lophophorus impeyanus ... 20 

Ceriornis satyra ... ... 20 

— melanocephala ... 20 
Meleagris ocellata ... ... 80 

Acryllium vulturina ... ... 50 

Ithaginis cruentus ... ... 16 

Francolinus erkeli and other 

species at ... ... ... 12 

Odontophorus guianensis ... 20 

other species from 1 . . ... 16 
Ortyx pectoralis and other 

species from ... ... 16 

Quantity of species of Colum- 

bidae from ... ... ... 5 

Furningus spanzani ... ... 20 

Hemiphaga novce-zelandise ... 20 

Serresius forsteri ... ... 40 

Trugon terrestris - ... ... 24 

Henicophaps albifrons ... 20 

Otidiphaps nobilis ... ... 40 

— sp. ... ... 50 

Goura coronata ... ... 20 

— Victorise ... ... 30 

— d'albertisi ... ... 40 

Didunculus strigirostris ... ço 



Carvanaca recurvirostris ... 16 
Many species of Charadriadse 

Glareolidae from ... ... 3 

Geronticus calvus ... ... 24 

Pseudibis papillosus ... ... 30 

Lophotibis cristatus . . ... 30 

Dromas ardeola ... ... 40 

Many species of Ardeidae from 6 

Many species of Anatidse from 6 
Many species of Podicepidae 

and Laridae from ... ... 5 

Hypoleucus bougainvilei ... 30 
Many species of Falconidae 

Vulturidae and Strigidae 

from... ... ... 5s. to 20 

Aquila audax ... ... ... 30 

Limnsetus gurneyi ... ... 100 

Henicopernis longicauda ... 40 

Haliastur girrenera ... ... 12 

Astur etorques ... ... 20 

— poliocephalus ... ... 20 

Tachyspizias soloensis ... 16 

Melierax gabar ... ... 20 

Falco gysfalco... ... ... 40 

Lophostrix stricklandi ... 30 

Ara macawuana ... ... 30 

Conurus egregius ... ... 30 

— sostitialis ... ... 20 

Brotogeris panychlora ... 20 

Vini kuhli ... ... ... 20 

Psittacella modesta ... ... 40 

Microglossum aterrimum ... 24 

For remainder of Parrots 
see Humming Bird, No. 3, 
March, 1891. 







THE HUMMING BIRD. 


[November 1, 189 


1 


Ramphastos brevicarinatus . . . 


s. 

IO 


Turdus sibiricus 


s. 

20 


Creadion carunculatus 


20 


— inca 


12 


— cardis... 


8 


Heterolocha gouldi, male 


20 


— cuvieri ... 


16 


— — Var 


. 8 


— — female 




Pteroglossus pluricinctus 


12 


— naumani 


. 8 


(much rarer) 


3° 


— beauharnaisei ... 


3° 


— nigrescens ... .: 


26 


Enodes erythrophis ... 


10 


Selenidera gouldi 


20 


Margarops fuscatus ... 


. 20 


Analcipus traillei ... ... 


12 


— nattered ... 


20 


Mimocichla rubripes ... 


. 16 


Turacus purpureus 


10 


— spectabilis... 


20 


Myadcues elizabethae. 


20 


other species from ... 


8 


Andigena laminirostris and 




Cinclus leuconotus 


20 


Menura superba 


40 


many other species 


12 


Eupetes macrocercus . . . 


. 16 


Orthonyx spinicauda ... 


12 


Many species of Capitonidae 




— coerulescens ... 


20 


Ten species of Pteroptochidae at 


10 


Bucconidae, Galbulidae and 




Thryophilus castaneus 


10 


A large number of species of 




Cuculidse from 


4 


— pleurostictus 


10 


Dendroco'.aptidae and For- 




Pharomacrus mocina... 


30 


— nigricapillus 


10 


micaridae from ... 


4 


— costancensis ... 


30 


— thoracicus 


10 


Pitta strepitans 


5 


— fulgidus 


16 


Peltops blainvillei 


10 


— novœ guineae 


10 


— auriceps 


16 


Melidectes torquatus ... 


12 


— maxima ... 


10 


Prionotelus temnurus... 


20 


Melipotes gymnops ... 


20 


— granatina ... 


6 


Temnotrogon rhodogaster 


3° 


A large series of species of 


Philepitta castanea ... 


16 


Trogon aurantiiventris 


16 


Nectarinidae from ... 


■ 5 


Large series of species of 




— atricollis 


12 


A large quantity of species of 


Tyrannidse from 


3 


— chionurus 


16 


Ccerebidae, Tanagridae, Frin 


- 


Aulia rufescens 


10 


— bairdi... 


20 


gillidae, and Icteridae from.. 


3 


Attila sclateri ... 


10 


— citreolus 


12 


Garrulus japonicus 


4 


Rupicola crocea 


20 


— melanocephalus 


20 


Cyanocitta beechei ... 


• 24 


— peruviana ... 


10 


— - clathratus 


16 


— melanocyanea 


10 


— sanguinolenta 


20 


— melanurus 


16 


— meridana ... 


10 


Phaenoptila melanoxantha 


5° 


and many other species from 


5 


Cyanocorax panamensis 


10 


Pipreola sclateri 


30 


Choucalcyon tyro 


30 


Calocitta formosa 


T2 


Cotinga cœrulea 


10 


Cittura cyanotis 


16 


— colliei ••• 


20 


— cincta 


16 


Melidora macrorhyncha 


20 


Callaeas cinerea 


20 


— amabilis 


16 


Tanysiptera dea 


12 


Picicorvus columbianus 


20 


— cayana 


10 


— galatea ... 


20 


PARADISEID^E. 




— mayana 


16 


— nympha ... 
Cyanalcyon nigrocyanea 


40 

16 


Priced per pair, male anc 
female. 


1 


Querula cruenta 
Chasmorhynchus niveus 


5 
16 


Sauropatis julise ... ... 


16 




— tricarunculatus 


30 


— funebris ... 


12 


Xanthomelus aureus . 


. I20 


— nudicollis 


12 


— albicilla ... 


10 


Sericulus melinus 


20 


Gymnocephalus calvus 


20 


Caridagrus concreta ... 


16 


Ptilonorhynchus holosericeu 


s 20 


Gymnoderus foetidus... 


20 


Astacophilus lindsayi ... 


16 


Paradisea apoda 


. IOO 


Cephalopterus penduliger 


20 


Clytocex rex ... 


200 


— papuana 


. 40 


— glabricollis 


20 


and many other species from 


5 


— sanguinea ... 


. 40 


and many other species of 




Nyctiornis amictus 


12 


— raggiana 


. IOO 


Cotingidae and Pipridae from... 


3 


Bucia athertoni 


16 


Schlegelia wilsoni 


. 60 


Podargus papuensis ... 


16 


Meropiscus gularis 


12 


Diphyllodes magnifica 


. 80 


— ocellatus 


16 


and many other species of 




Cicinnurus regius 


20 


Calyptomena whiteheadi 


100 


Meropidse from 


5 


Parotia sexpennis 


. IOO 


— viridis ... 


8 


Todus multicolor 


16 


Lophorina superba ... 


. 80 


Many species of Caprimulgidae, 




Momotus subrufescens ... 


8 


Ptilornis paradisea 


• 40 


Hirundinidae and Cypselid» 




Urospatha marti ... 


8 


Craspedophora magnifica 


• 4° 


from 


3 


Hylomanes gularis 


16 


Epimachus speciosus... 


. IOO 


TROCHILID^E. 




Prionirhynchus platyrhynchus 


16 


Seleucides alba 


. IOO 




— carinatus 


20 


Semioptera gouldi 


• 50 


Phsethornis guianensis 


20 


Eumonota superciliaris 


6 


Astrapia nigra... 


. 120 


Helianthea eos 


5° 


and other species from 


s 


Drepanornis albertisi ... 


. IOO 


Bellona superba 


3° 

_ c 


Leptosoma discolor ... 


16 


Paradigalla carunculata 


. 60 


For remainder of species 


of 


Brachypteracias leptosoma 


3° 


Manucodia viridis, male 


• 30 


Trochilidae, see Humming Bird, 


Attelornis pittoides ... 


12 


— keraudreni, male.. 


• 30 


No. 1, January, 189 1. 




— crossleyi 


40 


— gouldi, male 


• 15 






Manyspeciesof Bucerotidae from 


10 


Mino dumonti, male ... 


. 16 


TO FEATHER MERCHANTS 


A large number of species of 




Melanopyrrhus anais, male .. 


20 


Just arrived : 




Picidae, Turdidae, Sylvidae, 




Gymnops tricolor, male 


20 


7~y r 


Troglodytidae, Luscinidae, 




Paradisea augusta victoria 


i 


A very fine lot of 1,200 Pale 


Red 


etc., etc., from 


3 


male ~. 


. 200 


African Osprey, at is. 3d. 





November i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



83 



&j)e |J «muting 3Strb 



Crocodile, Snake and Fish Skins for 
Industrial Purposes. 



In North America, alligator farming is carried on 
in Louisiana and other southern States, and it pays 
well, the skins of young individuals having a good 
market value for morocco leather manufacturers and 
others. 

After being dressed, these skins are soft and last 
very long. They are used extensively for dressing 
cases, purses, pocket-books, slippers, etc., also for 
shoes and boots, in fact, they can be employed for 
all fancy articles made of leather and are as highly 
appreciated as the well-known Russian morocco. 

The skins of the large American snake (Boa 
murina) is also employed for the same purposes and 
make skins softer and more nicely marked. 

Up to date, skins of old alligators can be dressed, 
but do not soften enough, and for that reason are 
scarcely used for industrial purposes, but they could 
probably be made into war-shields, strong boots, etc. 
They are sometimes sold as curiosities. 

Besides leather, oil can be extracted from the adult 
animals. The tail of an alligator twelve feet in 
length, on boiling, furnishes from fifty to seventy 
pints of excellent oil which in South America is used 
for lighting purposes, and in medicine. The oil has 
been recommended for a variety of diseases, but is 
considered as a sovereign remedy for rheumatism. It 
is given both inwardly and outwardly. 

Crocodiles and alligators are found in all parts of 
the world, but more especially in the hot climates. 
They inhabit Africa, Southern Asia, the tropical 
parts of Australia, North, Central and South America 
and the West Indies. The Indian crocodile (Croco- 
dilus porosus) is very common in the East Indies and 
in tropical Australia. It grows exceptionally to a 
length of thirty feet, but the ordinary size of an adult 
specimen is from twelve to twenty feet. 

The African crocodile (Crocodilus vulgaris) attains 
nearly the same size. It was worshipped by the 
ancient Egyptians, and mummies of these animals 
are commonly found in that country. 

The Gharials (Gavialis gangeticus) is abundant in 
the river Ganges and its tributaries, and attains a 
length of twenty feet. It is easily recognised by their 
extremely long and slender snout. It feeds chiefly 
on fishes, for the capture of which its long and 
slender snout and sharp teeth are well adapted. Old 
males have a large cartilaginous hump on the ex- 
tremity of the snout containing a small cavity for the 
retention of air, by which means they are enabled to 
remain under water for a longer time tham females or 
young. 

In the alligators, which, with the exception of one 
species found in China ate all found in America, the 



fourth lower tooth is received in a pit in the upper 
jaw, when the mouth is shut They do not grow to 
the large size of the true crocodiles. The species 
most generally known is A. mississippiensis, which 
abounds in the southern parts of North America. It 
is the species which is bred extensively in domesticity 
since a few years. Some other species of alligators 
are also very abundant on the rivers of the Atlantic 
and Pacific Oceans from Mexico to Argentine 
Republic and Peru on the Pacific. I have seen large 
numbers of them on the River Papaloapam in the 
State of Vera Cruz, " Mexico." The crocodilians 
differ in many anatomical characters from the true 
lizards. The organs of their chest and abdomen 
'are separated from each other by a muscular 
diaphragm, their heart is divided into four cavities as 
in the higher vertebrates. The ribs are provided 
with two heads for the articulation with the vertebras, 
and with processes directed backwards ; and their 
abdomen is protected by a series of transverse bones. 
The teeth are implanted in sockets, while in other 
recent reptiles they are united to the jaws. The 
tongue is completely adherent to the floor of the 
mouth. The nostrils are situated close together at 
the upper side of the extremity of the snout ; the 
eyes and the ears likewise are near to the upper pro- 
file of the head, so that the animal can breathe, see 
and hear whilst its body is immersed in the water, the 
upper part of the head only being raised above the 
surface. When it dives, the nostrils are closed by 
valves, a transparent membrane is drawn over the eye 
and the ear, which is a horizontal slit, is shut up by a 
moveable projecting flap of the skin. The limbs are 
weak, the anterior provided with five, the posterior 
with four digits, of which three only are armed with 
claws and which are united together by a more or less 
developed web. The tail is long, compressed, 
crested above, very powerful, and admirably adapted 
for propelling the body through the water. The 
back tail and belly are protected by a dermal armour 
formed of quadrangular shields, of which the dorsal, 
and in several alligators, also the ventral, contain 
true bone imbedded in the skin. 

The crocodilians are thoroughly aquatic in their 
habits and the most formidable of all the carnivorous 
freshwater animals. 

They feed chiefly on fish ; but large crocodiles 
attack every animal which they can overpower and 
which they drown before devouring. They attack 
man, and many people have been killed and devoured 
by crocodiles. After having killed their prey they 
carry it into holes which are supposed to be their 
abode, and feast upon it until it is entirely devoured. 

In the State of Vera Cruz (Mexico) where these 
animals are very abundant, it is said of alligators 
that they can live for a considerable time, buried in 
the dry mud. I don't know how much such an 
extraordinary fact can be relied upon, but when 
residing at Tlacotalpan and Cosomaloapam, State of 
Vera Cruz (Mexico), I was told many times that 
alligators had been found in dry fields, apparently dead, 
and that after a more or less prolongated immersion in 
water they had returned to life. They account for it in 
this way : In the rainy season, May to September, the 
fall of rain is sometimes so great that the River 



8 4 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



\ November i, 189Ï 



Papaloapam overflows its borders, and the surrounding 
plains are totally inundated for several weeks, some- 
times months ; as I have witnessed several times. 
During that period it is very common to see 
alligators far away from the bed of the river. This 
water gradually dries up, and large tracks of land are 
transformed into lagunas or large pools, which also 
dry in course of time. The alligators which have 
gone astray from the river are seen frequently in these 
lagunas, and are said to bury themselves entirely in 
the mud before their complete drying up, and remain 
there until another inundation releases them from their 
abnormal state of inaction and torpor. It may be for 
months or even for years; but it is believed by all, that 
life is not extinct and that they revive when immersed 
in water for several hours or days. They told me that 
Indians when ploughing their fields have found many 
buried that way. Crocodilians lay eggs, about the size 
of those of turkeys, but they are oblongand have harder 
shells, they deposit them in holes on the banks of the 
rivers and ponds. They are good to eat, but not so 
much appreciated as Iguana or turtle eggs. The 
flesh of young crocodiles is sometimes eaten by the 
natives of Mexico. 

I have never seen hides made from the large 
Species of Iguanidae found in tropical America, but 
it is probable that they could be dressed and used 
for the same purposes as the hides of crocodiles. 
They are considered a good food, a fact which I can 
Corroborate, as I have breakfasted many times on 
them. Their eggs, a little larger than those of a 

Î)igeon, have soft shells and are considered a 
uxury. 

The two families of snakes, whose skins are 
dressed for industrial purposes, are the Pythonidae, or 
Rock Snakes, found in the hottest parts of Africa, 
Asia and Australia, and the Boidae, or Boas, re- 
stricted to the tropical parts of America. All of 
them attain a very large size, from 1 2 to 30 feet, and 
wide in proportion. They climb as well as swim, 
most of them preferring the neighbourhood of water. 
In the rainy season I have seen several monster boas 
caught in Playa Vicente, State of Oaxica, " Mexico." 
I do not remember exactly their length, but their 
width was 20 inches. One of them was of such an 
extraordinary size that a real path was perceptible 
where it passed and it was by following it that it was 
discovered and captured. 

The skins of these snakes can be easily dressed 
and are much wanted for their softness and the 
brilliancy of their designs. 

Now we come to Fishes whose skins are also em- 
ployed for industrial purposes, but this industry is yet 
in its infancy and I have no doubt that before long, 
many species will be wanted for that purpose. 

For the present I can only mention skins* of 
Gadtdae, or Cod-fishes, which were exhibited by 
Norway and Sweden in the Paris International 
Exhibition of 1889. As a member of the Interna- 
tional Jury, Class 43, I had to classify, for prizes, all 
objects connected with hunting and fishing, and I 
Was much interested with all the products extracted 
from cod-fishes which I saw in the exhibits of Sweden 
and Norway. Among them were hides of several 
species of large fishes, especially cod-fishes. They 



were soft and strong, and the designs were attractive. 
I have just heard that a good leather was made with 
the American White Fish. I call the attention of 
manufacturers to the above facts, and I advise them 
to give a good trial to these skins. Success is 
certain. 

a. boucard. 



A Visit to the British Museum. 
Natural History Department. 



Continued from page 82. 

In cases 19—21 are the Iguanidae, some of them 
growing to the length of five feet, and highly esteemed 
as food. Their eggs are considered a great 
delicacy. The curious Phrynosoma, found in North 
America and Mexico in sandy places, have the 
faculty to take the same colours as the sands where it 
inhabits, which makes it very difficult to detect. This 
is a particular case of mimicry, but rather common in 
Reptiles. The Frilled Lizard, Chlamydosaurus kingi; 
the Draco Dragon or Flying Lizard ; the Moloch, 
Moloch horridus, an extraordinary creature from 
Australia. It is entirely covered with tubercles and 
spines, which gives it a most repulsive appearance; 
but otherwise it is quite harmless. 

In case 22 are exhibited the Chamœleontidae or 
Chameleons, peculiar to Africa, Madagascar, India 
and Ceylon. The most remarkable part of this 
animal is the tongue, which is exceedingly long, worm- 
like, with a club-shaped, viscous end. They shoot it 
out with incredible rapidity towards insects, which 
remain attached to it, and are thus caught. They 
have the faculty of changing colour. 

In cases 23 — 27 is the order Ophidia, or Snakes, 
among which the most remarkable exhibits are the 
Pythonidae, or Rock Snakes ; the Boidae, or Boas, 
which attain sometimes a length of 30 feet ; the 
Elapidae, Elaps, commonly called Coral Snakes, 
which are brilliantly coloured, red and black being 
foremost with them ; the Hydrophidae, or Sea Snakes ; 
the Viperidae, or Vipers, of which the well-known 
common British Viper is one of the smallest ; the 
Crotalidae, or Rattle Snakes, so well known by the 
rattle at the end of the tail, formed by several horny 
rings, which the animal shakes when irritated. It is 
said that each ring means one year of age. When 
warming itself in the sun, on the sand or small 
pebbles, it is very difficult to detect, as it always lays 
on sand or stones of its same colour. It is only 
when trodden upon that it may be dangerous ; but 
otherwise they remain under stones and are scarcely 
seen. I have taken quite a large number without any 
difficulty or risk. 

Cases 28- -44 contains the series of Chelotiians or 
Tortoises and Turtles. About 300 species are known, 
the principal types being, Sphargis coriaceus or Leather 
Turtle, which is found throughout all the seas of the 



November 



c8 9 i] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



85 



tropical and temperate regions, and occasionally on 
the British coasts. It is the largest living Chelonian 
known, exceeding a length of six feet. The 
Cheloniidae, or Marine Turtles. These turtles are 
thoroughly marine animals, their fin-like feet and their 
light shell rendering them the best swimmers in the 
class of reptiles. They are found sometimes several 
hundred miles distant from the shore, where they 
return periodically to lay from 100 to 200 soft-shelled 
eggs, which they bury in the sand. The American 
Indians, who know exactly the time when they lay 
their eggs, come in numbers, with their wives and 
children, to gather them. Armed with a pointed stick, 
they feel the spots where the eggs are supposed to be, 
and soon discover them. They also secure a 
large number of turtles and feast on them during 
tnany days. Caretta imbricata, or Hawk's-bill 
Turtle, is the species which furnishes the com- 
mercial tortoise shell. The finest sort comes from 
Celebes. Some fine shells are also found in the Gulf 
of Mexico ; the Trionychidae, or Fresh-water Turtles ; 
iheEmydidae, or Fresh-water Tortoises. Macrodemmys 
temminchii is the largest species. Its tail attains a 
great length, and it is furnished with a crest resembling 
that of a Crocodile. The Mata-mata, Chelys fi,7nbriata 
of Guiana, also a fresh-water Tortoise, is very remark- 
able. Its head and neck are fringed with warty 
appendages, floating in the water like some vegetable 
growth, whilst the rough boned carapece resembles a 
stone, an appearance which is of great use to this 
creature in escaping the observation of its enemies as 
in alluring to it unsuspicious animals, on which it 
feeds. Lastly comes the Testudinidae, or Land 
Tortoises, amongst which are included the gigantic 
Tortoises which were formerly very common in the 
Mascarene and Galapagos Islands, where they could 
be captured in any 'number with the greatest facility. 
They weigh from 100 to 300 pounds. The large male 
specimen of Tertudo elephantina exhibited weighed 
870 pounds. The gigantic Land Tortoise of Abingdon 
Island, Testudo abingdoni, is remarkable for its long 
neck and its thin shell. That species is supposed to 
be extinct now. 

STAR FISH GALLERY. 

The Star Fish Gallery contains a selected series of 
the animals belonging to the class Echinodermata, of 
which the Star Fishes are one of the best-known 
types, but which besides includes also the Crinoids, 
Sea-Urchins and Sea-Cucumbers, or Sea-Slugs. 

A small collection of Vermes^ or Worms, is also 
exhibited in this Gallery. 

Echinoids live on seaweeds and the animals that 
are found on them. Such as have no teeth, like 
Spatangus (Case 6), use their spout-like mouth to 
take up the sand and débris on which they move, and 
from which they extract some nourishment. Ophiu- 
roids live on the smaller Foraminifera ; Asteroids on 
dead fishes, Oysters and Mollusks ; Holothurians on 
shell or coral débris, and the minute organism it con- 
tains ; and Crinoids on small tests of Foraminifera, 
on Larvse and on small Crustacea. 

Echinoderms move but little ; the unstalked 
Crinoids, if they cannot find stones around which to 



attach themselves, swim by beating the water with 
their delicate arms, five being raised and five depressed 
alternately. They are often of exceedingly bright 
colours, and are very conspicuous objects. Some- 
times they cover themselves over with seaweed, and so 
hide their brilliancy. The spines of some forms are 
exceedingly painful to the touch, and the stout plates 
of some of the Goniasters must form admirable 
organs of protection. 

The power of restoring lost or injured parts is one 
of the most remarkable points in their organisation. 

Echinoderms are of great geological age, and were 
very abundant in earlier periods. Two groups 
(the Blastoids and Cystids) have completely dis- 
appeared, and the Stalked Crinoids are far less 
common than they used to be. They are found in 
all seas, and extend to a great depth of the ocean. 
They are most abundant in tropical seas. 

Most Echinoderms lay their eggs in the water 
where the larvae are developed and swim about 
freely ; but in a few, the young do not pass through 
any metamorphosis, the eggs being received in special 
pouches of the body of the parent, in which they are 
hatched. 

The Echinoidea, or Sea-Urchins, are used as food in 
Italy and other countries. They are eaten raw or 
cooked. 

Echinodermata are classified as follows : — 
Crinoidea, or cup-shaped Echinoderms, of which a 
fine specimen, Pentacrinus decorus, can be seen in 
Case 7. Asteroidea, or Star Fishes. Of this order, 
a fine series of Asterias, Acanthasier, and Oreaster, 
are exhibited. 

Op/tiuroidea, or Brittle Stars ; Echinoidea, 01 Sea- 
Urchins, in which the rays are not free, as in the Star 
Fishes, or Brittle Stars, but unite to form a compact 
spherical heart, or dish-shaped test, covered with 
spines, which sometimes attain a great length, as 
shown in the fine example of Diadema setosa, from 
Andamans ; and the Holothurioidea, or Sea Cucumbers, 
in which order are exhibited various specimens of the 
edible Holothurians, trepang, or bêche de mer, so 
highly prized by Chinese. 

SHELL GALLERY. 

A large gallery has been devoted to the exhibition 
of Shells, or Mollusca. It constitutes one of the prin- 
cipal divisions of the animal kingdom, and includes 
such animals as the Octopus, Cuttlefish, Snail, Slug 
Whelk, Cockle and Oyster. 

They may be characterised as soft, cold-blooded 
animals. Their heart consists of two or more 
chambers, and is situated on the dorsal side of the 
animal. It drives the blood into spaces between the 
various organs of the body. Only the Cephalopods 
possess internal cartilages, but without osseus 
end skeleton. In the majority this is compen- 
sated by an external hardened shell. This 
shell may consist of two parts (valves), as in the 
Oyster, or may be single, as in the Snail. Upon the 
upper surface of the foot, in many Gastropods, a 
flat, hard structure, termed the operculum, is situated, 
which, when the animal is retracted, partly or entirely 
I closes the aperture of the shell. 



86 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[November i, 1891 



The reproduction of Mollusks is in all cases effected 
by means of eggs. The number of eggs produced by 
some bivalves is enormous. The common Oyster is 
said to produce a million or more, and the American 
variety ten, or even sixty, times as many. Terrestrial 
Mollusks are not so prolific. They deposit but very 
few eggs ; but in certain groups, such as the large 
South American Bulimi, and the African Achatinae, 
they are protected by a hardened calcareous shell, 
and approaches in size a pigeon's egg. 

Very little is known about the limits of age of 
Mollusks. It is very probable that they live for a 
considerable period. They have the faculty to hiber- 
nate in cold climates, and to assume a state of 
torpidity in tropical countries, closing up the aperture 
of their shells with a temporary lid or door (epiphragm), 
in order to resist to the dryness of the atmosphere or 
to the cold. When the warmth and rain re-appears, 
they revive, and are seen crawling in every 
direction. 

Mollusca made their appearance on the globe at a 
very early date, and a large number of fossil forms 
have been found. The great number are inhabitants 
of the sea ; some are found in rivers and lakes, and 
others live on land, on mountains, in valleys, forests, 
etc. Hence their designation as Marine, Fluvatile, or 
Land Shells. 

Case 1 contains the Chepalopods, including the 
Octopus, Cuttlefish, Squid, Spirula, the Paper and 
Pearly Nautilus. Case ie includes the Pteropods, 
called also Sea Butterflies. 

Cases ie — 17D contain the Gastropods, including 
the Conidae, or Cones, one of the most beautiful of 
families of Shells, of which about 400 species are 
known. They are beautiful shells, and highly prized 
by the amateurs. ^50 has been paid for a single 
shell. Next to the Cones come the Terebridae, or 
Auger Shells ; the Pteuromatidae, or Slitslips ; the 
Muricidae, or Rock Shells ; the Buccinidae ; the 
Olividae, or Olives ; the Harpidae, or Harps ; the 
Fasciolaridae, the Mitridae, or Mitras ; the Volutidae, or 
Volutes ; the Cassididae, or Helmet Shells ; the 
Doliidae, or Tun Shells ; the Cypreidae, or Cowry 
Shells ; the Cyciophoridae and Helicinidae, etc., etc. 
The Olives, Harps, Mitras, Volutes, and Cowry Shells 
are highly prized by collectors in consequence of their 
variety in colour and their beauty. 

Cases 12G to 17D includes the Pulmonata or Land 
and Fluviatile Shells; such as Helicidae, or Land 
Snails ; Limacidae, or Slugs ; Limnœidae, or Fresh- 
water Snails, etc. Many species of Helix are usually 
eaten. About 15,600 species are known. 

Cases 17E to 26B includes the Pelecypoda, or 
Bivalves ; such as Venus-Shells, Cockles, Razor Shells, 
Clams, Piddocks, Ship Worms, Sea and Fresh-water 
Mussels, and the well-known Oysters, of which many 
species are known, many of them good to eat, and 
producing occasionally pearls ; but the finest of them 
are found in Meleagrina margaritifera, or Pearl 
Oyster, which is found abundantly in Ceylon and West 
Australia. It has a very strong shell, lined with thick 
layers of mother-of-pearl. Hundreds of tons of 
these shells are annually imported into Europe, where 
they sell at a very good price. 



It is employed in many industries. The nacre is 
generally of a pearly-white colour, rarely dark, and 
occasionally almost black. The pearl is the produce 
of the effort of the animal to get rid of the irritation 
caused by a foreign substance between its valves, and 
by covering it with nacre. 

One of the most ancient, and, at the present day, 
the most important of the pearl fisheries is that 
carried on in Ceylon. The banks on which the 
oysters grow are at an average depth of 30 to 60 ft., 
and extend several miles. The oysters, which should 
be six or seven years old when 'collected, are 
gathered in baskets by divers and hauled up by ropes 
into hundreds of small boats. The shells are then 
brought to land and left to die ; then they are 
minutely examined for the pearls, which are either 
found loose in the shells or embedded in the fleshy 
parts of the oysters. As many as two million of 
oysters have been brought ashore in a single day. 
A small proportion of the oysters contain pearls ; in 
some they are very small (seed, or dust-pearls, 
as they are called), and very few contain pearls 
larger than a pea, which are so highly valued. A 
very fine pearl can be bought at Ceylon for ^40. 
The Chinese obtain pearls artificially from a species 
of fresh-water Mussel, Dipsas plicata. In order to 
do this, they keep them in tanks and insert between 
the shell and the animal either small shot or small 
round pieces of mother-of-pearl, which soon receive 
regular coatings of nacre, and assume the look of 
ordinary pearls. 

Case 26H and last contains the Brachiopoda, 
which are now considered by some naturalists to be 
more related to Annelids, or Marine Worms, than to 
Mollusca. Others maintain that their affinities lie 
rather with Polyzoa and Tunicata, with which they 
form a distinct class termed Molluscoida. As a 
whole, the collection of shells of the British Museum 
is one of the most complete known, and contains a 
large number of types and rarieties. One of the best 
acquisitions was that of the celebrated collection of 
the late Hugh Cuming, of London. 

GALLERY OF CETACEA. 

For want of space, the collection of Cetacea has 
been located in a large room in the basement, which 
has the disadvantage of not being well lighted ; but a 
better accommodation will be afforded to them when 
the west front of the building will be erected. The 
exhibition of Cetacea is limited to the skeletons of 
the larger species. 

On entering, on the left side of the door, near the 
window is a case containing a stuffed specimen, 
skeleton, and several skulls of the very curious Fresh- 
water Dolphin, Platanista gangetica, and in the next 
case the peculiar Dolphin of the river Amazon, Inia 
geoffrensis. Among the other interesting species can 
be seen the Narwhal or Sea Unicorn. It has only 
two teeth, which lie horizontally in the upper jaw. 
In the female, both remain permanently concealed 
within the bone of the jaw, so that this sex is 
practically toothless ; but in the male, while the 
right tooth remains similarly concealed and abortive 
(as shown in the specimen by removal of part of the 



November i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



87 



bone which covered it), the left is immensely 
developed, attaining a length equal to that of half the 
entire of the animal, projecting horizontally from the 
head in the form of a long, straight, tapering and 
pointed tusk, spirally grooved on the surface. In 
some very rare cases both teeth are fully developed, 
as in the fine skull exhibited near the skeletons. 

Most of the largest Cetacea exhibited belong to the 
group called " Whalebone Whales " in which a series 
of horny plates called baleen or more familiarly 
" Whalebone" grow from the palate in place of teeth, 
and serve to strain the water taken into the mouth 
from the small marine animals on which these 
whales subsist. Four distinct types or genera are 
represented in the collection, the Balaena or right 
whales, of which the well-known Balaena tnysticetus 
of the Artie seas is a fine representative. It yields 
whalebone of the greatest value for commercial pur- 
poses ; the Neobalaena of which very little is known. 
One skeleton of this remarkable whale of small size 
(less than 20 feet) from New Zealand and Australia is 
placed on the left side of the room, near the 
windows ; the Megaptera or humpbacks, of which a 
skeleton is exhibited ; the Balaenoptera, containing 
the various species of Rorquals, Fin-whales, Fin-backs 
and the Finners or Razor-backs, which are found in 
almost every sea. 

Among them is the most gigantic of all animals, 
Balaenoptera sibboldi, which attains the length of 80 
feet, and is common in the seas between Scotland and 
Norway. Almost of equal colossal proportions is the 
common Rorqual {Balaenoptera musculus) found some- 
times on the English coast. The complete skeleton, 
68 feet long, from the Moray Frith, Scotland, where 
it was captured in 1882, shows extremely well the 
osteological characters of this group of whales. 

Another species not uncommon on the English 
coast is the small Balaenoptera rostrata, which 
never reaches 30 feet in length. 

Of the family Physeteridœ, including the great 
Sperm-whale or Cachalot (P/tyseter macrocephalus) 
I have already mentioned the skeleton exhibited in the 
Central Hall of the Museum. 

The order Cetacea is one of the best marked and 
most natural of all the larger groups of Mammalia. 

In all essential characters, by which Mammals are 
distinguished from the other vertebrated animals, 
such as possessing warm blood, breathing air by 
means of lungs, bringing forth their young alive, and 
nourishing them for a time with milk, they agree with 
the other members of their class ; the striking 
external differences being all in relation to their 
adaptation to an entirely aquatic mode of life. The 
animals of this order of Mammalia abound in all 
known seas and some species, among which 
Platanisla gangetica and Inia geoffrensis are in- 
habitants of the larger rivers of Central and South 
America and Asia. 

In size the Cetacea vary much, some of the smaller 
Dolphins scarcely exceeding four feet in length, while 
others are the most colossal of all animals. 

With some exceptions they are timid, inoffensive 
animals, active in their movements and very affectionate 
in their disposition towards one another— especially 
the mother towards the young, of which there is 



usually but one, and at most two, at a time. They 
are generally gregarious, swimming in herds, some- 
times amounting to many hundreds, though some 
species have hitherto only been met either singly or in 
pairs. 

The great commercial value of the oil, which all 
the Cetacea yield, and the special products useful to 
man of certain species, as whalebone, spermaceti, etc., 
cause some to be subject to an unremitting persecu- 
tion, which has of late greatly diminished their 
numbers, and threatens some of the most interesting 
species with total extermination. 

The existing members of the order are separated 
into very distinct suborders, having important dif- 
ferences in their structural characters, and with no 
transitional or intermediate forms. These are the 
Toothed Whales or Odontoceti, and the Baleen 
Whales or Mystacoceti. 

The first suborder, Odontoceti, or Delphino- 
idea, includes the families Physeteridae Platanistidae 
and Delphinidae. 

The second suborder, Mystacoceti or Balaeno- 
idea, includes the several genera of Whalebone 
Whales. 

EAST WING. 
GROUND FLOOR. 

Geological and Palaeontological Galleries. 

The ground floor of this wing consists, as on the 
other side of the building, of a gallery running west , 
and east the whole length of the wing in front, of a 
smaller parallel gallery behind it, and leading from 
the latter, a series of galleries running north and 
south. The whole of this floor is occupied by the 
collection of the remains of animals and plants 
which flourished in geological periods anterior to that 
in which we are now living. Some of these belong to 
species still existing upon the earth, but the great 
majority are extinct. 

SOUTH-EAST GALLERY. 

VERTEBRATE ANIMALS. 

Class /.—MAMMALIA. 

The cases in the South-East Gallery are devoted to 
the exhibition of the remains of animals of the class 
Mammalia, the great proportion of which are only 
met with as petrifactions, or fossils, in those newer 
layers known to geologists as the Tertiary and 
Quaternary deposits, forming the more superficial 
part of the earth's crust. Earlier traces of such 
higher class of animals are comparatively rare, but are 
met with in the Eocene formation, and a very few 
remains of the lower type, which are extremely small 
in size, occur in rocks of secondary age. Quite 
recently (1889) Professor O. C. March has discovered 
in the " Laramie " formation, in strata of cretaceous 
age, in Dakato and Wyoming territories, North 
America, numerous remains of small mammals having 
close affinities with those previously known and 
described, from strata of Triassic and Jurassic age. 



88 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[November i, 1891 



Many of the mammalia found fossil are extinct, but 
a very large number belong to forms closely related 
to, or even identical with, existitig terrestrial orders, 
such as the cat tribe, "lion and tiger," the dog, wolf, 
seal, bear and hyaena, the rhinoceros, horse, elephant, 
pig, etc. The deposits which have yielded the 
largest proportion of these remains are met with in 
caves and fissures in limestone rocks ; in old lake and 
river valley basins, shell marls and peat deposits, 
ancient forest beds covered up and submerged, and 
delta deposits formed in the estuaries of great rivers. 

Primates. — Man and Monkeys. 
In Table Case No. 1 are placed various human 
remains from Kent's Cavern and other caves ; also 
remains of Quadrumana, or Monkeys. In Pier Case 
No. 2 is placed the fossil human skeleton brought from 
Guadaloupe, in the West Indies, by Sir Alexander 
Cochrane, and presented to the Museum by the 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 

Carnivora {Flesh-eating Animals'). 

In Table Case No. 2, Pier Case No. 3, are exhibited 
the remains of a large number of carnivorous animals, 
chiefly from caves, representing the Lion, Lynx, 
Hysena, Wolf, Fox, Dog, Badger, Glutton, Otter, 
Weasel and many others. The skull of the Great 
Sabre-toothed Tiger, Machaerodus neogaeus, is very 
remarkable for the enormous development of the 
canine teeth. 

In Pier Case No. 4 are exhibited the skeleton of the 
great Cave Bear, Ursus spelaeus from the Pleistocene 
cave deposits of Lozère, France. 

In Table Case No. 3 are exhibited remains of the 
Grizzly Bear (?) Ursus horribilis, from caves in 
England and other countries ; also Marine Carnivora 
(Seals and Walruses), comprising a good series of the 
tusks of a large extinct Walrus ( Trichechus Huxleyi), 
from the red crag of Suffolk. 

PROBOSCIDEA (Elephants). 

The cases on the north side of this gallery are 
nearly entirely devoted to the exhibition of the 
largest series of the fossil remains of the Elephants, 
Mastodon and Dinotherium. This collection of skulls, 
tusks and models of all the principal forms is very 
extensive (probably the largest brought together in 
any museum), and very valuable. 

Among the most remarkable fossil remains ex- 
hibited in Table Cases No. 5 — 15 a, I will mention 
the restoration of Tinoceras ingens Marsh, extinct 
herbivorous animal ; a fine series of casts, skulls and 
bones of the Dinocerata, presented by Professor 
Marsh ; the incisor teeth, skull, lower jaw, and some 
limb bones of an animal named Toxodon, probably 
larger than a horse, but having incisor teeth in its jaw. 
Cast of the skeleton of Plienacodus primaevus, Cope, 
skull and lower jaw of Rhinocerus leptorhinus Owen ; 
R. megalodus, Cope and other extinct species of 
Rhinoceros ; Cast of the skeleton of Brontops 
robustus ; a restoration of the skeleton of Palaeo- 
therium, a form between the rhinoceros, tapir and horse. 

The deer tribe, Cervidae are well represented both 
by entire skeletons in the centre of the gallery, and 
also by a fine series of detached heads and antlers of 
various species upon the pier-cases. 



The most remarkable is the gigantic Irish deer, 
Megaceros giganteus, of which remains have been met 
with, in considerable numbers, in Ireland. 

Among Sirenia the skeleton of the living Manatee, 
Manatus americanus found in Central and South 
America, and that of Rhytina gigas or Sea-cow are 
very interesting, as' also the fossil remains of Cetacea ; 
the restored skeleton of Scelidotherivm leptocephalum, 
Owen ; and the skeleton of the extinct gigantic 
Armadillo, Glyptodon clavipes, Owen. 

AVES (BIRDS). 

Among the birds, the ArcJia'eptoryx macrura seems 
to be the oldest fossil b : rd at present discovered. 
This remarkable long-tailed bird was obtained from 
the lithographic stone of Eichstadt, near Solen- 
hofen, in Bavaria. In the same Table Case No. 13 
are exhibited twenty-six casts of bones of the extra- 
ordinary Hesperornis regalis, a large toothed bird, 
measuring nearly six feet from the extremity of the 
bill to the end of the toes. 

Along with this remarkable form of toothed wingless 
birds, there is another, named by Professor Marsh 
Ichthyornis, which had well-developed powerful wings 
aud a strongly kernel sternum. Its jaws were armed 
with teeth, placed in distint sockets, and its vertebrae, 
unlike those of other birds, were biconcave, as is the 
case in a few recent and in many extinct reptiles. 

The next oldest birds whose remains are preserved 
in this case are from the London clay of the Isle ot 
Sheppey. 

One of these, Dasornis londiniensis, represented by 
a single imperfect skull, was as large as an ostrich and 
probably closely related to that bird. 

Table Case No. 12 and Wall Cases Nos. 23 and 24 
are mostly occupied with remains of the great extinct 
wingless bird the Moa or Dinornis from New 
Zealand. Professor Owen has described no fewer 
than eighteen species of these extinct running birds 
varying in size from three to upwards or ten feet in 
height, and differing greatly in their relative forms, 
some being tall and slender and probably swift-footed, 
like the modern ostritch, whilst others were short and 
very stout-limbed as in the specimen of Dinornis 
elephantopus, which was undoubtedly a bird of great 
strength, but very heavy footed. 

Five nearly entire skeletons of Dinornis are placed 
in glass-cases P., R., and S. 

In the wall-case, between the windows at the south- 
east corner of the Pavillion are placed a tibia and 
plaster-casts of other bones, also two entire eggs, 
many broken pieces, and one plaster cast of an egg, 
of an extinct wingless bird, named Aepyornis 
(probably much larger than an Ostrich) found in the 
superficial deposits of the Inland of Madagascar. 
One of the eggs of this bird measures 3 feet in 
its longest circumference and 2 feet 6 inches in girth, 
and its liquid contents equal a little more than two 
gallons. The size of these eggs, being about four 
times larger than the egg of the living ostriches, it is 
probable that the size of this extinct bird was larger 
in the same proportion. They are much larger in 
size than the eggs of Dinornis. 

In the same case may be seen bones of the Dodo 
(Didus ineptus), from Mauritius, and a mounted 



November i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



89 



skeleton of the Great Auk {Alca impennis), from Funk 
Island. 

RFPTILIAN GALLERY. 

This gallery is devoted to the exhibition of the 
remains of fossil Reptilia, which includes the 
Tortoises and Turtles, Snakes, Lizards, Crocodiles, 
and a large number' of extinct forms. Like the 
Mammalia, the reptilian class lived both on land and 
in the water. One group, now extinct, possessed, 
like the Bats and the Birds, the power of flight. 

The remains of these Winged Lizards {Pterosauria) 
are exhibited in Wall Case No. 1, and in Table Cases 
Nos. 1 and 2. They are exceedingly remarkable. 
The series of Crocodiles and Land Lizards' skulls and 
bones is very interesting. The portions of the 
skeletons of Scelidosaurus Harrisoni and Iguanodon 
mantelli is one of the largest of the great extinct land 
reptiles, some of which certainly rivalled the elephant 
in bulk. Other very interesting forms exhibited 
among the carnivorous Reptiles are the Fish-Lizards 
{Icthyosaurd), remarkable by their long jaws, which 
are armed with powerful teeth implanted in groves. 
The skull had very large orbits, and the eyes 
were surrounded by a ring of broad bony plates. 
The hand and foot are modified into fin-like organs, 
composed of short polygonal bones, arranged in five 
closely approximated rows, with supernumerary rows 
of marginal ossicles added. 

The largest entire Icthyosaurus is from Lyme Regis, 
and measures 22 feet in height and 8 feet across 
the expanded paddles, but they often attained a far 
larger size than this. 

The Chelonia (Tortoises and Turtles) are exhibited 
in two wall-cases and three table-cases placed in the 
West Corridor, which connects the Mammalian with 
the Reptilian Galleries. In Wall Case 12 are placed 
the remains of a remarkable extinct Chelonia named 
Miolania Oweni, from Australia. 

In Wall Case No. 13 is exhibited the skeleton of 
the Long-necked Sea-Lizard. Plesiosaurus, from the 
Lias of Lyme, Regis, Dorset. 

Another interesting form of Lizard (snake-like in 
form) is Bothriceps huxleyi, from South Africa. 

GALLERIES RUNNING NORTH FROM THE 
REPTILIAN GALLERY. 

There are seven galleries running at right angles 
to the Reptilian Gallery, about 140 feet in length, 
three of which are forty feet in breadth and four of 
half that width. The first narrow gallery is occupied 
by the General Library. 

The first wide Gallery is devoted to the exhibition 
of the Fossil Fishes, and contains thirty two Table- 
cases and about 260 feet linear of Wall-cases. 

Here are exhibited the finest known collection of 
Fossil Fishes. Lately it has received two splendid 
additions by the acquisition of the famous collection 
of the Earl of Enniskilen and that of the late Sir 
Philip de Malpas Grey-Egerton. 

In narrow Gallery No. 7 are displayed the fossils 
Cephalopoda, being the first section of the Inverte- 
brate animals and the highest division of the 
Molluscan Class. A Table-case is devoted to the 
Pteropoda or Wing Shells. 



The second of the wide Galleries has thirty two 
Table-cases and Wall-cases. In it are placed the 
remaining groups of the Mollusca, viz, the Gasteropoda, 
the Lamellibranchiata, and the Brachiopoda. It also 
contains the Polyzoa, the Insecta, and Crustacea, the 
Annelida, and Echinodermata. 

{To be continued?) 



"World's Columbian Exposition." 

♦ 

BATIMENT DE L'ADMINISTRATION. 

C'est l'opinion d'un bien grand nombre d'architectes 
que le tableau architectonique de l'Exposition de 
Chicago excellera toutes les expositions précédentes. 

Quoique une telle opinion, pourrait être influencée 
par l'orgueil patriotique, il est néanmoins certain que 
l'Exposition offrira beaucoup de points et groupes qui 
seront au moins nouveaux dans leur genre ; l'on peut 
dire en même temps que peu d'édifices, tellement 
magnifiques et d'une telle beauté comme ceux-ci, ont 
jamais été construits. 

Le tableau en général se divise en trois groupes. 
Les édifices des différents Etats de l'Union et des 
Gouvernements étrangers se trouveront sur la partie 
du nord, au milieu des améliorations déjà existantes. 
Ils sont situés au long de promenades, formant ainsi 
des groupes pittoresques, ou dessous des arbres om- 
breux, aux bords des lacs ou à côté de larges pelouses. 
Le centre de ce groupe principal est formé par le 
Palais des Arts. 

A l'extrémité sud-ouest de ce groupe se trouve, sur 
une péninsule qui entre au nord de la lagune, mettant 
de cette manière ce groupe en rapport avec le plus 
rapproché, dont le centre n'est pas formé par un grand 
édifice, mais par une grande île boisée, entourée de 
canaux, aux bords desquels ces bâtiments sont situés. 
Ceux de ces derniers, qui se trouvent au sud de ce 
groupe, forment à leur tour une transition au troisième 
au sud. 

Quant aux bâtiments, on peut dire que ce dernier 
groupe paraît égal au groupe principal, vu qu'il con- 
tient les plus importants des édifices internationaux. 

Par contraste au groupe central, où la nature pré- 
domine autant que possible dans une telle entreprise, 
l'architecture est le principe fondamental du groupe 
plus au nord et supérieur. 

L'horticulture vient aider ici, et la proximité de la 
grande mer méditerranée a servi à créer de grandes 
voies d'eau, offrant ainsi un nombre de vues splen 
dides. 

Pour compléter ce groupe il y faut ajouter une 
longue jetée promenade et le Casino. C'est ici que 
la jetée, ayant 1,500 pieds de longueur, s'étendra vers 
l'est sur le lac, en se ramifiant à son bout en deux 
branches qui se dirigent au nord et au sud. Sur 
celle du nord il y a le Casino, d'où, regardant vers la 
terre, l'on voit le centre de ce groupe principal. Nous 
voyons de ce point premièrement un grand demi- 
cercle, formé par des larges courbes de ponts au des- 
sous desquels les eaux du Lac Michigan versent dans 
le bassin qui se dirige étroitement vers l'ouest, en termi- 
nant au fond du terrain de l'Exposition. 



9° 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[November i, 1891 



Treize colonnes élancées, portant des figures allé- 
goriques qui représentent les treize premiers Etats de 
l'Union de l'Amérique du Nord, sont placées sur ces 
ponts. 

Au milieu du cercle, dont ces colonnes font partie, 
se lève dans le bassin une immense statue de la Liberté, 
tandis que de larges pelouses et plants de fleurs 
courent autour du bassin vers l'ouest. 

Au nord et au sud de ces plants de fleurs il y a, 
parallèlement au bassin, des larges sentiers, et des deux 
côtés de ces promenades seront placés quelques-uns 
des principaux bâtiments internationaux. Au nord, 
près du côté du lac, l'on voit la façade sud du grand 
palais des manufactures, vers l'ouest le bâtiment de 
l'Exposition d'Electricité et derrière, celui des Mines. 

Au sud, en face du Palais des Manufactures, se 
trouve l'Exposition Agricole, en face des autres deux 
bâtiments, le Palais des Machines. 

Placé au centre de l'espace, entre le Palais des 
Machines et de l'Electricité, on trouve le bâtiment de 
l'Administration qui forme le milieu et en même 
temps le couronnement de ce groupe. Les édifices 
environnants sont tous à peu près de la même hauteur. 
Le bâtiment de l'Administration est muni d'un dôme 
gigantesque qui donne au groupe une apparence 
majestueuse. 

Il sera probablement le plus beau et le plus élégant 
de tous les édifices qui se trouveront à l'Exposition 
de 1893, vu qu'il sera magnifiquement décoré et en 
proportion de ses dimensions, le plus dispendieux, 
La hauteur du bâtiment, qui est situé sur une terasse 
plus élevée que les autres, sera de 250 pieds. Son 
grand dôme sera visible de partout, et la vue que l'on 
jouira d'ici sur tout le terrain de l'Exposition sera 
magnifique. 

Le bâtiment de l'Administration coûtera $650,000. 
Le plan a été fait par Mr. Richard M. Hunt, de New 
York, Président de l'Institut Américain des Archi- 
tectes, qui est en même temps le Président du Conseil 
des Architectes de l'Exposition Universelle. La con- 
struction prendra la forme d'un carré et aura une 
longueur de 250 pieds. A ses quatre coins l'édifice 
est sous-divisé en quatre pavillons de 84 pieds chacun. 
De cette manière restera un espace de 32 pieds au 
milieu de chaque côté, où se trouvera un grand portail. 
Le centre du bâtiment entre les pavillons forme une 
rotonde, au-dessus de laquelle se trouve le dôme. 
L'ensemble de tout les bâtiments est de style renais- 
sance française. Au rez-de-chaussée prédomine l'ordre 
dorique, aux coins des quatre pavillons qui auront 65 
pieds d'hauteur ressautent des piliers immenses, qui 
soutiennent des groupes allégoriques en marbre. 

Le deuxième étage aussi de 65 pieds d'hauteur, 
mais d'une circonférence plus petite est la continuation 
delà rotonde intérieure, et aura 175 pieds carrés de 
diamètre. Il est entouré d'une colonnade ouverte 
de colonnes ioniques de 20 pieds de largeur sur 40 
pieds de hauteur. La colonnade est séparée aux 
quatre coins par des pavillons de toits aplatis, pen- 
dant que les quatre piliers sont munis de figures 
sculptées. De larges escaliers donnent accès du 
terrain uni à la colonnade. 

Le dessus de cet étage sert de base au dôme. Une 
base octogone se lève à une hauteur de 30 pieds et 
c'est au-dessus d'elle que se soulève le dôme qu^est 



doré, partiellement mêlé d'un bleu foncé, avec des 
sculptures superbes. 

La rotonde est éclairée par le jour qui entre par le 
sommet du dôme couvert de verre. A chaque coin 
de la base octogone du dôme il y a des grands aigles 
sculptés, pendant que les panneaux sont ornés de haut 
reliefs. Les quatre principaux portails aux côtés ont 
50 pieds de largeur et la même hauteur ; les voûtes 
magnifiquement décorées au-dessus des portails sont 
en plein cintre. Par dessus les grandes portes, qui se 
trouvent au bout intérieur des ces portails, sont placées 
des grandes fenêtres, avec un balcon mettant en 
rapport les différents pavillons. 

La décoration intérieure de l'édifice sera, si c'est 
possible, encore plus riche que l'extérieur. Les 
entrées aux différent bureaux se trouvent dans un 
corridor de 30 pieds de long et de la même largeur, 
qui sort chaque fois entre deux portails. La commu- 
nication avec les étages supérieurs est établie par des 
escaliers tournants et par des ascenseurs. La division 
de l'édifice en huit parties par les pavillons se trouve 
aussi dans l'intérieur, où huit arcs correspondent à 
ceux au-dessus des portails. 

Une frise d'une largeur de 27 pieds, décorée de 
tablettes et d'inscriptions, les premières avec des 
figures en bas-relief, se trouve sur ces voûtes. 

L'étage supérieur de la rotonde est fermé par une 
corniche richement décorée qui porte un balcon pas- 
sant tout autour du bâtiment au niveau de la colonnade 
extérieure. 

Au-dessus de ce balcon il y a un second étage de 
50 pieds de diamètre, dont le plafond repose sur 
des pilastres, entre lesquels se trouvent des fenêtres 
ayant vue sur la colonnade. Le dôme intérieur de 
200 pieds de hauteur aura à son couronnement une 
ouverture de 50 pieds de diamètre qui permettra l'en- 
trée du jour par le dôme extérieur. La rotonde sera 
magnifiquement décorée. 

Les quatre principaux pavillons, de la partie infé- 
rieure du bâtiment sont sous-divises chacun en quatre 
étages qui serviront de bureaux à l'Administration. 

Un des pavillons contiendra au niveau du terrain 
un poste de police et d'incendie, dans un autre il y 
aura l'ambulance et les chambres pour les médecins 
et le pharmacien ainsi que le département des affaires 
étrangères et d'informations. Dans le troisième se 
trouve le bureau de poste et une banque, et enfin dans 
le dernier la salle d'attente et un restaurant. 

Aux quatre étages seront placés les bureaux du 
Directeur Général, des différents comités, et le 
département de la Publicité. 

L'on peut dire que c'est quelque chose de parti- 
culier, non-seulement de cet édifice mais du plan 
entier de l'Exposition, que le bâtiment de l'Admini- 
stration, qui occupe usuellement un rang inférieur, est 
dans ce cas le bâtiment le plus magnifique, formant 
le point central du groupe principal. 

On se propose d'en faire un bâtiment monumental, 
le seul de ce genre à l'Exposition. 

M. P. Handy, 

Chef de Bureau. 

Aymé, 

Chargé de la Presse étrangère. 



November 



c8 9 i] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



NOVEMBER LIST OF STAMPS 

ON SALE BY 

Messrs. BOUCARD, POTTIER & Co. 
225, High Holborn, 

London, W.C. 
(All Stamps guaranteed Genuine.) 

Belgium, 1849, 10?. brown <fc 20c. blue, the pair 

,, 1870-78, 5 Fr., light brown, unused 

British East Africa, 1890, £ anna on Id black & lilac 

unused or used 

British East Africa, 1890 1 anna oq 2d black, greeu 

& red unused 10s, used 

British East Africa, 1890, 4 annas, on 5d black, lilac 

& blue, unused 

British Guiana, 1862, Provisional, 2 cents, black on 

yellow, crossed ovals 

British Guiana, 1889, 48c. purple & orange red 

Brunswick, 1851, 2 sil. gros, blue 

Canada, 1851, 6d : sterling gieen 

„ ,, lOd ,, blue 

Cape of Good Hope, 1854 — 64, Is green 

Ceylon, 1857—61 2d green 

„ 1861—63 4d oct. rose (fine) 

„ ,, 8d ,, brown do 

Costa Rica, set of 9 

Denmark, 1851, 2 rigsbank skil. blue 

Dutch Indies, 1864, 10 cents crimson perf. ... 

Egypt., 1888, 10 piastres, violet 

Fiji Islands, 1874, 6 cents black & green (fine) 

., 1872, 12 cents, black & rose do. 

France, 1852, 10 centimes buff (fine) ... 

Great Britain, 1880, 2s, red brown ... 

1881—83, 2s 6d, 5s, 10s, the three ... 

„ 1884, £1, marone 

,, 1888, £1, do. wmk. 3 orbs, rare ... 

„ 1883 — 90, set of 8 Gov. parcels stamps, 

the set 

Hamburg, 1864, 7 Fchill. yellow perf 

Hanover, 1856, 3 pfen . large net work, black and rose 

Holland, 1872—88, 2 guil. 50 c, rose & blue 

Hong-Kong, 1863 — 71, 13c, lilac, wmk. c c & crown 

rare 

India, 1886, provisional surcharged in tall letters, 

6 annas, lilac & green 

India, 1886. surcharged in short letters, 6 annas, 

lilac & green 

Italy, 1879, 30 cent, brown unused ... 

Japan, 1876—79, 45 sen red unused rare 

Luxemburg, 1863, 37£ c, preen 

Mauritius, 1863 — 72, 5s mauve 

Natal, 1857 — 58, 3d rose, very fine 



s. 


d. 





6 


6 


6 


7 


6 


12 


6 


20 





60 





1 


6 


5 





15 





10 





7 


6 


1 


3 


15 





40 





2 





4 





2 








9 


25 





6 





3 


6 


20 





1 


6 


3 





4 


6 


6 





8 


6 


4 


6 





6 


5 





3 


6 


6 





1 


3 


7 


6 


3 





3 


6 


16 






STAMPS (continued). s. 

Nevis, 1861, Id dull rose unused 3 

„ ,, 6d grny-lilac, fine... .. ... ... 10 

New South Wales, 1850, Id red very fine 30 

,, ,, 2d blue do. do ... ... 25 

,, 1R88, 5i purple wmk. 5s rare ... 7 

New Zealand, 1856, 2 \ blue 4 

„ 1862 — 63, 6d brown, pelure paper ... 7 

„ ,, Is green, do. do. ... 10 

,, ,, 61 brown, do. do.perf. fine 20 

Oldenburg, 1859, 2 gros, black on rose 12 

„ „ 3 „ „ on yellow 12 

,, 1861, J ,, green 16 

Poland, 1859. 10 kopecs, blue & red 2 

Queensland, 6d yellow, registered, used fine 6s, unused 10 

Rojinania, 1873 — 79, 5 bani blue (error unused) ... 10 

,, ,, 5 do, rose ,, ... 10 

South Australia, 1859, Is yellow, or orange, each ... 5 
Spain, City of Madrid, 1 cuaro bronce, very fine, 

unused 22 

Straits Settlements, 1867, 12 cents, red & green, fine 10 

Sweden, 6 skill, banco, grey fine ... ... ... 5 

Tasmania, 1852 Id blue, fine 35 

Trinidad, set of 5 unpaid letter stumps ... ... 4 

Tuscany, 1850, 1 sold , yellow 14 

United States, 1851 — 60, 5 cents brown unu°ed fine 7 

,, 24 cents, lilac unused fine ... ... 4 

„ 1861 — 6ti, 90 cents, biue, unused fine 10 

,, ,, 5 do., yellow, used fine 10 

„ 1869, 15 cents blue & brown ... ... 2 

,, ,, 24 ,, purpl" & green... ... 8 

„ 30 ,, red & blue 3 

,, Navy, 1 cent blue 

9 ft 

,, ,, .j ,, ,, ... ... ... \j 

3 ft 

,, ,, ir ,, ,, ... ... ... \J 

,, ,, O,, ,, ... ... ... o 

,, )) J-U ,, ,, ... ... ... X 

,, „ 12 ,, ,, ... ... ... 2 

,, ,, oO ,, ,, ... ,- ... & 

,, War, complete set unused ... ... 7 

Victoria, 1856, Too Late unused fair copy 60 

Western Australia, 1855, 4d blue, unused fine ... 7 

,, 1862, Is screen, unused fine ... 20 

Wiirtemburg, 1853, 18 Kr. blue fine ... 15 

Wholesale lots of Stamps present issues. 



d 











6 

6 









6 

6 









6 





6 
6 


6 

6 
9 
9 
4 
4 
6 

6 


6 





New South Wales, Id violet 
2d blue 

New Zealand, Jd red 

„ Id ,, 

Queensland, Id red 

South Australia, £d small brown 
Victoria, £d rose... 

„ Id brown 

Great Britain, Gov. Parcels l|d 

6d... 
,, Id black fine 



6d per 100 

-*- R II II 

I 9 II II 

6d ,, ,, 

6d ,, „ 

2s „ „ 

*s ,, ,, 

lS 11 11 
2s doz. 
3s „ 

Is 6d ,, 



FOR SALE. 
Books on Natural History, etc. 

Atlas d'Ornithologie ou Collection choisie d'Oiseaux 
les plus connus dessinés d'après nature par 
Martinet, Paris, 1784. 
1 Vol. grand in folio, in magnificent condition. 
Contents : Epître à Buffon, Tableau général 
du classement des Oiseaux divisés d'après 
Buffon en neuf Ordres et cent un Genres ou 
Familles. 150 splendid coloured plates par 
Martinet. Exceedingly rare, perhaps uni- 
que- £$o. 

Agassiz — Nomenclator Zoologicus, Soloduri, 1842- 
1846, gros vol. in 410. ... ... 40s. 



— Nomenclatoris Zoologici, index universalis Solo- 

duri, 1848, ini2mo ... ... ... ios. 

— De l'espèce et des classifications en Zoologie, 

1 vol. in 8vo ... ... ... ... 4s. 

America, by John Ogilby, Esq., London, 167 1. 
Grand in folio, 675 pages, 121 splendid 
Engravings and Maps. j£> 10 - 

Boucard, A. — Catalogius Avium; contenant 2,456 
genres et 11,030 espèces, avec une nouvelle 
classification systématique. Londres, 1876, 
1 vol. in 8vo... ... ... ... ios. 

— Monographie List of the Genus Plusiotis, with 

description of new species. (From the Pro- 
ceedings of the Zoological Society of London), 
1874. Brochure in 8vo, avec planche 
coloriée ... ... ... ... 4s. 

— La même, planche noire ... ... 2s. 



VI 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[November i, 1891 



Boisduval — Lépidoptères de la Californie, Bruxelles, 
1869, br. in 8vo ... ... ... 4s. 

Bonaparte — Conspectus generum avium, 1850-1857. 
2 vol. ... ... ... ... ... 50s. 

— Geographical and. Comparative list of the birds 

of Europe and North America, 8vo... 6s. 

Clara y Sucinta Exposicion del pequeno Catecismo 
impreso en el idioma Mexicano, por un 
Sacerdote devoto de la Madré santissima de 
la Luz, etc. Puebla, 1819. 1 Vol., 67 double 
pages, one side in Mexican, the other in 
Spanish ... ... ... ... 40s. 

Candèze — Histoire des métamorphoses de quelques 
coléoptères exotiques, Liège, 186 1, 1 vol. in 
8vo, 6 planches noires ... ... 2s. 6d. 

— Monographie des Elatérides, Liège, 185 7-1863, 

4 vol. in 8vo, 25 pi. noires ... ... 32s. 

— Elatérides nouveaux (Complément à la mono- 

graphie), Brux. 1864, in 8vo, br. ... is. 6d. 

Castelnau et Blanchard — Histoire naturelle des In- 
sectes, avec une introduction par Brullé, 3 vol. 
in 8vo... ... ... 40s. 

Catalogue des Coléoptères d'Europe (extrait du 
Généra des Coléoptères d'Europe de Jacquelin 
du Val et Fairmaire) vol. in 6 ... 3s. 6d. 

Catalogue of Coleopterous Insects in the collection of 
the British Museum, with descriptions of new 
species. 

— - Longicornia, Part I. et IL, par Adam White, 

2 vol. in 8vo ... ... ... ... 8s. 

— Cassididse, par Boheman, 1 vol. in 8vo... 5s. 

— Cucujidae, par J. Ed. Gray ,, „ is. 

— Cleridse, par Adam White ,, ,, ... 2s. 6d. 

— Passalidse, Buprestidae, par Smith, 1 vol. 

in 8vo ... ... .. ... .. is. 

Chenu — Leçons élémentaires sur l'histoire naturelle, 
Conchyologie, Paris, 1847, 1 vol. gr. in 8vo, 
planches coloriées ... ... ... 20s. 

— Manuel de Conchyologie et Paléontologie con- 

chyologique contenant la description et la 
représentation de près de 5,000 coquilles. 
Paris, 1862, 2 vol. in 4to, planches noires et 
coloriées ... ... ... ... 30s. 

— Encyclopédie d'histoire naturelle, ou Traité com- 

plet de cette science : — Mammifères, 5 vol. ; 
Oiseaux, 6 vol. ; Reptiles et Poissons, 1 vol. ; 
Coléoptères, 3 vol. ; Lépidoptères, 2 vol. ; 
Crustacés, Mollusques, et Zoophytes, 1 vol. ; 
Annelés, 1 vol. ; Botanique, 2 vol. ; Miné- 
ralogie, Géologie, Races humaines, 1 vol. Le 
tout complet ... ... ... ... 100s. 

chaque volume séparément ... ... 5s, 

Crotch — Synopsis coleopterum europae et confinium. 
London, 1871, in 8vo ... ... 2s. 

— Check List of the Coleoptera of America, north 

of Mexico, Salem, Mass., in 8vo ... 6s. 

— Catecismo y Declaracion de la Doctrina Chris- 

tiana en lengua Otomi, con un Vocabulario 
del mismo idioma, por el R. P. Joaquin Lopez 
Yepes, Mexico, 1826. 1 Vol. in 4to, 254 
pages ... ... ... ... 60s. 

Degland et Gerbe — Ornithologie européenne, 2 eme édi- 
tion, Paris, 1867 ... ... ... 24s. 



Deyrolle, Henri, Description des Buprestides de la 
Malaisie, recueillis par Wallace, 1865, 1 vol. 
in 8vo, 4 planches coloriées ... ... 12s. 

Diagrams of Natural History, edited by A. Boucard. 
20 sheets, 18-in. by 24-in., comprising 166 
Diagrams of Animals and Plants, life size, 
beautifully printed in colours, and 37 Natural 
specimens of Woods and Minerals, all neatly 
mounted on very stout cardboard, the set 
complete, with Manual ... ... 40s. 

{Quite indispensable for a school.} 
Duponchel — Catalogue méthodique des Lépidoptères 
d'Europe, Fort vol. in 8vo, de 523 pages 
broché... ... ... ... ... 6s. 

Duponchel et Guénée — Iconographie et histoire natu- 
relle des chenilles d'Europe, avec 93 magnifi- 
ques planches gravées et coloriées, nouvelle 
édition, publiée en 40 livraisons à if. Les 2 vol., 
reliés maroquin rouge, tranche dorée . 40s. 
Entomologist's Annual 1855-1891, foolscap, chaque 
année ... ... ... ... ... 3s. 

{En cours de piiblication.) 
Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, Nos. 1-86, chaque 
numéro .. ... ... ... is. 

(En cours de publication.) 

Etiquettes pour Insectes, Coquilles, etc. — Grande 

feuille 16x20 contenant 1326 étiquettes, 

avec le nom de tous les pays explorés par les 

voyageurs naturalistes. Chaque feuille est 

divisée en cinq parties: Europa, Asia, Africa, 

America, Australia, etc., et chaque partie est 

arrangée par ordre alphabétique. Un espace 

blanc a. ,été réservé sur chaque étiquette de 

façon à pouvoir y mettre le nom scientifique de 

l'espèce, et le nom du collecteur, la feuille. . . 3d. 

( Une grande réduction sera faite aux personnes 

qui commanderont plus de 100 feuilles à la fois.) 

Felder — Lepidopterologische Fragmente, Wien, 1859, 

in 4to, 1 1 pi. n. ... ... ... 15s. 

Felder G. et R., Diagnoses lepidopterologicae, Wien, 
1 vol. in 8vo, 240 pages ... ... 10s. 

Gemminger et Harold — Catalogus Coleopterum: — 
Vol. 1- — Cicindelida8,Carabid3e ... ... 15s. 

Vol. 2 — Dytiscidse Gyrinidse, Hydrophilidae Sta- 
phylinidae à Scaphiidae, inclus... ... us. 

Vol. 3 — Histeridse à Lucanidae, inclus ... 7s. 
Vol. 4 — Scarabaeidse ... ... ... 12s. 

Vol. 5 — ■ Buprestidse, Elateridse à Cebrionidas, 
inclus ... ... ... ... 9s. 

Vol. 6 — Rhypidoceridse Malacodermidae à 
Cioidae, inclus -. ... ... 7s. 

Vol. 7 — Tenebrionidse à Oedemeridse, inclus 14s. 
Vol. 8 — Curculionidas ... ... ... 15s. 

Vol. 9 — Scolytidae à Cerambycidse (Prionini, 
Cerambycini) ... ... ... 13s. 

Vol. 10 — Cerambycidse Bruchidse ... 12s. 

Vol. 11 — Chrysomelidse ... ... ... 12s. 

(Cet ouvrage est tout à fait indespensable pour un 
entomologiste.) 
Grose Smith and Kirby, Rhopalocera exotica, being 
illustrations of new, rare, or unfigured species 
of Butterflies, \ with coloured drawings and 
descriptions, \ folio, Part 1 to 14 inclusive ^4, 
each, part published at ... ... 7s. 6d. 



November i> 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



vu 



6s. 

i 
each 

3S. 



Godart et Duponchel — Histoire naturelle des Lépi- 
doptères, d'Europe, 18 vol. in 8vo, 548 plan- 
ches col. £ 2 ° 

Gurney — Catalogue of Raptorial Birds, Parts I. in 
8vo 6s. 

Harting— The Birds of Middlesex, 8vo ... 9s. 

Historia de la Conquista de Mexico, etc., by Don 
Antonio Solis Brusselas, 1741 
1 Vol. in folio, 276 pages, 13 Engravings and 
Maps. Pages 1 to 9 slightly stained... ,£10. 

Historia General des las Cosas de Nueva Espana, by 
Rev. Bernardino de Sahagun, con notas y su- 
plementos, por Carlos Maria de Bustamente, 
Mexico, 1829. 4 vols, in 410., uncut... £5. 

Historia de las Conquistas de Hernando Cortez, por 
Francisco Lopez de Gomara, con varias notas 
y addiciones, por Carlos Maria de Busta- 
mante, Mexico, 1826. 1 vol. in 4to, 315 

P-P £ 2 - 

Ibis — A Quarterly Journal of Ornithology, each 
part 
En cours de publication. {Très recommandé. 

Insectaf saundersiana, Part 1-8, 8vo, sewed, 
part 
Ditto ditto. Part 9 

Jacquelin Du Val et Fairmaire. Genera des Coléop- 
tères d'Europe, représentant plus de 1,500 
types d'après nature et coloriés avec le plus 
grand soin, 4 vol. cartonnés, 303 pi. col. (mag- 
nifique ouvrage) ... ... ... ;£l2. 

Jekel — Catalogus Curculionidum, 1 vol. in i2mo. 2s. 

— Insecta Saundersiana Curculionides, Part I. 154 

pages 5s. 

— Ditto ditto ditto Part IL 225 5s. 
Kirby, W. F. — European Butterflies and Moths, 

1 Vol. \ folio, 427 pages, 61 coloured plates. 
London, 1882... ... ... ... 32s. 

— Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera, 1870, 1 vol. 

in 8vo. 690 pages ... ... ... 24s. 

Kampuysens Stichtelyke Rymen, by M. Mathieu, 

Rotterdam 1688. 1 Vol. in 8vo., 680 Pp. £\. 
Lacordaire (Th.) — Monographie des Coléoptères sub- 

pentamères Phytophages, 2 vol. gr in 8vo. 

Liège, 1848 ... ... ... ... 20s. 

— Généra des Coléoptères, Tome I-XII. en 14 vol. 

in 8vo. et 13 livr. de planches noires ... £6. 

— Coloriées. Ouvrage complet ... ... £&. 

Latreille — Cours d'entomologie, 1 gros vol. in 8vo. 

et un atlas de 24 planches ... ... 15s. 

Manual of Natural History, with many illustrations, 
edited by A. Boucard ; second edition, 1 vol. 

in 8vo., London, 1876 ... ... 4s. 

Milne Edwards — Eléments de Zoologie, 2ème édition, 

Paris, 1840 — 1843, 1 vol. in 8vo ... 16s. 

— Histoire naturelle des Crustacés, Paris, 1837 — 

1840, 3 vol. in 8vo, avec 42 planches 30s. 

— Coloriées ... ... ... ... 40s. 

— Zoologie, 1 vol ... ... ... ... 6s. 

Mulsant (E.) — Lettres à Julie sur l'entomologie, 

Lyon, 1830, 2 vol. in 8vo. 15 planches 
coloriées ... ... ... ... 30s. 

Mulsant (E.) — Essai d'une classification méthodique 
des Trochilidés ou Oiseaux Mouches, 1 vol. in 

8V0. 98 p 2S. 



8vo, 

40s., 

60s. 



Mulsant et Verreaux. — Histoire naturelle des Oiseaux. 

Mouches ou Colibris constituant la famille de* 

Trochilidés ... £16 

Marseuil l'Abeille— Journal d'Entomologie, spéciale 

ment consacré aux Coléoptères, iere Série, 

1864 — 1867, tomes I. à VI ... ... 75s. 

chaque volume séparément ... ... 155. 

2eme. Série, 1870 ... ... ... 15s. 

— Catalogus Coleopterum Europae, 1 vol. in 8vo. 2s. 
Murray— On the geographical distribution of Mam 

mais, 103 coloured plates and maps, 1 large 

vol. in 4to ... ... ... ... 50s. 

Nauman A. Nauman's Naturgeschichte der Vogel 

Deutschlands ; 13 vol. in 4 , 391 coloured 

plates, a magnificent copy, rare ... £25 
Pouchet — Zoologie classique, 2 vol. in 8vo, 1,300 

pages, atlas de 44 planches et 5 grands tableaux 

gravés sur acier, figures noires ... 20s. 

Ditto ditto coloriées ... 25s. 

Saunders, E. — Catalogus buprestidarum synonymi- 

cus et systematicus. Londres, 187 1, vol. 

in 8vo... ... ... ... ... 8s. 

Sclater et Salvin — Nomenclator Avium neotropi- 

calum ... ... ... ... ... 1 6s. 

Thomson, T. — Arcana Naturae. Grand in folio, Paris, 

1859, pi. noires 40s., coloriées ... 60s. 

— Archives entomologiques ou illustrations d'ln 

sectes, nouveaux et rares, grand in 
2 vol., Paris, 185 7- 185 8, pi. noires, 
coloriées ... 

— Essai d'une classification de la famille des Céram- 

bycides, grand in 8vo, 412 pages, 3 planches, 
Paris, i860 ... ... ... ... 24s. 

Thomson, T. — Monographie du genre Batocera, 
grand in folio, 3 pi. noires ... ... 12s. 

— Monographie de la famille des Cicindélides, 1857, 

grand in 4to, n planches noires, 20s., 
coloriées ... ... ... ... 24s. 

— Monographie de la famille des Monomides, i860, 

grand in 8vo, avec 3 planches coloriées 12s. 

— Monographie de la famille des Nilionides, in 8vo, 

4pl.n.... 8s. 

— Monographie du genre Spheniscus, grand in folio, 

2pl.n.... ... ... ... ... ios. 

Tezcoco en los ultimos tiempos de sus antiguos 
Reyes. Tomada de los manuscritos ineditos 
de Boturini y redactados por el Lie. Mariano 
Veytia, Mexico, 1826. 1 vol. iômo, 276 
pages ... ... ... ... ... 40s. 

Various Calendarios Mexicanos, 1830 to i860, is. 
and 2S. each. 

Zoological Report, 8vo, 30s. annually (1864 — 1891 
published) chaque volume ... ... 21s. 

(Ouvrage indispensable pour un zoologiste.} 

Zoological Society of London, Transactions, of pub- 
lished in four parts annually (57 vol. published) 
each part un-coloured, 3s., coloured 12s. 

(Price of each volume sent on application.} 

The Naturalist's Agency will procure to his 
Customers all the Scientific Works published in 
London at publisher's prices. 

Apply at Naturalist's Agency, 225 High Holborn, 
London, W.C. 



V1U 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



\November i, 1891 



BOUCARD, POTTÏ 






/-a 



NATURALISTS AND FEATHER MERCHANTS, 

22 25, Ki^fe Holborn, London, W.C., JESiaLjj 

COMMISSION. , EXPORTATION. 

Messrs. BOUCAKD, P0TT1ER & CO. offer to sell on commission all kinds of Objects of Natural 
History, Collections of Mammal and Bird Skins, Skeletons, Human and Animal Skulls, Insects of all 
orders pinned and set, or in papers ; Marine, Fresh Water, and Laud Shells ; Reptiles and Fishes in spirit ; 
Crustacea? and Arachnid» in spirit ; Ethnological collections from all parts ; Showy Bird Skins and 
Feathers for Plumassiers and Naturalists; Mammal Skins for Furriers; Bright species of Insects for 
Artificial Florists ; Rare old Stamps, used and unused; Curios of all sorts, Pictures and Works of Art, e'c, 
3tc, etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting Messrs. Boucard. Pottiei 
& Co., who having a large connection wi'h Amateurs in all parts of the world, are able to get the very best 
prices for them. 

Messrs. Boucard, Pottier & Co. beg to advise Directors of Museums and private Amateurs that they 
undertake to stuff from a Humming Bird to a Whale at very reasonable prices. Only experienced and 
scientific Taxidermists are employed by the hour for that work, which will always be of the best class. 

An inspection o: their Galleries, where a large number of specimens are always on show, is solicited. 

Special fabrication of Mammals and Birds EC yes at wholesale prices which defy all competition, either 
as quality or price. See special Advertisement. 

New Stands for Birds, suitable for Museums and Scientific Institutions. No one should be without 
them. The appearance of the Birds on these stands is unequalled, and everyone should adopt them and 
renovate the old ones. See Advertisement. 



TO BE LET OH SOLD 

SEVERAL PROPERTIES 

AT S JLN - R IB WL O, 

The celebrated Winter Resort on the Riviera, 
40 minutes from Monte Carlo. 

1° VILLA MARIA LUIGIA. 

A charming residence, standing in its own ground, situated 
Corso Levante on one side and the Beach on the otlier, at 
about 15 rninu-.es' walk from the centre of the town and 20 
from the station. Splendid vi>w in all directions, beautiful 
garden of about 2,000 mètres, in which a large space has been 
laid purposely for lawn, tennis and other games. 

Carriage and private entrances. 

Qumnash'c, Summer Houses, Aviary, Bathing Cabin, Sçc, 

Excellent water. 

Ground Floor. — Three fine rooms, full south, with 7 bay 
windows opening on the Garden, Kitchen, Offices, Cellar, &c. 

First Floor. — Three large and fine rooms, fuli south, tw- on 
the north side, all of them communicating. Magnificent for 
Receptions, Soirées, &a. Cloak Boom. 

■•".r.r-n'l Floor.— Vont large rooms, full south, one of them 
with dressing-room, three fine rooms on the north side. Cloak 
Room. Corridor in the middle. 

Size of Villa : length 18 metres, width 10 metres. 
Price francs 60,000 

LETTING. 

Unfurnished francs 3, 500 

Furnished, Winter season, 6 months , 2,500 

More the letting of the furniture according to the value of 

same required. 

Furnish»!, Summer season, 3 months. Price to agree. 



2° VILLAS RONDO 25, 27. 

, Two semi-detached Villas, full south, standing in their own 
ground of 1,000 mètres, situated on the Coeso Gababaldi, (the 
most pleasant walk of the town) hardly at 10 minutes walk 
from the central part of the town and 15 of the station. 

No. 25. — Ground Moor.— Three fine rooms, Kitchen, Office, 
and Cellar. 

First Floor. — Six comfortable rooms. 

No. 27 — Exactly she same, more Underground floor with 
kitchen and two large rooms. Front and back gardens. 

Price for the two villas francs 45,000 

Separately. 

No. 25 francs 25,000 

No. 27 francs 30,000 



LETTING. 

No. 25. — Unfurnished 

Furnished , winter season 

— summer season 
No. 27.— Unfurnished 

Famished, wimer season 

— summer season 

Separate floors can also be let with or without furniture. 



franss 1,000 

— 2,000 

— 1,000 
francs 1,250 

— 2,500 

— 1,250 



1 3° A PIECE OF LUND, about 350 metres. 

Full south, <>n the Vorso Mezzogiobno, two minutes from 
I the station and the pet, in the central part of the to «n. 

Price ••• ••• francs 15,000 



Letting 



francs 800 



Exchunge could be made for property situated in England. 
For further information, apply to 

M, A, BOUCARD, 
225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 



LONDON • Published by A. BOTJOARD, at 226, High Holborn, W.C. ; q id Printed at J. S. LEVIN'S Printing Works, 75, Leadenhall Street, E.O. 

Nêtemier 1, 1891. 




Gbe 




Ibumming JStrb 

A MONTHLY SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC, AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW. 



GUARANTEED CIRCULATION, 5000. 



VOL I., NO. 12. 



December 1, 1891. 



PRICE SIXPENCE. 



Annual Subscription: United Kingdom, Post free, 4 shillings ; all countries included in the Postal Union, 5 shillings. 

All other countries, 6 shillings. 




QLaa^xCos JSiovtco/tdv- 



EDITED UNDER THE DIRECTION 

OF 

MR. ADOLPHE BOUCARD, 

NATURALIST, 

Officier d'Académie, 1878; Knight of the Royal Military Order of the Conception, 1881 ; 
Knight OfHcet of the Royal Order of Cambodje, 1889 ; Knight Commander of the Royal Order of Isabelle la Catholique, 1882 ; 

Corresponding Member of the Zoological Society, London, 1865; 

de la fission scientifique française au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale, 1866; of the Royal Museum of Madrid, 1881; 

Commissioner for the Republic of Guatemala in the Paris International Exhibitions of 1878 and 1889 ; 

Member of the International Jury, Paris, 1889 ; Member of many scientific societies; 

etc. etc. etc. etc. 



CONTENTS OF No. 12.— DECEMBER 1, 1891. 



To |the Subscribers and Correspondents of the 

"Humming Bird." 
Books received. 
A Visit to the British Museum. Natural History 

Department. 



Canal de Panama. 
Obituary. 

New and Rare Species of Birds described in 
Vol. I. of the " Humming Bird." 




Back Numbers of Vol. I. of " The Humming Bird" can be had at One Shilling each. 
Vol. I. complete Ten Shillings. Only a few copies to dispose of. 

[Entered at Stationers' Hall.] 




11 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[December i, 1891 



FOR SALE.— Shells. 

Private Collection of Mr. Boucard. 
Land, Fluviatile and Marine Shells. 

Glandinidse, is. each. Helicidae, 6d. each. Bulimidae 
is. each. Achatinidse, is. each. Cylindrellidse, is. 6d. 
each. Clausilidse, 3*/. each. Ampularidae, 6d. each. 
Lymmea, Physa, and Planorbis, $d. each. Cyclosto- 
midae, 6d. each. Helicinidas, $d. each. Unio, 
Anodonta, and Ostrea, 6d. each. 

Marine Shells — All the Collection including 
Argonauta, Murex, Fusus, Triton, Ranella, Nassa, 
Oliva, Marginella, Harpa, Terebra, Conus, Sfrombus, 
Cypraea, Neritina, Patella, Chiton, Haliotis, Turbo, 
Venus, Cardium, &c, 6d. each. 

Can be divided if required. 

All applications to be made at the Journal's Office. 



FOR SALE. 

One of the most magnificent Collections of Marine, 
Fluviatile and Terrestrial Shells formed during the 
last forty years. 

It contains 9,761 species by 37,686 specimens, all 
of them in the most perfect condition. 

Species Specimens. 
Marine and Fresh Univalves 5238 21,314 
Bivalve, Marine and Freshwater 1850 5,900 

Foreign Land Shells 2673 | 9,442 

European „ 950 

Rare Shells in glass Cases 80 



9,761 37,686 

Very nearly all the rare species known are repre- 
sented in the Collection and sometimes by several 
specimens. 

For further informations and price, apply to Mr. 
A. Boucard 225, High Holborn, London, W. C. 

TO ETHNOLOGISTS AND OTHERS 



FOR SALE. 

Twenty finely carved An ows and 1 Bow from New Guinea 

Price 20s. 

African Bhinoceros War Club Price 30s. 

Three distinct Zulu War Clubs, made of iron wood and very 
nicely carved Price 30s. each. 

Pagaie from New Guinea, made of palm tree Price 30s. 

Magnificent Gold Antiquity from Panama, representing what 
appears to be Musicians, two large figures in the centre and 
six small ones round. It weighs 6 oz. 187 grammes. It is 
quite unique, and no Museum in the world possesses anything 
like it Price £50. 

A great variety of American Antiquities, chiefly from Central 
America, in hardstone, agathe, Idols, Vases, etc. from 5s. 

Modern pottery from Mexico and Central America 

from 6d. 
Statuettes representing the Indians of Mexico and Guatemala 

from 3s. 
Hats, Baskets, Mats and various Objects made with palm 
leaves and various textile plants, from Central America, Mada- 
gascar, New Guinea, etc. from 6d. 

Samples of Textile Fibres, Seeds, Owms, Resins, Medicinal 
Plants, etc. from Mexico and Central America from 6d. 

Old and Modern Coins from Mexico from 1b. 

Etc, etc., eta. 



Priced List of Utensils necessary for 
the collecting of Mammals and Birds 
Skins, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, Shells. 

Bicarbolic Acid... ... ... quart 2/- 

Rectified Benzoline ... ... „ 2/- 

Boucard's Insecticide ... ... lb. 4/- 

Ammonia ... ... ... ,, 4/- 

Collecting corked Box. ... from 1/- to 5/- each. 

Pocket corked Box, ... ... ... from 1/- 

Corked Box for Museums ... ... 24/- doz. 

„ „ and glazed, splendid make. 36/- „ 

Larger sizes can be supplied. 
Botanical box ... ... from 2/6 to 6/- each. 

Pin box, for 1 2 grosses of different sizes ... 1/6 
„ with 1000 pins... ... ... 3/- 

Sea compass, ... ... from 2/- to 50/- 

Collectting bottles with large opening from 6d. 
Boucard's tin collecting box with two partitions 2/- 
Straight Scissors ... ... ... from 2/- 

Curved „ .... ... ... ... ,, 2/- 

Taxidermist knifes ... ... ... „ 1/6 

Long Forceps ... .. ... „ 3/- 

Small „ ... ... ... ... ,, 1/- 

Insects' Nippers, ... ... ... „ 1/6 

Sieve ... ... ... ... ,, 2/- 

Blowpipe for cleaning eggs ... ... ,, 2/- 

Digger „ 2/- & 4/- 

Folding ditto ... ... ... ... „ 6/- 

InsectPins, English, French orGermanfromi/6 per 100c 
Steel Pins for setting butterflies ... „ 4/- per 1000 
Setting Boards ... ... ... 1/- to 3/- each 

Butterfly Nets complete ... ... from 1/6 to 6/- 

Sweeping and Water Nets ... ... ,, 2/6 

Cork in sheets ... ... ... ,, 3/- doz. 

Magnifying Glasses ... ... ... „ 1/- to 5/- 

Hammers ... ... ... ... „ 1/6 to 5/- 

Napthaline ... ... ... ... ,, 4/- per lb. 

Botanical Grey paper... ... ... ,, 6/- ream. 

Folding Umbrella for collecting Insects,, 10/- 
Steel Perforator for making holes in eggs „ 1/- 
Cutting pliers ... ... ... ,, 2/- 

Flat „ „ 1/- 

Arsenical Soap ... ... ... „ 2/- per lb. 

Glass Tubes for small Insects and shells ,, 1/- doz. 
Pill boxes for ditto .. . ... ... „ 4/- gross. 

Flax ... „ 6d. per lb 

Cotton wading per sheet ... ... ,, 6d 

Fishing rods with accessories from ,, 2/- 
Dredge for collecting shells, &c. ... ,, 40/- 

Taxidermisfs Case, containing 1 Pair of Scissors 
2 Knives, 1 Lime, 1 Grater, 2 Pliers, 1 Ham- 
mer, 1 pair of Forceps, 1 Brush, 3 Gimlets, 
etc., complete ... ... ... from 12/- to 40/- 

Shell-empting with handle .. . ... „ 1/- 

All other Utensils for Naturalists can be had at a 
short notice, 225, High Holborn, London, W. C. 
by ordering at the Naturalist's Agency. 

STANDS, NEW STYLE. 

Wholesale Price. 
No. 1 for Humming birds and Small birds at 20s. per hundred 
,, 2 ,, Small birds up to TanagerB at 24s. ,, 

,, 3 ,, Tanagers up to Magpies at 28s. „ 

,, 4 ,, Magpies up to Crows or Small 

Hawks at 32s. ,, 

„ 5 „ Small Hawks to Large Hawks 

and Owls at 40s. ,, 



December i, 1S91] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



m 



ARTIFICIAL EÏES. 

Wholesale Price. 



Black Coloured 



per gross 
No. 1 to 4 6d. 
5 „ 8 8d. 
9 „ 10 ls.Od. 
11 2s. Od. 



Is. 6d. 

2s. 6d. 
4s. Od. 
5s. 6d. 

12 2s. 3d. 7s. Od. 

13 2s. 6d. 10s. Od. 

doz. of pairs 

14 3s. Od. Is. 6d. 

15 3s. 6d. 2s. 6d. 

16 4s. Od. 2s. 6d. 

17 8s. Od. 3s. Od. 

18 12s. Od. 4s. Od. 



Cornered 

per doz. pairs 
No. 4 to 6 3s. 6d. 

>i 7 ,, 8 

„ 9 



10 
11 
12 

13 
14 
15 



5s. Od. 
6s. Od. 
7s. Od. 
8s. Od. 
9s. Od. 

lOs.Od. 
lis. Od. 
13s- Od. 



Cornered 

& Veined 
per doz. pairs 

4s. 6d. 

6s. Od. 

8s- Od. 

9s. Od. 
10s. Od. 
lis. Od. 

12s. Od. 
13s. Od. 
15s. Od. 



Larger sizes can be made 
to order. 



Nr. 1 to 4 are good for humming birds and others up to 
the size of Tanagers. 

No. 5 to 8 Tanagers to Magpies. 

No. 9 to 10 Magpies to Gulls. 

No. 11 to 12 Pheasants, etc. 

No. 13 to 18 Hawks, Owls, Herons, etc. 



WANTED TO BUY. 

Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwards, to 
which none have been added since the last 20 years. 

Old stamps on their original letter sheet or envelope, especi- 
ally Colonials and old German states. 

Mulready Wrappers and Envelopes. 

Old unused English and Colonials. 

Old works on stamps. 

Proofs of stamps, etc. etc. 

_ TO ORNITHOLOGISTS. 



Postage Stamps 

FOR SALE. 

A large variety of rare Stamps and New Issues from all parts 
of tie World. For prices &c. apply to Naturalists Agency, 

225, High Holborn, W.C, 



FOB SALE. 

Fine mounted specimen of Alcn tmpennis, the Great Auk, 
(extinct species). Pedigree from date of capture, 1836, will 
be given to buyer. 

Fine male specimen of the exceedingly rare new genus of 
bird Reinhardtia ocellata Bp., the greatest discovery of the 
century. Price £50 j£ 

FOR SALE. — From Kina Balu {Borneo'). 
Calyptomena whitehead^ male, 100s. A magnifi- 
cent bird, discovered lately by Mr. Whitehead in the 
interior of Borneo. Many other species from the 
same collector (magnificent skins). 
FOR SALE. 
A magnificent Collection of Woods from all parts 
of t"he world. 2,000 varieties. Fifty years work. 
Will be sold at a bargain. 

Fourteen species of Carabus from Chili. In the 
most perfect condition. 23 specimens, at 5s. each. 



NATURALISTS' AGENCY, 
225, High Holborn, 

London, W.C. 

5,000 Species of Bird Skins 
for Sale. 



APTERYGES. 
Apterix Oweni 

— australis 

— mantelli 
Tinamus robustus 

— subcristatus... 
Crypturus sallei 

Otis tarda — 

— tetrax 
Ocydromus australis ... 
Psophia crepitans 

— sp. 
Chauna chavaria 
Opisthocomus cristatus 
Penelope purpurascens 

— marail 
Pipile jacutinga 
Penelopina nigra 
Ortalida motmot 

— poliocephala... 
Chamaepetes goudoti... 

— unicolor 

Oreophasis derbiana ... 
Crax globicera 
Talegalus cuvieri 
Megacephalon, maleo 
Megapodius freycineti 
other species at 



Pavo' cristatus, from Japan ... 
Argusianus giganteus, male 
and female ... 



s. 

40 

80 



grayi, 



male and 



and 



s. 

3° 
100 

100 

3° 

3° 
10 

40 

5 

i5 

3° 
40 

60 
24 
16 
20 
20 
20 
10 
10 
3° 

3° 
80 

3° 
20 

3° 
10 



Argusianus 

female ... ... ... 200 

Reinhardiusocellatus, fine male 1000 

Phasianus versicolor ... ... 10 

Syrmaticus reevesi ... ... 50 

Graphephasianus sommeringi 12 

Euplocomus vieilloti ... ... 40 

Hierophasis swinhcei ... ... 40 

Lophophorus impeyanus ... 20 

Ceriornis satyra ... ... 20 

melanocephala ... 20 

Meleagris ocellata ... ... 80 

Acryllium vulturina ... ..". 50 

Ithaginis cruentus ... ... 16 

Francolinus erkeli and other 

species at .... ... ... 12 

Odontophorus guianensis ... 20 

other species from . . ... 16 
Ortyx pectoralis and other 

species from ... ... 16 

Quantity of species of Colum- 

bidae from ... ... ... 5 

Furningus spanzani ... ... 20 

Hemiphaga novce-zelandiae ... 20 

Serresius forsteri ... ... 40 

Trugon terrestris ... ... 24 

Henicophaps albifrons ... 20 

Otidiphaps nobilis ... ... 40 

— sp. 50 

Goura coronata ... ... 20 

— Victoriae ... ... 30 

— d'albertisi .... ... 40 

Didunculus strigirostris ... ço 



Carvanaca recurvirostris 
Many species of Charadriadae 

Glareolidae from 
Geronticus calvus 
Pseudibis papillosus ... 
Lophotibis cristatus . . 
Dromas ardeola 
Many species. of Ardeidae from 
Many species of Anatidae from 
Many species of Podicepidae 

and Laridae from ... 
Hypoleucus bougainvilei 
Many species of Falconidae 

Vulturidae and Strigidae 

from... ... ... 5s. to 

Aquila audax ... 
Limnaetus gurneyi 
Henicopernis longicauda 
Haliastur girrenera 
Astur etorques 
— poliocephalus ... 
Tachyspizias soloensis 
Melierax gabar ' 
Falco gyrfalco... 
Lophostrix stricklandi 
Ara macawuana 
Conurus egregius 

solstitialis 
Brotogeris panychlora 
Vini kuhli 

Psittacella modesta ... 
Microglossum aterrimum 

For remainder of Parrots 
see Humming Bird, No. 3, 
March, 1891. 



16 

3 

24 

30 

3° 

40 

6 

6 

5 
30 



20 
30 

TOO 
40 
12 
20 
20 
l6 
20 
40 
3° 
3° 
30 
20 
20 
20 
40 
24 



IV 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[December i, 1891 



Ramphastos brevicarinatus ... 

— inca 

— cuvieri ... 
Pteroglossus pluricinctus 

— beauharnaisei ... 
Selenidera gouldi 

— nattereri ... 
spectabilis... 

Andigena laminirostris and 

many other species 
Many species of Capitonidae 

Bucconidae, Galbulidae and 

Cuculidas from 
Pharomacrus mocina... 

— costancensis ... 
fulgidus 

— auriceps 
Prionotelus temnurus... 
Temnotrogon rhodogaster 
Trogon aurantiiventris 

— atricollis ... 

— chionurus ... 

— bairdi... ... 

— citreolus ... ... 

— melanocephalus 

— clathratus 

— melanurus 

and many other species from 
Choucalcyon tyro 
Cittura cyanotis 
Melidora macrorhyncha 
Tanysiptera dea 

galatea ... 

— nympha ... 
Cyanalcyon nigrocyanea 
Sauropatis juliae 

funebris ... 
albicilla ... ... 

Caridagrus concreta ... 
Astacophilus lindsayi... 
Clytocex rex ... 

and many other species from 
Nyctiornis amictus 
Bucia athertoni ... 

Meropiscus gularis 

and many other species of 

Meropidae from ... ...-- 

Todus multicolor 
Momotus subrufescens 
Urospatha marti ... 

Hylomanes gularis 
Prionirhynchus platyrhynchus 

carinatus 
Eumonota superciliaris 

and other species from 
Leptosoma discolor ... 
Brachypteracias leptosoma :.. 
Attelornis pittoides ... 

— crossleyi 
Manyspeciesof Bucerotidae from 
A large number of species of 

Picidas, Turdidae, Sylvidse, 

Troglodytidse, Luscinidae, 

etc., etc., from 



s. 

10 

12 

16 

12 

3° 
20 

20 

20 

12 



4 

3° 

3° 
16 

16 

20 

3o 
16 
12 
16 
20 
12 
20 
16 
16 
5 

3° 
16 
20 
12 
20 
40 
16 
16 
12 
10 
16 
16 
200 

5 
12 
16 
12 

5 
16 



16 

16 

20 

6 

5 
16 

3° 
12 

40 

10 



s. 

Turdus sibiricus ... ... 20 

cardis... ... ... 8 

— ' — Var 8 

— naumani ... ... 8' 

— nigrescens ... ... 20 

Margarops fuscatus ... ... 20 

Mimocichla rubripes ... ... 16 

Myade°-tes elizabethas... ... 20 

Cinclus leuconotus ... ... 20 

Eupetes macrocercus... ... 16 

— ccerulescens ... ... 20 

Thryophilus castaneus ... 10 

- — pleurostictus ... 10 

— nigricapillus ... 10 
thoracicus ... 10 

Peltops blainvillei ... ... 10 

Melidectes torquatus ... ... 12 

Melipotes gymnops ... ... 20 

A large series of species of 

Nectarinidse from ... ... 5 

A large quantity of species of 
Ccerebidae, Tanagridae, Frin- 

gillidae, and Icteridae from... 3 

Garrulus japonicus ... ... 4 

Cyanocitta beechei ... ... 24 

melanocyanea .... 10 

meridana ... ... 10 

Cyanocorax panamensis ... 10 

Calocitta formosa ... ... 12 

- — collier ... ..... 20 

Callaeas cinerea ... ... 20 

Picicorvus columbianus ... 20 

PARADISEID^E. 
Priced per pair, male and 

■ • ■ female. 

Xanthomelus aureus . 
Sericulus melinus 
Ptilonorhynchus holosericeus 
Paradisea apoda 

— papuana 

— sanguinea ... 
raggiana ... 

Schlegelia wilso.nl 
Diphyllodes magnifica 
Cicinnurus regius ... 
Parotia sexpennis 
Lophorina superba ... 
Ptilornis paradisea ... . 
Craspedophora magnifica 
Epimachus speciosus... 
Seleucides alba. 
Semioptera gouldi 
Astrapia nigra... 
Drepanornls albertisi ... 
Paradigalla carunculata 
Manucodia viridis, male 

— keraudreni, male 

— gouldi, male 
Mino dumonti, male ... 
Melanopyrrhus anais, male 
Gymnops tricolor, male 
Paradisea augusta victorias 

male 



120 
20 
20 

100 
40 
40 

100 
60 
80 
20 

100 
80 
40 
40 

100 

100 

5° 
120 

100 

60 

3° 
3° 
15 
16 
20 
20 

200 



Creadion carunculatus 
Heterolocha gouldi, male 
— female 

(much rarer) 
Enodes erythrophis 
Analcipus traillei 
Turacus purpureus 

other species from 
Menura superba 
Orthonyx spinicauda 
Ten species of Pteroptochidae at 
A large number of species of 

Dendrocolaptidse and For- 

micaridse from 
Pitta strepitans 

— novce guineas 

— maxima ... 



granatina 



species 



of 



Philepitta castanea 
Large series of 
Tyrannidae from 
Auliaf ufescens 
Attila sclateri ... 
Rupicola crocea 

— peruviana ... 

— sanguinolenta 
Phaenoptila melanoxantha 
Pipreola sclateri 
Cotinga ccerulea 

— cincta 

— amabilis 
— ■ cayana 

— mayana 
Querula cruenta 
Chasmorhynchus niveus 

— tricarunculatus 

— - nudicollis 
Gymnocephalus calvus 
Gymnoderus fcetidus... 
Cephalopterus penduliger 

— glabricollis 

and. many other species 
Cotingidae and Pipridas from 
Podargus papuensis ... 

— ocellatus 
Calyptomena whiteheadi 

— viridis ... 

Many species of Caprimulgidse, 
Hirundinidae and Cypselida3 
from 

trolhilid^f. 

Phaethornis guianensis 

Helianthea eos ... ••• 5° 

Bellona superba 3° 

For remainder of species of 
Trochilidse, see Hamming Bird, 
No. 1, January, 1891. 



of 



20 
20 

3° 
10 

12 

10 

8 

40 

12 

10 



4 

5 
10 

10 

6 

16 

3 
10 

10 

20 

10 

20 

5° 
30 
10 

16 
16 
10 
16 

5 
16 

3° 
12 

20 

20 

20 

20 

3 
16 
16 

100 
8 



20 



TO FEATHER MERCHANTS. 
Just arrived : 

A very fine lot of 1,200 Pale Red 
African Osprey, at is. 3d. 



I 



.H 






*tg>- 





December 



c8 9 i] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



9i 



jamming $fob; 



To the Subscribers and Correspondents of 
the " Humming Bird." 



With this number, Volume I. is completed, and I 
thank heartily all the Correspondents and Subscribers 
to Vol. I. of the Humming Bird, who have patronized 
this review and have contributed to its succès. 

I have done my best to make Vol. I. interesting to 
all, but I am not quite satisfied yet, and I hope that 
Vol. II. will surpass it in interest, and I shall not cease 
in my efforts until I make this review indispensable 
to all who are interested in Scientific, Artistic 
and Industrial matters. 

Besides Original notices on Art, Science and 
Industry, Vol. II. will contain the beginning of my 
Genera of Birds, on which I am working since 
1876, and for which I have assembled extensive col- 
lections of Bird skins from all parts of the world 
during the last thirty years. 

In Vol. II. of the Humming Bird, I will begin the 
Genera of Birds with the complete Genera of the 
Humming-Birds. 

It will contain a full description of all the generical 
types and a condensed description of all the species 
known of each genus, so as to make it quite complete 
and easy for all to determine the species of that most 
beautiful and interesting Order of birds. Successively 
I will continue with the other Orders and Families of 
birds, one at a time, so that each series will always be 
complete by itself. 

I will not follow any special classification ; because 
my actual opinion is that we cannot boast yet of a 
satisfactory classification acceptable to all the modern 
Ornithologists. Perhaps later on, we may arrive to 
that ; but for the present there are as many Classifi- 
cations as there are Authors, each of them con- 
taining exceptional good things ; but not yet quite 
satisfactory to all. 

I conclude, wishing a merry Christmas, a happy 
New Year, Health and Prosperity to ALL. 

A. Boucard. 



Books Received. 



The Antigua Observer ; the Kansas City Scientist ; 
the Canadian Entomologist ; Sporting Goods Review ; 
the Ibis Vol. III. No. 4 ; A Handbook of the 
Destructive Insects of Victoria, with notes on the 
Methods to be adopted to check and extirpate them, 
by C. French, F.L.S., F.R.H.S., Government 
Entomologist. A full report of this interesting 
volume will be given in successive numbers. 



A Visit to the British Museum. 
Natural History Department. 



Continued from page 89. 

PLANTS. 

This group occupies the whole Eastern side of 
Gallery No. 10. 

The Miocene flora, of Greenland, is well represented 
by many fine specimens collected by Mr. Edward 
Whymper, and described by the late Professor 
O. Heer. 

A fine series of Ferns, Conifers and Cycads from 
the Wealden of Hastings has lately been acquired 
from the collector, Mr. P. Rufford. 

Two fine trunks of coniferous trees, Cedroxylon, 
are placed in the centre of the Gallery. 

The series of Zamia Williatnsonia from the Scar- 
borough Oolites is altogether unique. 

The Triassic series is well represented by some 
large slabs from India containing well preserved 
leaves of Ferns, the chief of which is known as Glos- 
sopteris. The collection has numerous specimens of 
this fern from South Africa and Australia. 

In Gallery No. 1 1 have been arranged in seventeen 
cases, a series of nine collections of historical and 
palaeontogical interest, bearing upon the early history 
of the British Museum and the study of Geology and 
Palaeontology in England. 

It begins with Sir Hans Sloane Collection acquired 
by purchase for the Nation in 1753. 

The next is the Brander Collection, 1766. 

The next series to which attention is directed is 
the Collection of William Smith, L.L.D. This was 
commenced about the year 1787 and purchased by 
the Trustees in 18 16. 

We come next to a collection, the very name of 
which betrays the antiquity of its origin. It is known 
as Sowerby's Mineral Conchology. It was purchased 
by the Trustees in 1861. 

Another curious but small series represents the 
types or figured specimens of Konig's Icônes Fossilium 
Sectiles, prepared by Mr. Charles Konig, the first 
keeper of the Mineral and Geological Department. 

A far more important collection is that known as 
the Gilbertson's Collection. It was purchased for the 
British Museum in 1841. 

Next comes the Searles Wood Crag Collection, 
presented by Mr. S. V. Wood to the British Museum 
in January, 1856, and a supplementary collection was 
given by Mrs. Searles V. Wood in 1885. 

The next Palaeontographical Collection is of nearly 
equal antiquity and fully of equal merit. It is the 
Eocene Molluscan Collection formed by the late 
Frederik E. Edwards, Esq., about the year 1835, 
and was continually being added to until a few years 
before his death, which happened in 1875. It was 
acquired by the Nation, by purchase in 1873. 

The last collection is that of a Naturalist who 
devoted his entire life to the study and illustration of 
a single class of organisms, namely the Brachiopoda. 



9 2 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[December i, 1891 



It was formed by the late Thomas Davidson, Esq., 
between the years 1837 and 1886. 

His collection, both of recent and fossil Brachio- 
poda, together with all Dr. Davidson's original draw- 
ings, his numerous books and pamphlets were be- 
queathed by him to the British Museum through his 
son, William Davidson, Esq., in February, 1886. 
'*_ By his direction the entire collection of recent and 
fossil species are to be kept together in one series for 
the convenience of reference for all men of science 
who may wish to consult the same. 

STAIRCASE. 

On the first landing of the monumental staircase 
facing the centre of the hall is placed the seated 
marble statue of the celebrated Naturalist Charles 
Darwin (1809- 1882) to whose labours the study of 
natural history owes so vast an impulse. The statue 
was executed by Sir J. E. Boehm, R.A., as part of 
the " Darwin Memorial" raised by public subscription. 
Above the first landing the staircase divides into 
two flights, each leading to one of the corridors which 
flank the west and east sides of the Hall, and by 
which access is gained to the galleries of the first 
floor. At the southern end of these corridors a stair- 
case from each, raised on an arch which spans the 
hall, join to form a central flight leading to the second 
floor. On the landing at the top of this flight is 
placed a marble statue, by Chantrey, of Sir Joseph 
Banks (1 743-1820), the magnificent patron of science 
and scientific men, who for forty one years 'presided 
over the Boyal Society and was an active Trustee of 
the Museum. His splendid botanical collections are 
preserved in the adjoining gallery ; but his unrivalled 
library of works on natural history, also bequeathed to 
the Museum, remains in the old building at Blooms- 
bury. 

The west corridor contains a portion of that very 
interesting collection of British birds with their nests, 
which have not found room in the Bird Gallery on 
the ground-floor. The specimens placed here belongs 
mostly to the Perching or Passerine Order. It is 
excessively good and very instructive and much 
appreciated by the general public. 

On the opposite side, " east corridor," is placed 
the fine collection of Humming Birds, " Trochilidce" 
formed and mounted by the late Mr. John Gould, 
one of the most celebrated Naturalists of this century, 
and purchased for the Museum after his death in 
1881. 

John Gould commenced the study of this 
family of birds some forty years ago. The diffi- 
culties of obtaining new and rare species from 
countries previously untrodden by the collector were 
greater than they are in the present time ; but the 
energy and enthusiasm of John Gould overcame all 
obstacles ; he lost no opportunity of acquiring at any 
cost, species not represented in his collection, he 
incited, by high rewards, travellers to go specially in 
search of rare or unknown species ; and after the 
lapse of twenty years he had succeeded in bringing 
together a series far exceeding in variety of forms his 
own expectation or that of Ornithologists generally. 



He commenced the publication of a great work " the 
Monograph of the Trochilidse," which finally extended 
to five volumes in folio, and comprised descriptions 
and figures of over 400 different species. 

From an early period he began to mount the most 
remarkable types, placing as much as possible allied 
forms in the same case, and demonstrating their 
habits and chief characteristics, and especially the 
ever varying hues of their colours, by the different 
attitudes in which he arranged the specimens. This 
collection of mounted Humming Birds contained 
about 300 species and 2,000 specimens, when he 
exhibited it in the Zoological Gardens in Regent's 
Park during the great Exhibition of 185 1. It proved 
one of the great attractions in London during that 
memorable year ; and after it had been exhibited to 
the public for a year or two, he removed it to his 
residence in Charlotte Street, Bedford Square, where 
he had built a gallery for its reception. Here it was 
seen and admired by hundreds of naturalists during 
his life time. 

It was always Mr. Gould's hope and wish that the 
whole collection of mounted and unmounted 
specimens should be preserved as the property of the 
Nation, and accordingly it was offered by his executors 
to the trustees of the British Museum who eventually 
purchased it. 

At that time I was at Nice, where I first heard of 
Mr. Gould's death, and that his collection was for 
sale. I came at once to London and offered to buy 
it for the price asked to the British Museum, and in 
so doing I roused a sort of emulation among the 
authorities of the British Museum, which resulted in 
the prompt acquisition of the collection. This 
acquisition was all the more important, as almost all 
the original specimens from which the figures on his 
work on Humming Birds were taken, are contained 
in it. 

Among the many types contained in the collection 
are three of new species discovered by me in Mexico, 
when I was not an amateur myself. They are 
Phaeoptila sordida, Cyanomya violiceps and Selas- 
phorus pulchra. Few are the naturalist travellers of 
the second part of this century who have not con- 
tributed in procuring new or rare species for Mr. 
Gould. Among them I may mention such naturalists 
as Bourcier, Salle, Buckley, Bartlett, Salvin, and 
many others. In the last years of his life his great 
ambition was to procure some specimens of the 
rare genus and magnificent species Loddigesia mirabilis, 
known only by one specimen, discovered by 
Matthews at Chachapoyas, Peru, when travelling for 
the account of the well-known botanist Loddiges, who 
had formed a very fine collection of Humming 
Birds. This typical specimen is still in the collection 
of his grandson, Conrad Loddiges, of London. 

I was present when he offered to Buckley (who 
in a previous voyage had seen the bird, but had not 
been able to procure any) fifty pounds a piece for 
ten specimens, if he could get them. 

He was as enthusiastic about it as a young col- 
lector ; but unfortunately Buckley came back without 
the bird, although he stayed several months purposely 
at Chachapoyas and tried very hard to get some. 
Soon after, Jelski, a successful traveller, who was 



December i, 189 1] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



93 



exploring Peru for the Museum of Varsovia, had the 
good fortune to re-discover the species, and brought 
home about fifteen specimens of this rare species, 
including the female, " which was not known," and 
youngs ; but John Gould was no more at that time !! 

Besides the fine collection of Humming Birds 
exhibited, John Gould has left another collection of 
skins, containing all his types, which is kept in the 
study room, and where it is accessible to students. 

Humming Birds, or Trochilidœ, are only found 
in the New World, and form a group by themselves, 
for which I have proposed the name of Trochili, 
Cat. Avium, 1876. 

About 430 species are actually known. Nearly all 
of them are conspicuous for the beauty of their 
colours and the originality of their forms. In a few 
species the females are as brightly coloured as the 
males. No other group of birds can compare in 
beauty of colours with the Humming Birds, which in 
that respect are the gems of Nature, and quite as 
gorgeous as the finest precious stones. 

They are the smallest birds known, some of the 
smallest species being hardly larger than a middle 
size Sphynx " Moth," meanwhile the largest species 
known, il Patagona gigas" is not larger than a swallow. 

They are somewhat allied to the Swifts and the 
Woodpeckers, with which they have many points of 
their internal organisation in common. 



MAMMALIAN GALLERY. 

The Mammalian Gallery which is on the first floor 
is entered from the western corridor of the Central 
Hall. It contains the series of stuffed specimens of 
animals of this class, with the exception of the 
Cetacea and the Sirenia. Skeletons of the most 
important types are incorporated with this series. 
The collection of antlers of the family Deer is ranged 
along the top of the cases. 

The series commences on the left with the 
PRIMATES, the most highly organised forms, viz., the 
apes and monkeys — "Cases 1 — 10," of which the 
fine series of Gorillas, Chimpanzees and Orang- 
outangs deserve special attention. Among the 
ordinary monkeys, some of the striking species, both 
in form and colour, are the Proboscis monkey 
" Nasalis larvatus," so called on account of the 
remarkable length of its nose ; the Guereza, " Colobus 
guereza," which has on its side a peculiar fringe of 
long white hairs reaching quite down to the ground ; 
the Macaques, one species Inus ecaudatus, leading 
a precarious existence on the rocks of Gibraltar, 
the Baboons, Cynocephalus ; hideous animals with 
powerful teeth, projecting jaws, nearly equal fore and 
hind limbs and dull-coloured fur, and the Mandrill, 
" Papio Maimon" with a short stumpy tail and a 
perfectly naked face, the skin of which is brightly 
marked with blue and vermillion. Next comes the 
group Cebidœ comprising the Spider monkeys Ateles, 
the Howling monkeys, Mycetes, the males of which 
possess a most extraordinary voice ; the resonance of 
which is increased by a peculiar chamber formed by 
the middle portion of the bone of the tongue. At 
day-break and at sun-set the dulness of the forests of 



tropical countries of Central and South America is en- 
livened by the terrific noise made by these animals ; 
the Negro monkeys, Lagothrix, the Squirrel monkeys 
Nyctipithecus, Callethrix and Chrysofhrix, all beauti- 
ful little creatures, with soft bright coloured fur ; the 
Sapajous or Capucin monkeys, " Cebus" and the 
Hapalidœ or Marmosets. 

Then comes the Lemuroidea for the most part 
natives of Madagascar, including the Indrisinae, 
Indris and Propithecus, the Lemurinœ or true Lemurs, 
the Galeaginœ " Chirogale and Ga/ago," the Lorisince, 
the Tarsiidce and Chiromydce. The type of this last 
family is the extraordinary animal Aye-Aye of Mada- 
gascar, " Chiro?nys madagascariensis" with onlv 18 
teeth, very large ears, a long bushy tail, and long 
compressed claws on all the fingers and toes, with the 
exception of the hallux, which is opposable and has 
a flat nail. 

In Cases n — 26, are exhibited the whole assem- 
blage of animals known by the name of beasts of 
prey, comprising the Cats, Wolves and Dogs, Bears, 
Weasels, and many other allied animals, viz., the Seals 
and Walruses. 

The series of Felidce Lions, Tigers, Leopards, Jaguars, 
Ocelots and Lynxes, is very fine. 

Several varieties of the domestic Dog are exhibited 
in Cases 19 and 20. In the upper compartments 
of Cases 17 and 18 are the Wolves. 

The last great division of the fissiped Carnivora is 
the Arctoidea, consisting of the Bears, Weasels, 
Racoons, etc. The most typical members are com- 
pletely plantigrade, walking flat on their palms and 
soles ; and all have five toes on each of their feet. 

The series of true Bears Ursidœ, is very well repre- 
sented. Conspicuous among them are the Polar 
bear, Ursus maritimus, and the Grizzly bear, Ursus 
ferox. 

The fin-footed Carnivores or Carnivora pinnipedia, 
consisting of the Seals and their allies are exhibited in 
several cases in the centre of the gallery. Very fine 
male specimens of Otaria stelleri and Otaria jubata 
are in a special case by themselves. 

Of the numerous species of Eared seals, one of the 
most worthy of mention is the Fur seal, Callorhinus 
ursinus, of the North Pacific, from which most of the 
sealskins sold are obtained. 

The small order of Insectivora comprising the 
Tupaiidœ or Tree-shrews, the Macroscelididae or 
Elephant-shrews, the Erinaceidœ, Hedgehogs and 
Gymnura, the Talpidœ or moles, the Soricidce or 
Shrews, the Centetidœ or Taurecs, and the Chryso- 
chloridc? or Moles is exhibited in Case 27. In this 
same case are also the Frugivorous and Insectivorous 
Bats belonging to the Order Chiroptera. 

Cases 27 — 32 contain the order Rodentia or 
Gnawing Mammals, comprising the Squirrels, Rats, 
Hares, etc., and form by far the largest order of 
Mammals, containing over 900 distinct species. 

The Order Ungulata or Hoofed animals, com- 
prising Elephants, Rhinoceroses, Tapirs, Pigs, Camels, 
Llamas, Oxen, Sheep, Antelopes, Gazelles, Chevrotains, 
and Deers, is exhibited in Cases 35 — 94. The series 
of these animals is large and very interesting. 

Cases 33 and 34 contain the curious order of 
Edentata, so named on account of the incomplete- 



94 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



\ December i, 1891 



ness of their dentition, or entire want of teeth. It 
comprises the Sloths and Anteaters, Armadilloes, 
Pangolins, and Aard-varks, which differ considerably 
between themselves. The West African Pangolin, 
Mam's tricuspis, and the Aard-varks, Orycteropus 
capensis and œthiopicus, are very remarkable species. 

In Cases 95 — 98 are exhibited the members of the 
Order Marsupialia, a very remarkable group of 
animals comprising the well-known Kangaroos, the 
Bandicoots, the Tasmanian Wolf, the Phascologales, 
the Marsupial Anteater, the Wombats, the Phalangers, 
the Koala, and the Opossums. 

Last comes the order Monotremata consisting of 
two families, the Echidnidœ and the Ornithorhynchidœ, 
showing a remarkably low type of organisation, a 
type transmitted more or less directly from some of 
the earliest Mammalian forms. 

The Monotremes lay eggs and have pouches ; but 
their mode of incubation is not yet satisfactorily 
known, they are without true mammary nipples, the 
mother's milk exuding from group of pores in the 
skin. The males are provided with remarkable horny 
spurs on their heels, connected with a small gland on 
the back of the thigh, the function of which is 
entirely unknown. The temperature of the blood is 
lower than that of other mammals, recent observa- 
tions having shown that that of Echidna stands 
only at about 78 degrees, some 20 degrees lower than 
that of man, and about 30 degrees below that of the 
average of birds. 

They are supposed to live exclusively on ants, 
which they catch with their long extensile tongues, 
like the true anteaters. Their palates are covered 
with rows of horny spines, which serve to scrape the 
ants off the tongue when it is withdrawn into the 
mouth. Echidnas are able, by the help of their 
strong curved claws to bury themselves in loose soil 
in a few minutes. 

The family contains five species, E. australis from 
Australia, and E.novœguineœ, Bruijni, villosissima and 
Lawesii from New Guinea ; but it is probable that 
many more species will be discovered before long. 

The second family of the order, Ornithorhynchidœ, 
distinguished by the extraordinary structure of the 
muzzle, which resembles the bill of a duck, and is 
provided with horny lamellae instead of teeth ; the 
tail is long and broad, and the toes are webbed ; its 
coat consists of thick, close hair without any spines. 
The only known species is the Duck-billed Platypus, 
Ornithorhynchus anatinus or Water Mole of the 
colonists, which, as might be expected from its 
structure, is entirely an aquatic animal, feeding on 
water animals, for which it searches in the mud in the 
same manner as a duck. It is a native of both 
Australia and Tasmania. 

On the whole, the collection of Mammals is very 
fine and of the greatest interest. 

MINERAL GALLERY. 

The gallery on the first floor, entered from the 
south end of the east corridor of the hall, contains the 
extensive Mineral collection. Entering the gallery 
the visitor will find, in the first window-case on the 
left hand side, a series of specimens selected and 



labelled to serve as an introduction to the study of 
minerals. 

Beginning with a definition of what is meant by a 
mineral, it is there shown how essential characters 
were gradually recognised, and how minerals have 
been distributed into kinds and classified. 

In the next three window-cases, specimens are 
arranged to illustrate the various terms which have 
been found useful in the description of minerals. 

Recently acquired specimens are shown for a time 
in the fifth window-case. 

The remaining window-cases in the gallery contain 
the collection of crystals and pseudomorphs, and are 
intended for the special student. 

Specimens of every mineral species and variety are 
exhibited in table-cases numbered 1 to 42. 

In Cases 1 and 2 are the native metals, as Copper, 
Silver, Gold and Platinum, and non-metals as Sulphur, 
Graphite and Diamond. 

The next six Cases contain minerals which have 
mostly a metallic lustre, and consist of metals in 
chemical combination with sulphur or arsenic, such 
as Argentite, an important silver ore containing 
87 per cent, of silver and 13 of sulphur, Blenda, 
Galena, Copper-glance, Cinnabar, from which mercury 
or quicksilver is obtained, Pyrites, Erubescite, etc. 

Common Salt is represented in Case 8. 

The next division, consisting of compounds of 
oxygen and including most of the stony minerals, 
begins with Cuprite, an important ore of copper, and 
continues with different kinds of Spinel, the deep red 
is the Spinel Ruby, the rose tinted is Balas Ruby, 
precious stones, Magnetite, the richest and most 
valuable of the ores of iron, Chrysoberyl, precious 
stone, Corundum, known, when pure, as Lux-sapphire ; 
when red it is the true Ruby, when azure it is the 
Sapphire, while the yellow, green and purple varieties 
are known as Topaz, Esmerald, and Amethyst. After 
Diamond it is the most precious of stones ; Haematite 
is a valuable ore of iron, Cassiterite or tin stone, 
Zircon which is one of the precious stones ; one variety 
with peculiar red tints is the Hyacinth or Jacynth 
Quartz, which is the most common of minerals. In 
its clear and transparent variety it is the Crystal of 
the ancients and the rock crystal of modern times. 
Several varieties of quartz are known as Topaz, 
Amethyst and Quartz Cats-eye ; Jasper ; Lydian or 
Touch stone Chalcedony ; Heliotrope or Blood stone, 
green with red blood-like spots. 

Next follow the Plasma and Chrysoprase, green 
stones, and the Sard as also the Sardonyx, its banded 
variety : all of them prized by the ancients as being 
more suited to the display of the engravers skill than 
the harder and more precious stones. 

Then comes the Agates, the Moss-agates, the 
Carnelian, the Opal including the precious or Noble 
Opal, among the specimens of which is a fine suite 
from Queensland, presented by Professor Maskelyne. 
They are abundant in Central America. Next to it 
are : fade, Serpentine, Topaz, Garnet, Tadeite, Mica, 
Beryl, of which the bright green variety, Emerald, is 
one of the most valued of precious stones, Tourmaline 
Gypsum Borax, Turquoise, etc. 

As a supplement to the collection of simple 
minerals, there is arranged in Cases 41 and 42, a 



December i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



95 



group of natural substances which either belong or are 
closely related to the mineral kingdom ; although in 
their formation organised matter has played a very 
important part. The most important are Coal and 
Amber. 

A series illustrating the various kinds of rocks is 
exhibited in the four table-cases in the windows ; but 
the most important collection is that of the Meteorites. 
From the entrance of the gallery the large mass of 
meteoric iron, weighing three and a half tons, found 
about 1854 at Cranbourne, "Australia," and presented 
to the Museum in 1862 by James Bruce, Esq., can 
be seen in the pavillion at the opposite end of the 
gallery. The other meteorites are in the same room, 
the smaller specimens in the four central cases, and 
the larger on separate stands. 

The fall of masses of stone and iron from the sky 
was very rarely credited by anyone besides the 
spectators themselves, and till the beginning of this 
century no attempt to collect such specimens for 
examination and comparison was made. It is sup- 
posed that meteorites are closely related not only to 
the ordinary shooting stars, but also to comets and 
probably to the nebula? and fixed stars. 

OSTEOLOGICAL GALLERY. 

The Osteological Gallery (on the second floor) is 
devoted to the skeletons and skulls of Mammalia, the 
arrangement of which corresponds as far as practicable 
with that of the stuffed specimens. 

The series commences, on the left hand on enter- 
ing, with a male and female human skeleton, followed 
by a selection of skulls showing the different modifica- 
tions of the cranial and facial bones in the various 
races of mankind. Among these is the skeleton of a 
full grown Akka, only four feet high, which appears to 
be the usual size of the pygmy tribe of negroes from 
Central Africa. The next wall-case contains several 
skeletons of man-like apes, the Orang-Outang, 
Gorilla and Chimpanzee with the principal forms of 
the other monkeys and lemurs. 

In Cases 4 — 8, numerous representations of the 
Carnivorous and Rodent Mammalia are shown, the 
remainder of the cases of this side of the gallery being 
devoted to the exhibition of skulls of the larger 
Ungulata, viz.: Elephants, Rhinoceroses and Horses. 
The series of elephants is continued in the pavilion at 
the end of the gallery, where skulls and skeletons of 
the African and Indian elephants are exhibited, among 
them a skeleton of a very large tusky elephant or 
Mooknah. 

In the pavillion are also placed skeletons of the 
Sirenia or Sea Cows, aquatic animals more nearly 
allied to the Ungulates than to the Whales. Stuffed 
examples of these animals have also been placed 
here 

The majority of the cases on the right hand of the 
gallery are occupied by the Ruminant Ungulata, such 
as Camels, Oxen, Antelopes, Sheep, Goats, and Deer. 
Cases 23 and 24 contain the Edentata, Sloths, 
Anteaters, Armadillos, the Marsupials, and finally 
the Monotremes Ornithorhynchus and Echidna. 

Along the centre of the gallery is ranged a very 
complete series of skeletons of the wild cattle of the 



Old and New World, and of the various species of 
Rhinoceros and Hippopotamus. 

A collection of horns of Oxen, Buffaloes, Antelopes, 
and Sheep is placed on the top of the cases of the 
gallery and on the wall of the pavilion. 

BOTANICAL GALLERY. 

The collections of this department consist of two 
portions, the one open to the public consisting of 
specimens illustrating the various groups of the 
Vegetable Kingdom, and the broad facts on which 
the natural system of classification of plants is based ; 
the other set apart for the use of persons engaged in 
the scientific study of plants. 

The natural system of classification is followed in 
the exhibition cases in the public gallery. The series 
of specimens begin with the natural order Ranun- 
culaceœ, and the principal orders are represented in 
this and the following cases by dried specimens of the 
plants themselves, coloured drawings, fruits and 
prepared sections of the woods. Diagrams are em- 
ployed to indicate the characters in the flowers on 
which the grouping is based. Descriptive labels give 
particular information respecting each specimen. 

Dicotyledonous plants occupy three cases on the 
left side of the gallery, and are followed by the 
Monocotyledonous orders, which fill a portion of the 
last case on the same side, the two half-cases at the 
end of the gallery, and the first case returning towards 
the door. The Gymnosperms are placed in the next 
case. Then follow the Cryptogams, a case being 
devoted to the higher vascular orders, and another 
to the lower division of cellular plants. 

The series closes with an interesting collection of 
models of the larger British Fungi or Mushrooms, 
prepared by Sowerby when he was engaged on his 
work on this group of plants, which have been re- 
coloured and mounted in accordance with their 
natural habitats by Mr. Worthington G. Smith. 

The larger specimens are placed in tall cases in the 
centre of the gallery. The right side of the first 
centre-case is filled with specimens of Dycotyledonous 
plants, such as sections of White Oak and Walnut 
from Canada, Eucalyptus, Acacia, Laportea and other 
trees from Australia, trunks of Ficus and Carallia 
with aerial roots sent from Ceylon by Dr. Trimens, 
stems of Bombax, Xanthoxylon, Flacourtia, and 
Gleditschia, and anomalous stems of Baulimia Entada 
and Dypsis. The next two centre-cases are filled 
with Monocotyledonous plants, among which in the 
first case are stems and sections of the Date palm, 
several species of Areca, sections and fruit of the 
Palmyra palm, stem and fruit of the Sago palm and a 
large spike of the allied Raphia from Madagascar. 
In the next case are stems of the Wax palm, sections 
and fruit of the Cocoa-nut palm and the Seychelles 
palm. The remainder of this case is occupied with 
specimens of the Dragon tree, of Madeira, of the 
Grass trees of Australia, of Vellozia from Brazil, of 
Papyrus from Egypt, of Bamboo and Sugar-cane. On 
the other side of this case specimens of Gymnosperms 
will be found, comprising a large plant of Welwitschîa 
from Africa, sections of Araucaria from Norfolk 
Island, of Cedar grown in Chelsea Gardens, and stems 



9 6 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[December i, 1891 



and sections of several species of Cycadce. The next 
two cases contain specimens of Tree-ferns, among 
which are a large stem of Dicksonia, clothed with 
aerial roots, stems of species of Alsophila, Cyathea and 
Hemitelia. 

Suspended over the centre-cases is a fine specimen 
of the Wabo Bamboo, Dendrocalamus brandisi, from 
Burmah. It is 81 feet long. At the further end of 
the gallery are specimens of a Palm tree from Brazil, 
Acrocomia sphœrocarpa, and of the Grass tree of 
Australia, Kingia australlis, and near them is placed 
a fine section of the White Pine, Abies grandis, of 
British Columbia. 

A collection of British Plants is exhibited in glazed 
frames in the corners of the gallery. 

The portion devoted to students consists mainly of 
the great Herbarium. 

The foundation of this Herbarium was the collection 
of Sir Joseph Banks, consisting of the plants obtained 
by himself and Dr. Solander in their voyage round 
the world with Captain Cook, and of numerous series 
from all quarters of the globe, presented to him or 
purchased by him. The yearly additions since 1827 
have been so extensive that the Banksian Collections 
form now but a small proportion of the great Her- 
barium. Among the principal collections contained 
in it may be mentioned those of Clayton, Roemer, 
Miller, Brown, Bowie and Cunningham, Gardner, 
Nutall, Horsfield, Konig, Martin, Masson, Wilson, 
Hampe, Seeman, Welwitsch, Salt and Miers. It in- 
cludes also authentic specimens received from 
Loureiro, Gronovius, Tournefort, Jacquin, Aublet, 
Ruiz and Pavon, and Perrottet. 

There is a separate Herbarium of British Plants, 
based on the collections formed by Sowerby in the 
preparation of his great work " English Botany." 

Also the extensive Herbarium formed by Sir Hans 
Sloane, to which has been added the collections of 
Petiver, Buddie, Blukenet, Kaempfer, Kamel, Merrett, 
Boerhaave, Vaillant, Banister, and others. 

The collection formed by Hermann, in Ceylon, 
from which Linnseus prepared his " Flora Zeylonica," 
and the singularly interesting and valuable collection 
gathered in 1663 by John Ray in Europe. 

Besides the collection of dried plants there are two 
allied collections arranged in the same gallery in 
parallel series. One is the collection of fruits and 
seeds, and the other the collection of woods. 

The student receives assistance in his investigations 
from the extensive Library of the department, and 
from a large collection of plates and drawings 
systematically arranged in the same order as the plants 
in the Herbarium. 

The cellular plants are accommodated in a large 
room in the Central Tower, approached by a staircase, 
the entrance to which is on the left side of the statue 
of Sir Joseph Banks. The Mosses include the collec- 
tions of Wilson, Hampe, Drummond, and Spruce; 
the Liverworts contain the herbarium of Hampe ; 
with the Lichens are incorporated collections made by 
Caroll, Spruce, and Weddell. The Algae contain the 
herbarium of Prof. Dickie, the Diatomacese of Kiitsing 
and Greville, and collections from Harvey, Robert 
Brown, Shuttleworth, etc. The extensive series of 
Fungi, including collections from various botanists, 



has been increased by the bequest of the valuable 
herbarium of the late Mr. E. E. Broome. 

Here ends my visit to the Natural History Depart- 
ment of the British Museum, and with the very few 
exceptions mentioned in this notice, which I hope will 
be soon put in accordance with the rest, I may say 
that the collections of the British Museum are very 
fine and reflect a great credit on the Trustees and 
Staff of the British Museum. 

Very profitable and agreeable hours, weeks, and 
even months can be passed in looking over and 
studying the numerous and valuable collections of 
this magnificent establishment. The only wish that I 
have to make is that it should always keep the first 
place among the public Museums, by acquiring 
progressively what they have not got among the old 
species known, and all the novelties which are con- 
stantly discovered in all parts of the globe. 

I shall now say a few words about the Natural 
History Publications made by order of the Trustees 
of the British Museum. I consider them as important, 
or even more so, than the collections exhibited. They 
are exceedingly valuable and quite indispensable to 
naturalists. 

Up to date, not less than several hundred publica- 
tions have been issued on Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, 
Fishes, Insects, Fossils, etc., among which some are 
very important. Among them I may mention the 
Catalogue of Birds of which 17 volumes have been 
published and is still in course of publication. It 
has been so successful, that already Vol. I. and II. 
are out of print, and very likely it will be the same with 
all the other volumes before long. 

This good example ought to be followed by all the 
leading Museums of the world. 

Another series of publications, which I consider as 
very worthy, are the excellent Guide books, issued 
since the transfer of the collections to South Kensing- 
ton, and I hope that those of the sections in prepara- 
tion will soon be out, to complete the series. 

These Guides, issued at a nominal price of one 
penny to sixpence each, are the best of their kind that 
I have ever seen, and I congratulate heartily the Trus- 
tees, the Director and all the staff, for having issued 
such useful, valuable and interesting Guides, which by 
the modicity of their prices are accessible to all. 

In writing this notice, I have made a free use of 
them, and I have been able to appreciate their great 
value. 

To make these publications complete and un- 
rivalled, it only remains for the Trustees of the 
British Museum to prepare cheap editions of con- 
densed notices on all the animals useful, neutral or 
injurious to agriculture, with the means of preserving 
the useful species and destroying the injurious. 

A special room for the exhibition of all such 
animals should be highly prized by all. 

Now I will conclude in giving the list of the 
actual Staff of the Natural History Branch of the 
British Museum. 

Director: W. H. Flower, C.B., L.L.D., F.R.S. 

Assistant Secretary : C. E. Fagan. 

Clerks in Director's Office : T. F. Isaac and W. H. 
R. Holl. 

Assistant in General Library : B. B. Woodward. 



December i, 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



97 



Zoological Department. 

Keeper: A. Gunther, M.D., F.R.S. 

Assistant Keeper : A. G. Butler. 

Assistants : E. A. Smith, R. Bowdler Sharpe, C. O. 

Waterhouse, G. A. Boulenger, M. R. 

Oldfield Thomas, F. G. Bell, M.A., W. 

F. Kirby, W. R. Ogilvie Grant, R. J. 

Pocock, G. T. Gaham, M.A., R. Kir- 

patrick, F. A. Heron, B.A. 

Geological Department. 

Keeper : H. Woodward, L.L.D., F.R.S. 
Assistant Keeper : R. Etheridge, F.R.S. 
Assistants : R. B. Newton ; A. S. Woodward, G. 

Crick, F. A. Bather, B.A; J. W. 

Gregory. 

Mineralogical Department. 
Keeper : L. Fletcher, M.A., F.R.S. 
Assistants: T. Davies, H. A. Miers, M.A.; G. T. 
Prior, B.A. 

Botanical Department. 
Keeper : W, Carruthers, F.R.S. 
Assistants : J. Britten, G. R. M. Murray, A. 

Gepp, B.A.; E. G. Baker, A. B. Rendle, 

B.A. 

A. BOUCARD. 



Canal de Panama. 



Grâce à l'initiative prise par le Petit Journal, de 
Paris (voir les numéros de Septembre 1891 : 7, 11, 
14, 17, 20, 23, 25, et ceux d'Octobre : 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 
12, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 23, 24, 25, 29, et 31, l'affaire 
du Panama est entrée dans une nouvelle phase, et il 
est probable que les 92,229 pétitions, déposées les 28 
et 30 Octobre 1891 au Sénat et à la Chambre des 
Députés par Monsieur Marinani, Directeur politique 
du Petit Journal, pèseront d'un grand poids sur les 
décisions ultérieures des deux grands Corps de l'État. 

Il est plus que probable que cette œuvre grandiose 
commencée par la France sera bientôt reprise par elle 
et menée à bonne fin. C'est a souhaiter dans l'intérêt 
du monde entier. 

Tous ceux qui auront contribué de près ou de loin 
à la reprise et à la termination du Canal, "qui sera une 
des merveilles du XIX e siècle," auront fait œuvre de 
gens éclairés et de philantropes et leurs noms 
passeront à la Postérité. 

Les Directeurs du Petit Journal peuvent déjà se 
féliciter du résultat qu'ils ont obtenu, et quand le 
Canal sera terminé ils pourront être fiers de la cam- 
pagne entreprise pour la relèvement de cette affaire, car 
sans eux nous en serions toujours au même point, 
c'est à dire complètement dans les mains d'un Liqui- 
dateur et de ses satellites qui ne font absolument que 
vivre aux dépens de la liquidation, sans prendre la 
moindre initiative en faveur des Actionnaires et 
Obligataires. 

Il est incroyable qu'une Liquidation de cette 
importance soit concentrée dans les mains d'une 
seule personne. Il y a là quelque chose de mon- 
strueux. Si telle est la loi, il faut la modifier au 
plus tôt. 



Comment est-il possible qu'une personnalité, même 
comme celle de M. Monchicourt, qui n'est ni In- 
génieur, ni Financier, qui n'a même jamais été à 
Panama, puisse à lui seul mener à bonne fin une 
Liquidation de cette importance ? Deux ou trois Liqui- 
dateurs au moins, parmi les Ingénieurs et Financiers 
français les plus compétents, auraient dû être nommés 
conjointement avec lui. 

Un rapport de leurs travaux et un compte des 
recettes et des dépenses auraient du être publiés 
mensuellement dans un ou plusieurs grands jour- 
naux de Paris. 

Alors les Actionnaires et Obligataires auraient tou- 
jours été tenu au courant des travaux de la Liquidation 
et auraient pu juger du mérite des Liquidateurs. 

155,000 francs par an est une bien grosse somme 
pour ce qui a été fait jusqu'à ce jour par le Liquida- 
teur et ses deux Aides ! ! ! 

A. B. 



Obituary. 



During the year 1891, we have to deplore the loss 
of several well-known Zoologists : 

Esmond Andr'e, the well known Hymenoptenst of 
Beaune (Côte d'Or). His principal work was the 
" Species des Hyménoptères d'Europe et d'Algérie," 
commenced in 1879 and continued with the aid of his 
brother and other Hymenopterists until his death. It 
is to be hoped that this most important work will be 
continued. 

Doctor J. M. J. of Tengstrom, of Kexholm, at 
the age of 69. His work on the Micro-Lepidoptera of 
Finland, published in 1847, placed him at that early 
date in the foremost rank of the Micro-Lepidopterists 
of Europe. 

Professor Felipe Poey, C.M.Z.S., at Havana 
(Cuba), in the ninety-second year of his age. He 
was one of the founders of the French Entomological 
Society, and was elected a Corresponding Member of 
the Zoological Society of London in 1836. Poey was 
a learned Naturalist, best known as an Ichtyologist. 
He published a bulky volume on the general Natural 
History of the Island of Cuba and many other impor- 
tant papers on Entomology. 

Robert Gillo, of Bath, well known as a Coleopterist 
in the west of England. 

Henry de la Cuisine Dijon (Côtes d'Or). See 
Humming Bird, Vol. I., pages 57, 74. 

Henry Edwards, see Humming Bird, Vol. I., 
page 74. 
Ferdinand Grut, F.L.S., in London, on July 19th, aged 
7 1 . He was elected a fellow of the Entomological Society 
of London in 1846. In 1856 he was on the Council 
and was Vice-president in 1863. He was one of the 
Secretaries from 1871 to 1877 and Honorary 
Librarian from 1878 to 1891. Mr. Grut was also for 
many years Secretary to the Entomological Club. In 
1872 he was elected into the Linnean Society. 

Mr. Grut formed a large collection of Coleoptera, 
chiefly Carabidae. He was a very modest and a 
learned Entomologist, thoroughly genial and cordial 
in social intercourse. He will be extensively mourned 
by his friends. His widow and two sisters remain to 
deplore his loss. 



9 8 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



\_December i, 1891 



New and Rare Species of Birds described 
in Vol. I. of the "Humming Bird." 



Trogonid^e. 



11 
11 
11 
11 
11 



Pharomacrus mocinae, la-Llave 

costaricensis, Boucard ... 
antisianus, d'Orbigny ... 
fulgidus, Gould ... 
auriceps, Gould... 
xanthogaster, Turati & Salvadori 
„ pavoninus, Spix ... 

Trochilid/e. 

Threnetes leucurus, Linné 

„ cervinicauda, Gould 
„ fraseri, Gould 

Phsethornis gounellei, n.sp. Boucard... 
,, columbianus, n.sp. Boucard 

,, guianensis, n.sp. Boucard 

,, whitelyi, n.sp. Boucard ... 

Aphantochroa alexandri, n.sp. Boucard 

Florisuga sallei, n.sp. Boucard 

Eustephanus burtoni, n.sp. Boucard ... 

Lampornis obscura, n.sp. Boucard 



Page. 
6 
18 



7 



18 

18 
18 

T 9 
19 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 

17 
18 

18 

18 

18 

25 



Eulampis chlorolaemus, Gould ... 
Lafresnaya cinereo-rufa, n.sp. Boucard 
Petasophora corruscans, Gould 
Chrysolampis moschitus, Var. Boucard 
Lepidolarynx mesoleucus, Var. Boucard 
Helianthea eos, Gould 

„ typica, Lesson 
Heliangelus heurici, n.sp, Boucard ... 
Thalurania eriphile, Lesson ... 

,, verticeps, Gould .., 

Thalurania colombica, Var, Boucard 
Hemistephania johannae, Bourcier 

„ ludoviciseaurifrons, Boucard. 

Bellona superba, n.sp. Boucard 
Lesbia boliviana, n.sp. Boucard 
Calliphlox roraimae, n.sp. Boucard 
Hylocharis guianensis, n.sp. Boucard 

PsiTTACIDjE. 

Pionus bridgesi, n.sp. Boucard 

PARADISEIDiE. 

Semioptera gouldi, n.sp. Boucard 

TaNAGRIDjE. 

Ramphocelus chrysopterus, n.sp. Boucard . 



Page 
25 
25 
25 
26 

26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 
26 

43 
43 
43 
43 
52 
52 

27 

43 

53 



CONTENTS OF VOL. I. 



Page 
Preface ... ... ... ... ... ... 1 

What is to be seen everywhere in London, by 

A. Boucard ... ... ... ... ... 1, 9 

The Mackinley Bill ... ... ... 3,20,33,53 

The Panama Canal, by A. Boucard 3, 10, 20, 29,44,97 
Notes on the Genus Pharomacrus, by A. 

Boucard ... ... ... ... 6, 18, 19 

An easy way of making p£ioo a year, by 

Messrs. Boucard & Burton... 7, 14, 23, 56, 62 

Reports on Public Sales of Feathers and Bird 

Skins... ... ... ... 8,16,24,32,58 

Rapport sur la Vente publique, de Plumes et 

d'Oiseaux à Londres, Décembre 1890 ... 8 

The Museum of la Plata, and my idea of a 

typical and practical Museum of Natural 

History, by A. Boucard ... ... ... 12 

Reports on Public Sales of Postage Stamps, 

16, 24, 32 
Notes on rare species of Humming Birds, and 

Descriptions of several supposed new species, 

by A. Boucard 17,25,43,52 

Second International Ornithological Congress 19 

Answers to Correspondents ... ... ... 22 

Description of a supposed new species of Parrot 

in Boucard's Museum, by A. Boucard ... 27 
Notes on the Crowned Superb Warbler (Malurus 

coronatus, Gould), by Walter Burton ... 27 

A Visit to the Gardens of the Zoological Society 

of London ... ... ... ... ... 28 

British Museum (Zoological Department) ... 29 
Royal Aquarium, by A. Boucard ... ... 29, 64 

Books and Journals received ... ... 30,97 

Obituary 22, 30, 57, 74,97 

Boucard's Private Collections of Coleoptera and 

Shells for sale. No. 5, page II. 



Description of a supposed new species of 

Paradise bird in Boucard's Museum, by 

A. Boucard ... 
Poor Rate and General Taxes in the Parishes 

of St. Giles in the Fields and St. George, 

Bloomsbury ... 
Report on books received. No. 6, page V. 
The Pilgrim Locust, by A. Boucard ... 
Description of a supposed new species of 

Tanager, by A. Boucard 
Notes on the great Bower Bird [Chlamydodera 

nuchalis, Jard), by Walter Burton ... 
Collections made in Thibet and Central Asia, 

by Messrs. Bonvalot and Henri d'Orléans... 
A Visit to the British Museum (Natural History 

Department), by A. Boucard 55, 59, 68, 82, 
The Plantain or Banana Plant, by A. Boucard 
Inauguration of the statue of Pierre Belon, the 

Naturalist 
A Giant Land Crab 
Review of new Scientific Books 
Report on the Public Sale of the celebrated 

Collection of Shells, formed by the late Sir 

David Barclay and sold at Stevens, on 

Monday, the 6th of July and following days 
Recommandations for the prevention of damage 

by some common Insects of the Farm, the 

Orchard, and the Garden, by James Fletcher 
Water Rent in London 
La Vie champêtre. — La Destruction de la 

Larve du Hanneton. (Melolontha vulgaris) 
Crocodile, Snake, and Fish skins for industrial 

purposes, by A. Boucard 
World's Columbian Exposition. — Bâtiment 

de l'Administration ... 



Page 
43 

44,53 
51,67 

53 
53 
54 

84,91 
59 

61 
62 

73 

66 

69,76 
73 

75 

83 
89 



December 



:8 9 i] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



DECEMBER LIST OF STAMPS 



ON SALE BY 

Messrs. BOUCARD, POTTIER & Co., 
225, High Holborn, 

London, W.C. 
{All Stamps guaranteed Genuine.) 

Belgium, 1849, lOo. brown & 20c. blue, the pair 

,, 1870-78, 5 Fr., light brown, unused 

British East Africa, 1890, J anna on Id black & lilac 

unused or used 

Britisli Sast Africa, 1890 1 anna on 2d black, green 

& red unused 10s, used 
British East Africa, 1890, 4 annas, on 5d black, lilac 

& blue, unused 
British Guiana, 1862, Provisional, 2 cents, black on 

yellow, crossed ovals 
British Guiana, 1889, 48c. purple & orange red 

Brunswick, 1851, 2 sil. gros, blue ... 

Canada, 1851, 6d sterling green 

,, ,, 10d ,, blue 

Cape of Good Hope, 1854 — 64, Is green 

Ceylon, 1857— 61 2d green 

,, 1861 — 63 4d oct. rose (fine) 

,, ,, 8d ,, brown do. ... 

Costa Bica, set of 9 ... ... 

Denmark, 1851, 2 rigsbank skil. blue ... 

Dutch Indies, 1864, 10 cents crimson perf 

Egypt., 1888, 10 piastres, violet 

Fiji Islands, 1874, 6 centB black & green (fine) 

., 1872, 12 cents, Hack & rose do. 

France, 1852, 10 centimes buff (tine) 

Great Britain, 1880, 2s, red brown ... 

1881-83, 2s fid, 5s, 10s, the three ... 
,, 1884, £1, marone 

,, 1888, £1, do. wmk. 3 orbs, rare ... 

,, 1883 — 90, set of 8 Gov. parcels stamps, 

the set 

Hamburg, 1864, 7 scbill. yellow perf 

Hanover, 1856, 3 pfen. large net work, black and rose 
Holland, 1872—88, 2 guil. 50 0., rose & blue... 
Hong-Kong, 1863 — 71, 18c, lilac, wink, c c & crown 

rare ... 
India, 1886, provisional surcharged in tall letters, 

6 annas, lilac & green 
India, 1886, surcharged in short letters, 6 annas, 

lilac & green ... 
Italy, 1879, 30 ceut, brown unused 
Japan, 1876—79. 45 fen red unused rare 

Luxemburg, 1863, 37J c, «reen 

Mauritius, 1863 — 72, 5s mauve... ... 

Natal, 1857 — 58, 3d rose, very fine 



s. d. 






6 


6 


6 


7 


6 


12 


6 


20 





60 





1 


6 


5 





15 





10 





7 


6 


1 


3 


15 





40 





2 





4 





2 








9 


25 





6 





3 


6 


20 





1 


6 


3 





4 


6 


U 





8 


6 


4 


6 





9 


5 





3 


6 


6 





1 


3 


7 


6 


3 





3 


6 



16 



STAMPS (continued). 

Nevis, 1861, Id dull rose unused 

,, ,, 6d grey-lilac, fine... 
New South Wales, 1850, Id red very fine 

,, ,, 2d blue do. do 

,, 1888, 5s purple wmk. 5s rare 

New Zealand, 1856, 2d blue 

,, 1862 — 63, 6d brown, pelure paper 

,, ,. Is green, do. do. 

,, ,, 6d brown, do. do.perf. fine 

Oldenburg, 1859, 2 gros, black on rose 

,, » 3 ,, „ on yellow 

1861, £ ,, green 

Poland, 1859, 10 kopecs, blue & red ... 

Queensland, 6d yellow, registered, used fine 6s, unused 

Boumania, 1873—79, 5 bani blue (error unused) 

,, ,, 5 do, rose ,, 

South Australia, 1859, Is yellow, or orange, each ... 
Spain, City of Madrid, 1 cuarto bronce, very fine, 

unused 
Straits Settlements, 1867, 12 cents, red & green, fine 
Sweden, 6 skill, banco, grey fine 
Tasmania, 1852 Id blue, fine ... 
Trinidad, set of 5 unpaid letter stamps 
Tuscany, 1850, 1 soldo, yellow... 
United States, 1851 — 60, 5 cents brown unused fine 
,, 24 cents, lilac unused fine 

,, 1861 — 66, 90 cents, blue, unused fine 

,, ,, 5 do., yellow, used fine 

,, 1869, 15 cents blue & brown ... 



s. 

3 

10 



d 





30 

25 

7 

4 6 
7 S 

10 

20 

12 

12 

16 6 

2 6 

10 

10 

10 

5 

22 6 

10 

5 

85 

4 

14 

7 6 

4 6 

10 

10 



purple & green., 
red & blue 
blue 



24 
), >> 30 ,, 

,, Navy, 1 cent 

o 

,, ,, *5j> ,, .*. ■•■ ■•• 

,, ,, o , , ,, ... ... ... u 

,, ,, 1U ,, 1, ... ... ... 1 

,, ,, 12 ,, ,, ... ... ... 2 

,, ,, 30 ,, ,, ... ... ... £ 

,, War, complete set uuused ... ... 7 

Victoria, 1856, Too Late unused fair copy ... ... 60 

Western Australia, 1855, 4d bine, unused fine ... 7 6 

,, 1862, Is «reen, unused fine ... 20 

Wurtemburg, 1853, 18 Kr. blue fine 15 

Wholesale lots of Stamps present issues. 



2 

8 

3 



9 
9 
4 
4 
6 

6 




New South Wales, Id violet 
2d blue 
New Zealand, id red 

Id „ 

Queensland, Id red 

South Australia, £<i small brown 

Victoria, Jd rose... 

,, Id brown 

Great Britain, Gov. Parcels ljd 
,. „ 6d... 

,, Id black fine 



6d per 100 

Is 

Is 

6d 

6d 

2s 

Is 

Is 



)> »* 






Is 



2s doz. 
3s „ 
6d „ 



FOR SALE. 

Books on Natural History, etc. 

Atlas d'Ornithologie ou Collection choisie d'Oiseaux 
les plus connus dessinés d'après nature par 
Martinet, Paris, 1784. 
1 Vol. grand in folio, in magnificent condition. 
Contents : Epître à Buffon, Tableau général 
du classement des Oiseaux divisés d'après 
Buffon en neuf Ordres et cent un Genres ou 
Familles. 150 splendid coloured plates par 
Martinet. Exceedingly rare, perhaps uni- 

. Que- £50. 

Agassiz — Nomenclator Zoologicus, Soloduri, 1842. 
t 846, gros vol. in 4to. ... ... 40s. 



— Nomenclatoris Zoologici, index universalis Solo- 

duri, 8148, in i2mo ... ... ... ios. 

— De l'espèce et des classifications en Zoologie, 

1 vol. in 8vo ... ... ... ... 4s. 

America, by John Ogilby, Esq., London, 167 1. 
Grand in folio, 675 pages, 121 splendid 
Engravings and Maps. £ IQ - 

Boucard, A. — Catalogius Avium; contenant 2,456 
genres et 11,030 espèces, avec une nouvelle 
classification systématique. Londres, 1876, 
1 vol. in 8vo... ... ... ... ios. 

— Monographie List of the Genus Plusiotis, with 

description of new species. (From the Pro- 
ceedings of the Zoological Society of London), 
1874. Brochure in 8vo, avec planche 
coloriée ... ... ... ... 4s. 

— La même, planche noire ... ... 2s. 



VI 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



[December i, 1891 



Boisduval — Lépidoptères de la Californie, Bruxelles, 
1869, br. in 8vo ... ... ... 4s. 

Bonaparte — Conspectus generum avium, 1850-1857. 
2 vol. ... ... ... ... ... 50s. 

— Geographical and Comparative list of the birds 

of Europe and North America, 8vo... 6s. 

Clara y Sucinta Exposition del pequeno Catecismo 
impreso en el idioma Mexicano, por un 
Sacerdote devoto de la Madré santissima de 
la Luz, etc. Puebla, 1819. 1 Vol., 67 double 
pages, one side in Mexican, the other in 
Spanish ... ... ... ... 40s. 

Candèze — Histoire des métamorphoses de quelques 
coléoptères exotiques, Liège, 1861, 1 vol. in 
8vo, 6 planches noires ... ... 2s. 6d. 

— Monographie des Elatérides, Liège, 185 7-1863, 

4 vol. in 8vo, 25 pi. noires ... ... 32s. 

— Elatérides nouveaux (Complément à la mono- 

graphie), Brux. 1864, in 8vo, br. ... is. 6d. 

Castelnau et Blanchard — Histoire naturelle des In- 
sectes, avec une introduction par Brullé, 3 vol. 
in 8vo... ... ,.. ... ... 40s. 

Catalogue des Coléoptères d'Europe (extrait du 
Généra des Coléoptères d'Europe de Jacquelin 
du Val et Fairmaire) vol. in 6 ... 3s. 6d. 

Catalogue of Coleopterous Insects in the collection of 
the British Museum, with descriptions of new 
species. 

— Longicornia, Part I. et IL, par Adam White, 

2 vol. in 8vo ... ... ... ... 8s. 

— Cassididee, par Boheman, 1 vol. in 8vo... 5s. 

— Cucujidse, par J. Ed. Gray ,, ,, ... is. 

— Cleridae, par Adam White ,, ,, ... 2s. 6d. 

— Passalidae, Buprestidae, par Smith, 1 vol. 

in 8vo... ... ... ... ... is. 

Chenu — Leçons élémentaires sur l'histoire naturelle, 
Conchyologie, Paris, 1847, 1 vol. gf. in 8vo, 
planches coloriées ... ... ... 20s. 

— Manuel de Conchyologie et Paléontologie con- 

chyologique contenant la description et la 
représentation de près de 5,000 coquilles. 
Paris, 1862, 2 vol. in 4to, planches noires et 
coloriées ... ... ... ... 30s. 

— Encyclopédie d'histoire naturelle, ou Traité com- 

plet de cette science : — Mammifères, 5 vol. ; 
Oiseaux, 6 vol. ; Reptiles et Poissons, 1 vol. ; 
Coléoptères, 3 vol. ; Lépidoptères, 2 vol. ; 
Crustacés, Mollusques, et Zoophytes, 1 vol. ; 
Annelés, 1 vol. ; Botanique, 2 vol. ; Miné- 
ralogie, Géologie, Races humaines, 1 vol. Le 
tout complet ... ... ... ... 100s. 

chaque volume séparément ... ... 5s, 

Crotch — Synopsis coleopterum europœ et confinium. 
London, 1871, in 8vo ... ... 2s. 

— Check List of the Coleoptera of America, north 

of Mexico, Salem, Mass., in 8vo ... 6s. 

— Catecismo y Declaration de la Doctrina Chris- 

tiana en lengua Otomi, con un Vocabulario 
del mismo idioma, por el R. P. Joaquin Lopez 
Yepes, Mexico, 1826. 1 Vol. in 4to, 254 
page; ... ... ... ... 60s. 

Degland et Gerbe — Ornithologie européenne, 2 emr édi- 
tion, Paris, 1867 ... ... ... 24s. 



Deyrolle, Henri, Description des Buprestides de la 
Malaisie, recueillis par Wallace, 1865, 1 vol. 
in 8vo, 4 planches coloriées ... ... 12s. 

Diagrams of Natural History, edited by A. Boucard. 
20 sheets, 18-in. by 24-in., comprising 166 
Diagrams of Animals and Plants, life size, 
beautifully printed in colours, and 37 Natural 
specimens of Woods and Minerals, all neatly 
mounted on very stout cardboard, the set 
complete, with Manual ... ... 40s. 

(Quite indispensable for a school.') 
Duponchel — Catalogue méthodique des Lépidoptères 
d'Europe, Fort vol. in 8vo, de 523 pages 
broché... ... ... ... ... 6s. 

Duponchel et» Guénée — Iconographie et histoire natu- 
relle des chenilles d'Europe, avec 93 magnifi- 
ques planches gravées et coloriées, nouvelle 
édition, publiée en 40 livraisons à if. Les 2 vol., 
reliés maroquin rouge, tranche dorée . 40s. 

Entomologist's Annual 1855-1891, foolscap, chaque 
année ... ... ... ... ... 3s. 

(En cours de publication.') 
Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, Nos. 1-86, chaque 
numéro .. ... ... ... is. 

(En cours de publication.) 
Etiquettes pour Insectes, Coquilles, etc. — Grande 
feuille 16x20 contenant 1326 étiquettes, 
avec le nom de tous les pays explorés par les 
voyageurs naturalistes. Chaque feuille est 
divisée en cinq parties: Europa, Asia, Africa, 
America, Australia, etc., et chaque partie est 
arrangée par ordre alphabétique. Un espace 
blanc a été réservé sur chaque étiquette de 
façon à pouvoir y mettre le nom scientifique de 
l'espèce, et le nom du collecteur, la feuille. . . 3d. 
(Une grande réduction sera faite aux personnes 
qui commanderont plus de 100 feuilles à la fois.) 
Felder — Lepidopterologische Fragmente, Wien, 1859, 
in 4to, 11 pi. n. ... ... ... 15s. 

Felder G. et R., Diagnoses lepidopterologicse, Wien, 
1 vol. in 8vo, 240 pages ... ... 10s. 

Gemminger et Harold — Catalogus Coleopterum: — ■ 
Vol. 1 — Cicindelidas,Carabida3 ... ... 15s. 

Vol. 2 — Dytiscidae Gyrinidse, Hydrophilidae Sta- 
phylinidœ à Scaphiidse, inclus... ... us. 

Vol. 3 — Histeridas à Lucanidae, inclus ... 7s. 
Vol. 4 — Scarabaeidse ... ... ... 12s. 

Vol. 5 — Buprestidae, Elateridae à Cebrionidae, 
inclus ... ... ... ... 9s. 

Vol. 6 — Rhypidoceridse Malacodermidae à 
Cioidse, inclus ... .... ... 7s. 

Vol. 7 — Tenebrionidse à Oedemeridae, inclus 14s. 
Vol. 8 — Curculionidae ... ... ... 15s. 

Vol. 9 — ■ Scolytidae à Cerambycidse (Prionini 
Cerambycini) ... ... ... 13s. 

Vol. 10 — Cerambycidse Bruchidse ... 12s. 

Vol. 11 — Chrysomelidas ... ... ... 12s 

(Cet ouvrage est tout à fait indespensable pour un 
entomologiste.) 
Grose Smith and Kirby, Rhopalocera exotica, being 
illustrations of new, rare, or unfigured species 
of Butterflies, \ with coloured drawings and 
descriptions, \ folio, Part 1 to 14 inclusive £4, 
each, part published at ... ... 7s. 6d. 



December i> 1891] 



THE HUMMING BIRD. 



vu 



Godart et Duponchel — Histoire naturelle des Lépi- 
doptères, d'Europe, 18 vol. in 8vo, 548 plan- 
ches col. £ 2 ° 

Gurney — Catalogue of Raptorial Birds, Parts I. in 
8vo 6s. 

Harting — The Birds of Middlesex, 8vo ... 9s. 

Historia de la Conquista de Mexico, etc., by Don 
Antonio Solis Brusselas, 1741 
1 Vol. in folio, 276 pages, 13 Engravings and 
Maps, Pages 1 to 9 slightly stained... £\o. 

Historia General des las Cosas de Nueva Espana, by 
Rev. Bernardino de Sahagun, con notas y su- 
plementos, por Carlos Maria de Bustamente, 
Mexico, 1829. 4 vols, in 4to., uncut... £5. 

Historia de las Conquistas de Hernando Cortez, por 
Francisco Lopez de Gomara, con varias notas 
y addiciones, por Carlos Maria de Busta- 
mante, Mexico, 1826. 1 vol. in 4to, 315 

P-P £ 2 - 

Ibis — A Quarterly Journal of Ornithology, each 

part 6s. 

En cours de publication. {Très recommandé.) 

Insecta] saundersiana, Part 1-8, 8vo, sewed, each 

part 3 s - 

Ditto ditto. Part 9 3s. 

Jacquelin Du Val et Fairmaire. Genera des Coléop- 
tères d'Europe, représentant plus de 1,500 
types d'après nature et coloriés avec le plus 
grand soin, 4 vol. cartonnés, 303 pi. col. (mag- 
nifique ouvrage) ... ... ... ;£l2. 

Jekel — Catalogus Curculionidum, 1 vol. in i2mo. 2s. 

— Insecta Saundersiana Curculionides, Part I. 154 

pages 5s. 

— Ditto ditto ditto Part IL 225 5s. 
Kirby, W. F. — European Butterflies and Moths, 

1 Vol. \ folio, 427 pages, 61 coloured plates. 
London, 1882... ... ... ... 32s. 

— Catalogue of Diurnal Lepidoptera, 1870, 1 vol. 

in 8vo. 690 pages ... ... ... 24s. 

Kampuysens Stichtelyke Rymen, by M. Mathieu, 

Rotterdam 1688. 1 Vol. in 8vo., 680 Pp. £1. 
Lacordaire (Th.) — Monographie des Coléoptères sub- 

pentamères Phytophages, 2 vol. gr in 8vo. 

Liège, 1848 ... ... ... ... 20S. 

— Généra des Coléoptères, Tome I-XIL en 14 vol. 

in 8vo. et 13 livr. de planches noires ... £6. 

— Coloriées. Ouvrage complet ... ... £&. 

Latreille — Cours d'entomologie, 1 gros vol. in 8vo. 

et un atlas de 24 planches ... ... 15s. 

Manual of Natural History, with many illustrations, 
edited by A. Boucard ; second edition, 1 vol. 

in 8vo., London, 1876 ... ... 4s. 

Milne Edwards — Eléments de Zoologie, 2ème édition, 

Paris, 1840 — 1843, ï v °l- m 8vo ... 16s, 

— Histoire naturelle des Crustacés, Paris, 1837— 

1840, 3 vol. in 8vo, avec 42 planches 30s. 

— Coloriées ... ... ... ... 40s. 

— Zoologie, 1 vol ... ... ... ... 6s. 

Mulsant (E.) — Lettres à Julie sur l'entomologie, 

Lyon, 1830, 2 vol. in 8vo. 15 planches 
coloriées ... ... ... ... 30s. 

Mulsant (E.) — Essai d'une classification méthodique 
des Trochilidés ou Oiseaux Mouches, 1 vol. in 

8vO. 98 p. ... ... ... ... 2S. 



Mulsant et Verreaux. — Histoire naturelle des Oiseaux. 
Mouches ou Colibris constituant la famille des 
Trochilidés. ... ... ... ^16 

Marseuil l'Abeille— Journal d'Entomologie, spéciale 
ment consacré aux Coléoptères, iere Série, 
1864 — 1867, tomes I. à VI ... ... 75s. 

chaque volume séparément ... ... 15s. 

aeme. Série, 1870 ... ... ... 15s. 

— Catalogus Coleopterum Europse, 1 vol. in 8vo. 2s. 
Murray— On the geographical distribution